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TRANSACTIONS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



LONDON. 



THE 



TRANSACTIONS 



iM ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



LONDON 



FOR THE YEAR 



1869. .. ^'^ ^'N 



\=j» 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY H. G. ROWORTH, 
11, BAY STEEET, FAKRINGDON KOAD, 

SOLD AT THE SOCIETY^S APARTMENTS, 12, BEDFORD ROW, 
AND BY LONGMAN, GBEEN, EEADER AND DYEE, 

PATEENOSTER ROW. 

1869. 



\ 

\ 






LONDON 

FEINTED BY H. G. EOWOKTH, 

11, BAY STREET, E.G. 



Tvt&^ci, 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



COUNCIL FOR 1869. 



H. W. Bates, Esq., F.Z.S., &c President. 

F. P. Pascoe, Esq., F.L.S., &c. . • . . . . \ 

Feederick Smith, Esq [ Vice-Preside'iits. 

A. E. Wallace, Esq., F.Z.S., &c J 

Samuel Sxevens, Esq., F.L.S Treasurer. 

J. W. Dunning, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 



of Council. 



EoBEKT MacLachlan, Esq., F.L.S ^ 

Hon. Thomas De Geet, M.A., M.P., &c. . . ] 

Feedinanb Geut, Esq I 

OsBEET Salvin, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. , F.Z.S. . lOther Meynhers 
G. S. Saundebs, Esq. . . . 
H. T. Stainton, Esq., F.B.S., &c. 
Peecy C. Woemald, Esq. . . 



y' 



TEANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

1834-1869. 



To the Public. To Members. 

First Series, 5 volumes (1834-1849) Price £6 £4 10 

Second Series, 5 volumes, (1850-1861) 8 6 

Third Series, 5 volumes (1862-1869) 11 8 5 

Tlie Transactions for the year 1868 10 15 

>» „ 1869 12 16 6 



Volume 5 of the First Series can no longer be obtained separately ; the 
other volumes of the First, Second, or Third Series may. 

Longicornia Malm/ana may be obtained 

separately Price £2 12 £1 19 

PhytopTiaga Malayana, Pt. 1, Apostasicera, 

may be obtained separately ... 16 12 



The Journal of Proceedings is bound up with the Transactions, but 
may be obtained separately, by members gratis, by the public, price One 
Shilling per sheet. 



Members and Subscribers resident more than fifteen miles from London, 
who have paid the subscription for the current year, are entitled to receive 
a copy of the Transactions for the year without further payment, and 
they will be forwarded free, by post, to any address within the United 
Kingdom. 



Members and Subscribers resident in or within fifteen miles from Lon- 
don, are entitled to a copy of the Transactions for the current year at half 
the price to the public, which copy may be obtauied on application to the 
Librarian. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Explanation of the Plates ix. 

Errata ix. 

List of Members • . x. 



MBMOIES. 



I. Descriptions of Nine New Species of BupresUdce. By 

Edwakd Saunders 1 

II. Description of a New Species of Eestina. By Arthur 

G. Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S 9 

III. Description of a New Genus and Species of PrionidcB. 

By Edmund Thomas Higgins .... 11 

IV. On a New Genus and some New Species of Coleo'ptera 

belonging to the family LucanidcB. By Chas. 0. 

Watekhouse 13 

v. On Insects and Insectivorous Birds ; and especially on 
the relation between the colour and the edibility of 
Lepidoptera and their Larv^. By J. Jenner Weik, 

F.L.S 21 

VI. Eemarks upon certain Caterpillars, &c., which are un- 
palatable to their enemies. By A. G. Butler, 

F.L.S., &c 27 

VII. Descriptions of two New Species of Pwpilio from Ecua- 
dor. By W. C. Hewitson, F.L.S. ... 31 
VIII. Descriptions of six New Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera 

from Nicaragua. By W. C. Hewitson, F.L.S. . 33 

IX. Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon 
Valley {Coleoptera, Prionides). By H. W. Bates, 

F.Z.S., Pres. Ent. Soc 37 

X. Synopsis of the Species of Panorpa occurring in 
Europe and the adjoining countries; with a descrip- 
tion of a singular New Species from Java. By B. 
MacLachlan, F.L.S., Sec. Ent. Soc. ... 59 

XI. Descriptions of New Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 

By W. C. Hewitson, F.L.S 71 

XII. Notes on Eastern Butterflies. By A. R. Wallace, 

F.Z.S., V.-P. Ent. Soc 77 

XIII. Characters of some undescribed Species of Phytophaga 
belonging to the families Cassididcp^ and Hispidc. 
By J. S. Baly, F.L.S 83 



Vlll 



MEMOiES [continued] 



XIV. A Eevision of the British Species of Homalota. By 

David Shabp, M.B 91 

XV. Descriptions of new or little-known forms of Diurnal 

Le;pidoptera. By Aethue G. Butlee, F.L.S., &c. . 273 

XVI. Notes on' Eastern Butterflies (continued). By Alfeed 

K. Wallace, F.Z.S., V.-P. Ent.Soc, &c. . . 277 

XVII. Descriptions of New Species of the Genus Pison; and 
a Synonymic List of those previously described. 
By Feedeeick Smith, V.-P., late Pres. Ent. Soc. . 289 

XVIII. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Exotic 
Hymenoptera. By Feedeeick Smith, V.-P., and 

late Pres. Ent. Soc. , 301 

XIX. Notes on Chalcididce ; and description of a new.Species 

of Meijastigmus. By F. Walkee, F.L.S. . . 313 

XX. Remarks on the Genus Ectrephes; and descriptions of 
New Exotic Coleoptera. By J. 0. Westwood, M.A., 

F.L.S., &c 315 

XXI. Notes on Eastern Butterflies (continued). By Alfeed 

R. Wallace, F.Z.S., V.-P. Ent. Soc, &c. . . 321 

XXII. On the AustraUan Species of Tetracha. By Edwin 

Beown 351 

XXIII. On the Diurilal L'epidoptera' described in Gmelin's 

Edition of the Systema Naturce. By W. F. Kieby . 355 

XXIV. DescriiDtious of New Genera and Species of Hisipidx; 

with notes on some previously described species. 

By J. S. Baly, F.L.S. .... . . 363 

XXV. New species of Coleo^ytera fron Chontales, Nicaragua. 

By H. W. Bates, F.Z.S., Pres. Ent. Soc. . . 383 

XXVI. A Synopsis of the genus Clotliilda. By Osbeet Salvin, 

M.A., F.L.S., &c 391 

XXVII. Note on Boreus hyemalis and B. Westwooclii. By 

EoBEET MacLachlan, F.L.S., Sec. Ent. Soc. . . 399 



Proceedings for 1869 
Index . 



( ix ) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate I. Fig. 1. Catoxantha 3Iouliotii 

2. Sternocera multipunctata 

3. Psiloptera Batesii . 

4. Julodis ce-neipes 

5. Clirysaspis viridipennis 

6. Acherusia Parrii 

7. „ piliventris 

8. Hyperantha hella 

9. Pseudhyperantha jucunda 
Plate II. Fig. 1. Ommatomenus sericatus . 

2. Acanthophorus, head and thorax. 

3. Deohrachus, head and thorax. 
Plate III. Fig. 1. Aulacostethus Archeri 

„' Q > Clnasognathus perwviarms 

Plate IV. Seep. 70. , 

Plate V. See the Plate ; and pp. 273-276. 

Plate VI. See p. 311. 



See p. 3. 
p.l. 
p. 4. 
p. 2. 
p. 4. 
p. 7. 
p. 8. 
p. 6. 
p. 6. 
p. 12. 



p. 14. 

p. 18. 



ERRATUM. 



Page 273, line 10 from bottom, for A(jlaia read Adippe. 



( ^) 



list 0| Pijmlrqs 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 

DECEMBER 31st, 1869. 



Guerin-Meneville, F. E., Paris. 
Hagen, H. A., Cambridge, U.S.A. 
Lacordaire, J. T., Liege. 
Leconte, John L., Philadelphia. 
Milne-Edwards, H., Paris. 
Pictet, J. C, Geneva. 
ZeUer, P. C, Stettin. 
Zetterstedt, J. W., Lund. 

{Two vacancies.) 



( xi ) 



ORDINARY MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Mcurhed * are Original Members. 

Ma/rked f have compoimded for their Annual Sulscriptions, 

Ma/rked S. a/re Annual Subscribers. 



Dateo) 


f 


JUl6CtilOI 

1866 




1849 


S. 


1867 


s. 


1856 




1857 




# 


t 


1850 




1869 


s. 


1865 




1867 


s. 


1861 




1851 




1865 




1866 




1854 




1864 




1849 


t 


1841 




1860 




1865 




1865 




# 




1852 


t 


1867 




1856 




1849 


s. 


1869 


s. 


1862 




1855 




1868 


t 


1860 




1865 





AdaruB, Henry, F.L.S., 19, Hanover Villas, Netting Hill, W. 

Allis, Thomas H., York. 

Archer, F., 3, Brunswick Street, Liverpool. 

Armitage, Edward, A.E.A., 3, Hall Road, St. John's WoodjN.W. 

Atkinson, W. S., M.A., F.L.S., CalciTtta. 

Babington, Professor C. C, M.A., F.E.S., &c., Cambridge. 

Baly, J. S., F.L.S., The Butts, Warwick. 

Barnes, S. J., The Poplars, Trafalgar Eoad, Moseley, Birming- 
ham. 

Barton, Stephen, 32, St. Michael's Hill, Bristol. 

Bates, Frederick, 15, Northampton Street, Leicester. 

Bates, Henry Walter, F.Z.S., President, 40, Bartholomew 
Eoad, N.W. 

Beaumont, Alfred, Steps Mills, Huddersfield. 

Beavan, Lieut. E. C, Bengal Staff Corps. 

Bicknell, Percy, Beckenham, S.E. 

Birt, Jacob, 30, Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 

Blackmore, Trovey, The HoUies, Wandsworth, S.W. 

Bladon, J., Albion House, Pont-y-pool. 

Bond, Fred., F.Z.S., 203, Adelaide Eoad, N.W. 

Bonvouloir, Vicomte Henri de, 15, Eue de I'Universite, Paris. 

Borrer, W., M.A., F.L.S., Cowfold, Horsham. 

Borthwick, Eichard, Alloa, N.B. 

Bowerbank, J. S., LL.D., F.E.S., &c., 2, East Ascent, St. 
Leonards. 

Boyd, Thomas, 17, Clapton Square, N.E. 

Boyd, W. C, Cheshunt, Herts. 

Braikenridge, Eev. G. W., M.A., F.L.S., Clevedon, Bristol. 

Brown, Edwin, Burton-on-Trent. 

Brown, N.E., Reigate. 

Browne, Eev. T. H., M.A., F.G.S., High Wycombe, Bucks. 

Burnell, E. H., 32, Bedford Eow, W.C. 

Butler, A. G., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 26, Brompton Square, S.W. 

Cand&ze, Dr. E., Glain, Liege. 

Carey, A. D., Ahmedabad, India. 



XU ORDINARY MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 

Date of 
Election. 

1868 Carriugton, Charles, Westwood Park, Forest Hill, S.E. 

1887 Clarke, Alex. H., 16, Furnival's Iiiu, E.C. 

1865 S. Clarke, C. B., M.A., F.L.S., Calcutta. 

1865 Colquhouu, Hugh, M.D., 17, Grosvenor Terrace, Glasgow. 

1865 S. Cooke, Beuj., 119, Stockport Eoad, Manchester. 

1853 Cox, Colouel C. J., Fordwich House, Canterbury. 

1867 Cox, Herbert E., Rosenheim, Eeigate. 

1857 Croker, T. F. Dillon, 19, Pelham Place, Brompton, S.W. 

1865 Crotch, G. E., M.A., University Library, Cambridge. 

1868 Cumming, Linnaeus, B.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 
1868 Curzon, E. P. R. 

1865 Dallas, W. S., F.L.S., Geological Society, Somerset House, W.C. 

* t Darwin, Charles, M.A., F.E.S., &c., Down, Bromley, S.E. 
1867 Davidson, G. W., M.D., F.E.S.E., 13, Union Place, .Edinburgh. 
1867 Davies, A. E., Ph. D., F.C.S., Victoria Chambers, St. Mary's 

Gate, Manchester. 
1849 S. Dawson, John, Carron, Falkirk, Stirlingshire. 
1853 De Grey and Eipou, Earl, E.G., F.E.S., &c., 1, Carlton 

Gardens, S.W. 

1866 De Grey, Hon. Thomas, M.A., M.P., 23, Ai-lington Street, W. 
1837 Devonshire, Duke of, E.G., F.E.S., &c., 78, Piccadilly, W. 
1855 Dohrn, Dr. C. A., Pres. Ent. Verein, Stettin. 

1865 Dorville, H., Alphingtou, Exeter. 

* Doubleday, Henry, Epping. 

1867 Druce, Herbert, 1, Circus Eoad, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
1867 S. Duer, Yeend, Cleygate House, Esher. 

1849 t Dunning, J. W., M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Secretary, 24, Old 

Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
1865 D'Urban, W. S. M., F.L.S., 4, Queen's Terrace, Mount Ead- 

ford, Exeter. 
Dutton, James, 2, Theresa Place, Hammersmith, W. 
Eaton, Eev. A. E., B.A., Ashbourne. 
Emerich, Gustave d', Pesth. 
Farren, W., 10, Eose Crescent, Cambridge. 
Fenning, George, Lloyds, E.C. 

Fletcher, J. E., Pitmaston Eoad, St. John's, Worcester, 
Foot, A. W., M.D., 21, Lqwer Pembroke Street, Dublin. 
French, D. J., F.L.S., &c.", Chatham. 
Fry, Alexander, F.L.S., Thornhill House, Dulwich Wood 

Park, S.E. 
Fiist, H. Jenner, jun., M.A., Hill Court, Berkeley. 
Gloyne, C. P., Jamaica. 

Godman, F. D., M.A., F.L.S., &c.. Park Hatch, Godalming. 
Gorham, Eev. H. S., Needwood Parsonage, Burton-ou-Trynt. 
Gould, J., F.E.S., etc., 26, Charlotte Street, Bedford Square, W.C. 
Graj^, John, Wlieatfield House, Bolton, Lancashire. 
Gray, John Edw., Ph.D., F.E.S., British Museum, W.C. 
Green, Philip, 11, Finsbury Circus, E.C. 



1851 


s. 


1865 




1869 




1865 


S. 


1858 




1865 




1869 


S. 


1869 


t 


1855 




1865 




1857 


s. 


1865 


t 


1855 




* 




1850 
1842 


t 



ORDINARY Ml'lMBERS AND SUBSCETBEES. XIU 



Greene, Eev. J., M.A., Eveline Villa, Apsley Eoad, Eedlancl, 
Bristol. 
S. Groves, W., Sbortlands, Kent. 

Grnt, Ferdinand, 9, King Street, Southwark, S.E. 
f Guyon, George, Southcliff Cottage, Ventnor. 

Haliday, Alex. H., M.A., F.L.S., Villa Pisani, Lucca. 

Hanson, Samuel, 24, Greville Place, Kilburn, N.W. 

Harold, Baron Edgar von, 7, Carlstrasse, Munich. 

Harper, P. H., 30, Cambridge Street, Hyde Park Square, W. 

Hewitson, W. C, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Oatlands, Weybridge. 

Higgins, E. T., M.E.C.S., 24, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 

Hobson, Major Julian C, A.Q.M.G., Belgaum, Boml)ay. 

Holdsworth, Edward, Shanghai. 

Home, Charles, Innisfail, Beulah Hill, S.E. 

Howitt, Godfrey, M.D., Colhns Street East, Melbourne. 
S. Hudd, A. E., Stapleton Lodge, Stapleton Eoad, Bristol. 

Hume, William H., Orwell Works, Ipswich. 

Hunter, John, 5, Eton Else, Ealing, W. 
S. Janson, E. M., Las Lajas, Chontales, Nicaragua. 

Janson, E. W., Librarian, 3, Vorley Eoad, Highgate Hill, N. 
S. Janson, O. E., 3, Vorley Eoad, Highgate Hill, N. 

Jekel, Henri, Paris. 

Jenyns, Eev. L., M.A., F.L.S., &e., 19, Belmont, Bath. 
S. John, Evan, Llantrisant, Pontyjjridd. 

Jones, W. Stavenhagen, 2, Venilam Buildings, Gray's Inn, W.C. 
S. Keays, F. Lovell, 4, Harringay Villas, Green Lanes, N. 

Kirby, W. F., Eoyal Dublin Society, Kildare Street, Dublin. 

Knox, H. Blake, 2, Ulverton Place, Dalkey, DubHu. 

Kuper, Eev. C, M.A., Trelleck, Chepstow. 

Lacerda, Antonio de, Bahia. 

Lang, Capt. A. M., E.E., The Elms, Brockham Green, 
Eeigate. 

Latham, A. G., Weaste Hall, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Lebour, G. A., F.E.G.S., Geological Survey Office, Jermjii 
Street, S.W. 

Lendy, Capt. A. F., F.L.S., Sunbury House, Sunbury, S.W, 

Lewis, W. Arnold, 4, Crown Office Eow, Temple, E.G. 

Lier, H.H.H. van de, Delft. 
S. Lighten, Eev. Sir C. E., Bart., Ellastane, Ashbourne. 
t Lingwood, E. M., M.A., F.L.S., Cowley Hoiise, Exeter, 
t Llewelyn, J. T. D., M.A., F.L.S., Ynisygerwn, Neath. 

Logan, E. F., Hawthornbrae, Duddiugstone, near Edinburgh. 
S. Lowe, W. H., M.D., Balgreen, Murrayfield, Edinburgh, 
f Lubbock, Sir John, Bart., F.E.S., &c., HighElms, Farnborough. 

M'Caul, S., B.C.L., Eectory House, London Bridge, E.G. 
t M'Intosh, J. 

M'Lachlan, Eobert, F.L.S., Secretary, 20, Limes Grove North, 
Lewisham, S.E. 
f Marseul, L'Abbe S. A. de, 24, Eue Demours aux Ternes, Paris. 



XIV ORDINARY MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 

Date of 
Election. 

1865 Marshall, Eev. T. A., M.A., Barnstaple. 

1856 t Marshall, William, Ebn Lodge, Clay Hill, Enfield. 

1865 Mathew, G. F., R.N., F.L.S., Ealeigh House, Barnstaple. 

1860 May, J. W., 9, Victoria Eoad, Fiuchley Eoad, N.W. 
1865 S. Meek, Edward G., 4, Old Ford Eoad, E. 

1869 Melvill, J. Cosmo, B.A., 16, Back Square, Manchester. 

1865 Mercer, Albert, 38, Eichmond Eoad, Islington, N. 
1864 Milnes, Eev. Herbert, Winster, Matlock-Bath. 

1866 Mniszech, Comte G. de, 22, Eue Balzac, Paris. 
1853 Moore, Frederic, 51, Oakfield Eoad, Penge, S.E. 
1859 Mosse, G. Staley, 12, Eldon Eoad, Kensington, W. 

1869 Miiller, Albert, Eaton Villa, Sunny Bank Eoad, South Nor- 

wood, S.E. 

1861 Murray, Andrew, F.L.S., 67, Bedford Gardens, Kensington, W. 
1849 t Newman, Edward, F.L.S., F.Z.S., M. Imp. L. C. Acad., 7, York 

Grove, Queen's Eoad, Peckham, S.E. 
1868 Newton, Professor Alfred, M.A., F.L.S., &c., Magdalene 

College, Cambridge. 
Oberthur, Charles (fils), Eennes. 

Owen, Eichard, M.D., F.E.S., &c., British Museum, W.C. 
Parry, Major P. J. Sidney, F.L.S., 18, Onslow Square, S.W. 
Pascoe, Francis P., F.L.S., Vice-President, 1, Burlington Eoad, 

Westbourne Park, W. 
Pearson, W. H., Ivy Hall, Solihull, Birmingham. 
PickersgiU, J. C, Hooly House, Coulsdon, Croydon. 
Preston, Eev. T. A., M.A., The College, Marlborough. 
Pryer, H. J. S., 10, HoUy Village, Highgate. 
Pryer, W. B., Shanghai. 
Eansome, Eobert James, Ipswich. 
Eobinson, E. W., 3, Bartholomew Eoad, N.W. 
Eobinson, W. Douglas, Kirkeunan, Dalbeattie, N.B. 
Eogers, W., 12, Bromell's Buildings, Clapham, S.W. 
Rothney, G. A. J., Addiscombe. 

Eylands, T. G., F.L.S., F.G.S., Heath House, Warrington. 
Salvin, Osbert, M.A., F.L.S., &c., 32, The Grove, Boltons, S.W. 
Saunders, Edward, F.L.S., Hill Field, Eeigate. 
Saunders, G. S., Hill Field, Eeigate. 
Saunders, S. S., H.M. Consul General, Corfu. 
Saunders, W. F., F.L.S., Hill Field, Eeigate. 
Saunders, W. Wilson, F.E.S., Tr. & V.P.L.S., &c., HiU Field, 

Eeigate. 
Schaufuss, L. W., M. Imp. L. C. Acad., &c., Dresden. 
Schrader, H. L., Shanghai. 
Semper, Georg, Altona. 

Sharp, David, M.B., Eccles, Thornhill, Dumfriesshire. 
Shearwood, G. P., Cedar Lodge, Stockwell Park, S. 
Shepherd, Edwin, 8, Cressingham Grove, Sutton, Surrey. 
Sheppard, Augustus F., Eose Bank, Eltham Eoad, Lee, S.E. 
Sheppard, Edward, F.L.S., 18, Durham Villas, Kensington, W. 



1869 




1841 


t 


1840 


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1869 


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1852 


t 


1851 




1867 


S. 


1866 


S. 


1865 


s. 


1857 


s. 


1869 


s. 


1865 


s. 


1868 




1865 




1866 


t 


1865 


t 


1861 


t 


1849 


s. 


1849 


s. 


* 


t 


1865 




1866 




1864 




1862 




1868 




1847 




1851 




1852 





ORDINARY MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS. XV 



Sidebotham, J., 19, George Street, Manchester. 

Siguoret, Dr. Victor, 51, Eue de Seine, Paris. 

Smith, E. A, 27, Eichmond Crescent, Islington, N. 

Smith, Frederick, Vice-President, 27, Richmond Crescent, 
Islington, N. 

Smith, Henley G., Surbiton. 
f Spence, W. B. 

f Staiuton, H. T., F.E.S., Sec. L.S., &c., Moimtsfield, Lewis- 
ham, S.E. 

Stevens, John S., 38, King Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 

Stevens, Samuel, F.L.S., Treaswrer, 28, Bang Street, Covent 
Garden, W.C. 

Swanzy, Andrew, 122, Cannon Street, E.G. 
S. Thompson, Miss Sophia, Barn HiU, Stamford. 
S. Thompson, Thomas, Hull. 

Thomson, James, 23, Eue de I'Universite, Paris. 
S. Thomborrow, W., 4, Provost Eoad, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

Thwaites, G.H.K., Ph.D., F.E.S., F.L.S., Ceylon. 
S. Tompkins, H., 3, Colonnade, Worthing, 
f Trimen, Eoland, Colonial Office, Cape Town. 

Vaughan, Howard, 14, Gaisford Street, Kentish Town, N.W. 

Vaughan, P. H., Eedland, near Bristol. 
S. Verrall, G. H., The Mulberries, Denmark Hill, S.E. 

Walker, Francis, F.L.S., Elm Hall, Wanstead, N.E. 

Wallace, Alexander, M.D., Trinity House, Colchester. 

Wallace, Alfred E., F.Z.S., F.E.G.S., Vice-President, 9, St. 
Mark's Crescent, Eegent's Park, N.W. 

Ward, Christopher, Halifax. 

Waring, S. L., The Oaks, Norwood, S.E. 

Waterhouse, C. 0., British Museum, W.C. 

Waterhouse, G. E., V.P.Z.S., &c., British Museum, W.C. 

Watson, John, Eose Hill, Bowdon. 

Websdale, C. G., 78, High Street, Barnstaple. 

Weir, J. Jenner, F.L.S., 6, Haddo Villas, Blackheath, S.E. 

Were, E. B., 35, Osborne Terrace, Clai^ham Eoad, S.W. 

Westwood, Professor J. 0., M.A., F.L.S., &c., Oxford, 
t White, F, Buchanan, M.D., Perth. 

White, Eev. W. Farren, Stonehouse Vicarage, Gloucestershire. 

Wilkinson, S. J., 16, Austin Friars, E.C. 

Wix, William, Isbells, Eeigate. 

Wollaston, T. Vernon, M.A., F.L.S., 1, Barnepark Terrace, 
Teignmoiith, Devon. 

Woi-mald, Percy C, 35, Bolton Eoad, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

Wright, Professor E. Perceval, M.A., M.D., F.L.S., &c., 10, 
Clare Street, Dublin. 
S. Young, Morris, 7, Old Sneddon Street, Paisley. 



THE 

TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF 

LONDON 

FOR THE YEAE 1869. 

♦— 



I. BescTiptions of Nine New Species of Buprestidss. By 
Edward Saunders. 

[ Bead 4th January, 1869.] 

The species here described belong to the genera Sterno- 
cera, Julodis, Catoxantha, C/irysaspis, Psiloptera, Pseud- 
hyperantha, H^jperantlia, and Aclierusia. 

Two of these, Chrysaspis and Pseudfiyperantha, are new 
genera. 

Chrysaspis will, I believe, shortly be described by 
M. Henri Deyrolle, whose manuscript name I have here 
employed, and therefore I have assigned no characters 
to it. The second, PseudhypevantJia, is one of the most 
anomalous insects with which I am acquainted in this 
Family; it has the form o? Hyper antha, and the scutellum 
of Belionota, both of which genera belong to the section 
" Buprestides vrais" of Lacordaire ; and yet it is really 
referable to the " Chalcophorides " of that author, in 
which group I have placed it. 

Sternocera midtipunctata (PL I. fig. 2) . 

S. viridis ; thorace foveolis minutis excavate ; elytris 
lineis quatuor fovearum albidarum ornatis; subtus 
abdominis segmentis utrinque albifoveatis. 

Above, bright green; elytra each with four rows of 
small, round, white pubescent fovese, and a larger one at 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART I. (APRIL) . B 



2 Mr. Edward Saunders on 

tlie base, midway between the suture and tlie lateral 
margin. Beneath, golden-green ; sides of abdominal 
segments, each with a round white pubescent fovea. 

Head largely punctured, rugose just above the mouth. 
Thorax not quite twice as broad at the base as long ; 
anterior margin rounded, a little more than half as long 
as the base ; sides rounded ; base with a slight median 
lobe ; surface very shining, pitted with small round 
foveas, filled with white pubescence. Elytra twice as 
long as wide, finely and irregularly punctate, each with 
a large round white pubescent fovea at the base, and 
four rows of smaller ones, none of which attain the 
apex ; sides slightly sinuate above the middle ; apex of 
each very finely bidentate; on each side above the apex 
is a somewhat stronger tooth. Beneath, punctured; 
breast, and each abdominal segment, with a white pubes- 
cent fovea on each side ; legs punctured. 

Length 16| lines; breadth 7 lines. 
nab. — Cochin China. 

Allied to 8. sternicornis, Linn., but differs in the pits 
of the thorax being much more regular and rounder; 
in the pubescent fovea? of the elytra being smaller and 
more numerous, and in the abdomen, each of whose 
segments has a white spot on the side, which does not 
exist in the Linnean species. 

Julodis ceneipes (PI. 1. fig. 4) . 

J. cyanea ; thorace ruguloso, linea dorsali laevi elevata ; 
elytris punctatis, maculis albidis sagittatis ornatis : 
subtus rugosa, albo-hirta; pedibus seneis. 

Cyaneous. Thorax with a greenish tinge, its central 
carina, and a small round spot on each side of it above 
the middle, cyaneous. Elytra each with four rows of 
yellowish- white pubescent sagittate spots. 

Head longitudinally rugose, pubescent, especially 
about the mouth. Thorax at the base once and three- 
quarters as broad as long ; anterior margin rounded, 
two-thirds as long as the base ; sides rounded ; base with 
a narrow median lobe ; surface rugose, a dorsal carina, 
widest behind, which does not touch the base or the 
anterior margin, and a small round spot on each side of 
it, smooth ; the surface between the rvigosities yellowish- 
pubescent, the pubescence especially visible near the 



New Species of BupresUdce. B 

central basal lobe, where it is of a whiter colour. Elytra 
much wider than the thorax at their shoulders, nearly 
twice as long as wide, very largely and rugosely punc- 
tured, each with four raised lines, and four rows of 
foveolfe of sagittate fonn filled with whitish pubescence ; 
a fifth row, of square or transverse foveae, occurs between 
the fourth raised line and the lateral margin ; sides 
slightly sinuate above the middle ; apex rounded. Be- 
neath, rugose, pubescent in irregular patches. Legs 
bronzy. (Antenna wanting) . 

Length 18 lines ; breadth 7 lines, 

Hab. — East (Persia, ?) . 

Catoxantha Mouliotii (H, Deyr.), (PL I. fig. 1). 

C. viridis ; capite inter oculos excavate j thorace 
prope angulos posteriores testaceo, foveolis duabua 
ad basin positis; elytris maculis duabus flavis orna* 
tis : subtus flava; pedibus cyaneis. 

Head and thorax cyaneous, the latter with a somewhat 
square yellow-brown patch near each posterior angle. 
Elytra green with brown reflections, each with a trans- 
verse oval yellow spot, situate about a third of the entire 
length of the elytra from their apex. Beneath, flavous ; 
a curved black line on the breast. Legs cyaneous. 
Antennae black. 

Head punctured, deeply impressed between the eyes. 
Thorax, at its base, not quite twice as broad as long ; an- 
terior margin slightly emarginate, a little more than 
half as long as the base; sides sinuate till a little above 
the posterior angles, then distinctly angulate and emar- 
ginate to the base ; posterior angles acute ; base with a 
large median lobe ; surface finely and remotely punc- 
tured in the centre, sides rugose and iiupressed for two- 
thirds of their length, largely punctured on the basal 
third ; disc with a slight dorsal line impressed at the 
base, and raised near its middle ; on each side of it at 
the base is a large round fovea. Elytra twice and a 
quarter as long as wide, finely punctured ; each with 
four slightly raised lines, visible chiefly on their apical 
half; sides subparallel, apex of each finely emarginate 
and dentate on the suture. Underside and legs finely 
punctured. 

Length 31 lines ; breadth 10 lines. 

Hah. — Laas. 

b2 



4 Mr. Edward Saunders on 

Chrysas^is vwidipennis (PL I. fig. 5). 

C, capite thoraceque atro-cyaneis, punctatis ; hoc mar- 
ginibus lateralibus viridibus ; elytris aureo-viridibus, 
Bubrugulosis, apicibus denticulatis : subtus aureo- 
cuprea. 

Head and thorax cyaneous blacky the former green 
round the inner margins of the eyes, the latter with its 
lateral margins green. Elytra bright brassy-green with 
golden reflections on the sides. Beneath, fiery red. 
Legs green with golden reflections. Antennae with the 
three basal joints green, the rest black. 

Head punctured, deeply excavated between the eyes. 
Thorax, at the base, once and thi'ee-quarters as broad as 
long; anterior margin much raised, emarginate, a little 
more than half as long as the base ; sides raised, diverg- 
ing in nearly straight lines for half their entire length, 
then slightly augulate and subparallel to the base ; pos- 
terior angles acute ; base with a large rounded central 
lobe ; surface punctured ; disk somewhat triangularly 
raised, sides very rugosely punctured. Elytra finely 
and longitudinally rugose, sides slightly angulate at the 
shoulders, apex of each with seven or eight teeth. Un- 
derside and legs punctured. 

Length 21 lines ; breadth 8 lines. 

Hab. — Gaboon. 

Psiloptera Batesii (PI. I. fig. 3) . 

P. capite thoraceque fusco-asneis, viridi-punctatis, hoc 
linea dorsali depressa ; elytris fuscis, viridipunctatis, 
foveolis aureis sparsis ornatis : subtus viridis, rugosa. 

Head green. Thorax bronzy-brown, thickly punctured 
with green on the sides. Elytra bronzy-brown, with green 
punctures at the base and sides, and with several irre- 
gular round golden pubescent foveolas. Underside and 
legs green. Antennae with the first joint green, the rest 
bronzy. 

Head rugose. Thorax twice as broad at the base as 
long ; anterior margin a little more than half as long as 
the base ; sides diverging rapidly for about half their 
length, then slightly emarginate to the posterior angles, 
which are somewhat produced and acute ; base with a 
large shallow median lobe ; surface remotely punctured 



Neio Species of BuiorestidcB. 5 

on the disc, and very thickly on the sides ; disc with a 
widely impressed dorsal line ; sides slightly impressed 
above the posterior angles. Elytra regularly punctate- 
striate, once and three-quarters as long as wide, finely 
and thickly punctured about the shoulders, with numerous 
irregular golden foveee scattered over their surface ; no 
foveas however occur on the basal quarter ; sides slightly 
sinuate above the middle ; apex of each finely and 
obliquely truncate. Beneath, finely rugose ; legs deeply 
punctured. 

Length 15 lines ; breadth 6 lines. 

Hah. — Buenos Ayres. 

I have named this species after Mr. H. W. Bates, Pres. 
Ent. Soc, who kindly presented it to me. 

PSEUDHYPEEANTHA, n. g. 

Caput antennarum cavitatibus rotundis prope ocuIo3 
positis; antennis a tertio articulo serratis. Thorax 
postice latior. ScuteUum triangulare, elongatum. 
Elytra elongata, apicibus truncatis et bidentatis. 
Prosterimm gibbosum. Tarsi dilati. 

Head rounded in front; antennary cavities round, 
situate near the eyes just above the epistome ; antennas 
with the first joint elongate, subpyriform, longer than 
the second and third together ; the second short ; the 
third rather longer and pyriform ; the rest serrate, and 
with a few long hairs. Thorax short, widest at the base. 
ScuteUum of an elongate triangular shape, flatj in form 
most like that of Belionota. Elytra widest at the 
shoulders, apex of each widely truncate and bidentate. 
Prosternum much rounded ; apical segment of the abdo- 
men very long, bidentate. Femora and tibiae nearly 
straight; tarsi with the joints of equal length, dilated. 

The difficulty I have experienced with this genus has 
not been how to distinguish it from its allies, but to find 
its allies with which I might place it. As far as I can 
make out, it should be placed between Capnoclis and 
Cardiaspis. It resembles, in general form, the genus 
Hyperantha, from S. America, but has the antennary 
pores on each side of their joints, so that it will come 
into the division '^ Chalcophorides " of Lacordaire. This 
brings it in form nearest to Capnodis, which is placed at 
the end of Lacordaire's division, and as Cardiaspis stands 



6 Mr. Edward Saunders on 

in Tt\y arrangement at the beginning of the '' Buprestides 
vrais" of that author, and resembles this species much 
in general characters, I think the present insect makes a 
convenient link between the two. 

PseudhyperantJia jucunda (PL I. fig. 9). 

P. cyaneo-nigra, polita^ minutissime punctata ; thorace 
pos'tice flavicincto ; elytris maculis quatuor trans- 
versis flavis ornatis, apicibus truncatis quadriden- 
tatis : subtus flava^ cyaneo-ornata j pedibus cyaneis, 
flavo-ornatis. 

Black, shining, with purple reflections. Head with a 
yellow streak between the eyes. Thorax with its base 
and lateral margins yellow. Elytra each with two short, 
narrow, transverse bands, one situate about a third of 
their length from the base, the other about two-thirds ; 
there is also a small yellow spot on the lateral margin of 
each elytron close to the upper band. Beneath, yellow, 
posterior margins of the abdominal segments cyaneous ; 
fourth segment entirely of that colour, except a small 
triangular spot in its middle ; apical segment wholly 
blue. Thorax and breast variegated with blue. Legs 
and antennee cyaneous ; each thigh, beneath, with a 
streak of yellow. 

Head punctured. Thorax widest at the base, finely 
punctured, with a larger puncture just above the scutel- 
lum ; anterior margin elevated, and slightly produced ; 
sides rounded just above the posterior angles ; base 
slightly bisinuate. Elytra punctate-striate, wider than 
the thorax at their base, twice and a fifth as long as wide, 
slightly sinuate above the middle and again before the 
apex, which is widely and obliquely truncate, and armed 
on each elytron with two sharp teeth and two or three 
small irregular denticulations between them. Underside, 
and legs, finely jDunctured. 

Length 10 1 lines ; breadth 3^ lines. 

Hab. — Penang. 

Hyperantlia hella (PI. I. fig'. 8) . 

H. capite thoraceque nigris, punctatis, hoc marginibus 
lateralibus flavis ; elytris punctatis, striatis, flavis, 
sutura, vitta laterali, fascia transversa post medium 
pcsita, apiceque nigris : subtus nigra, flavo-macu- 
lata. 



New Species of BupresUdce. 7 

Head and thorax black, the latter with its lateral mar- 
gins flavous ; scutellum black. Elytra flavous, orange- 
coloured near their apex, with their suture black for two- 
thirds of its length, where it is inet by a transverse band 
of the same colour ; the apex and a vitta, extending from 
the shoulder to just above the transverse post-median 
band, are also black. Beneath, blacky with a yellow spot 
in the middle of each abdominal segment, the last ex- 
cepted. Legs and antenna black. 

Head punctured, impressed between the eyes. Thorax 
twice as wide at the base as long ; anterior margin much 
produced in the centre, and rounded, half as long as the 
base ; sides rounded ; posterior angles acute, overlapping 
the shoulders of the elytra ; base nearly straight ; sur- 
face finely punctured, with a slightly impressed dorsal 
line ; sides raised. Elytra punctate, sti-iate, three of the 
interstices on each more raised than the rest, twice and 
a quarter as long as wide ; sides subparallel ; apex of each 
widely and obliquely truncate, armed with two short 
spines. Underside, and legs, punctured, covered with 
short silvery pubescence. 

Length 9 lines ; breadth 3 lines. 

Hah. — Brazil. 

Allied to H. interrogationis, but much shorter in rela- 
tion to its width. The markings also are very different, 
and I cannot think that any variation in the spread of 
the yellow colour in interrogationis could form the mark- 
ings observable on the species above described. 

Acherusia Parrii (PL I. fig. 6) . 

A. nigro-cyanea ; capite thoraceque punctatis ; elytria 
humeris maculaque utrinque prope apicem igneo- 
cupreis, fortiter punctato-striatis : subtus punctata ; 
pedibus punctatis. 

Dark cyaneous. Elytra with a spot on each below the 
base covering the shoulder, and another just above the 
apex, coppery red. 

Head punctured. Thorax once and three-quarters as 
broad as long ; anterior margin half as long as the base, 
its angles closely surrounding the eyes ; sides diverging 
for about half their length, then rounded and very 
slightly sinuate to the posterior angles, which are acute ; 
base with a pointed central lobe ; surface punctured. 



8 Mr. E. Saunders on Buprestidoe. 

finely and transversely wrinkled behind. Elytra once 
and a third as long as wide, deeply punctate-striate, the 
striee commencing at a little distance from the base, 
leaving a smooth space between them and it ; sides 
sinuate above the middle, swelling out considerably be- 
yond it ; apex slightly attenuate and truncate, with a 
small external tooth. Underside, and legs, deeply 
punctured. 

Length 4 lines ; breadth 2 lines. 

JSab. — Brazil. 

I have named this species in honour of Major Parry, 
from whose collection it was obtained. 



Acherusia piliventris (PI. I. fig. 7) . 

A. senea ; capite thoraeeque punctatis, hoc marginibus 
lateralibus albipubescentibus ; elytris punctato-stria- 
tis, humeris roseo-cupreis, apice rotundato : subtus 
dense albipubescens. 

Dark bronzy-brown, with cyaneous reflections. Elytra 
with their shoulders coppery-purple. The sides of the 
thorax, and the whole underside, covered with long gray 
hairs. 

Head punctured, covered with long gray pubescence. 
Thorax twice as wide at the base as long ; anterior mar- 
gin elevated, half as long as the base, its angles closely 
embracing the eyes ; sides rounded ; posterior angles 
acute ; base with a pointed central lobe ; surface finely 
wrinkled, and punctured transversely ; sides covered 
with gray pubescence. Elytra once and a sixth as long 
as wide, deeply punctate-striate ; sides sinuate above the 
middle, the sinuation extending nearly across each 
elytron ; shoulders rather prominent ; apex rounded. 
Underside, and legs, densely covered with silvery-gray 
hairs. Antennee cyaneous. 

Length 4 lines ; breadth 2 lines. 

Hab. — ^Brazil. 



II. Description of a Neio Species of Hestina, which 
mimics a Danais. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S. 

[Eead 1st February, 1869.] 

The following species has been lent me for description 
by G. Waters, Esq.: it is remarkable as being an excel- 
lent mimic of Danais Juventa, a widely disti'ibuted and 
tolerably common East Indian and Oceanic species. 

Fam. NYMPHALID^. 

Gen. Hestina, Westwood. 

(Dbl. and Hew. Diurn. Lep. p. 281). 




Hestina Zella, sp. nov. 

(J . Alae supra albee, paululum virescentes ; cella dis- 
coidali anticarum maculariter cinerascente ; venis 
omnibus late cinereo-nigrescentibus ; alse anticse 
fasciolis tribus oblique transversis discoidalibus an- 
gulatis nigris, unaque nervulos prinium et secundum 
medianos connectente ; margine apiceque nigres- 
centibus, maculas tres subapicales et octo submargi- 
nales viridi-albas includentibus ; punctis septem vel 
octo marginalibus cinereis sub-obsoletis ; alee posticaa 
macula costali squamosa nigricante ; margine externo 
nigrescente, maculas octo submarginales albas punc- 
taque octo marginalia alba includente ; corpus ni- 
grum, capite albo-punctato, tliorace cinereo-albo- 
Btriato, abdomine lateraliter albo, antennis nigris. 
Alse subtus fusco-albidee, area anali anticarum c£eru- 
lescente, venis interno-discoideis fasciolisque dis- 
coideis nigris, characteribus aliis velut supra positis, 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART I. (aPEIL) . 



10 Mr. A. G. Butler on a New Hestina. 

at pallide olivaceis ; corpus nigrum^ albo-maculatum : 
proboscis fulva. 

Exp. alar. unc. 2, lin. 10. 

Habitat in Oriente (regione speciali incognita) . 

This beautiful little species is most nearly allied to 
Hestina Mena of Moore ; it is probably intermediate 
between that species and the assimilis of Linnaeus, and 
is smaller than any species yet described ; in general form 
perhaps it is most like Folder's Japonica {Diagoras, 
Hewits.) . 

The collection from which this butterfly was obtained 
was made in various localities ; it contained several 
species from the Continent of Iiidia, and others from 
some of the Eastern islands in which local modifications 
of Danais juventa occur. On the mimetic theory, the 
Hestina ought to inhabit the same country as the species 
which it mimics. A specimen in the Hope Collection is 
labelled ''E. Indies.'' 



( 11 ) 

III. Description of a new Genus and jSjjecies of Prionidse. 
By Edmund Thomas Higgins, 

[Read 15th February, 1889.] 
I TRUST that no apology will bo considered necessary on 
my part, for presenting to the Society an isolated de- 
scription of a Coleopterous Insect, when it is considered 
that it is remarkable in many respects, and forms a new 
genus, the publication of which will help students to 
understand the relationship of the allied forms more 
clearly than would be possible without the knowledge of 
this form. It is a member of the Longicorn family 
Prionidce, and tends to conriect the AcantJiopJiorus group 
(see PI. II. fig. 2) of the Old World, with the DerobracJms 
group (see fig. 3) of the New World. 

Ommatomenus, nov. gen. 

Genus AcantUoplioro et Borycerce affine, a quibus differt, 
inter alia, oculis (cJ) infra contiguis, supra valde 
approsimatis, 
S . MandibulaB breves, minus latse, extus vix rotunda- 
tge, apice arcuatee et valde acutee. Palpi breves, 
maxillares labialibus vix longiores, articulis ultimis 
subcylindi'icis, truncatis. Antennee longitudine cor- 
poris, articulis 3-10 apice intus valde productis et 
minutissime punctatis, opacis. Thorax transversus, 
lateribus utrinque valde trispinosis ; spinis duabus 
anterioribus depressis, latis, basi concretis. Elytra 
elongato-elliptica, angulis suturalibus spinosis. Pro- 
sternum lanceolatum, apice coxas anticas superante 
et deorsum spectante. Pedes graciles, femoribus lin- 
earibus, tibiis supra et infra profunde canaliculatis, 
tarsis posticis angustis, articulo tertio lobis gracili- 
bus mucronatis. 
This genus is distinguished from Tithoes and Acantho- 
pliorus, two other genera of the same group, by its volu- 
minous eyes, nearly meeting above and beneath ; from 
Dorycera (White) it differs in the form of the body and 
presternum, and in other characters. It presents a great 
resemblance to species of DerobracJms from Mexico, both 
in the form of its eyes, the spines of the thorax, and the 
shape of the antennal joints. 

I may remark that the formation of a new genus is 
indicated, in a note under Dorycera^ in Lacordaire'a 
* As mentioned by Lacordaire, Mr. Adam White's name Dorycera is 
pre-occupied by Meigen for a genus of Diptera. 

teans. ent. soc. 1869. — pakt i. (apeil) . 



12 Mr. E. T. Higgins ow Ommatomenus. 

''Genera/' vol. viii, p. 71, as necessary for the reception 
of AcanthopJwrus megalops, described by Mr. Adam White 
in the first part of the British Museum Catalogue of 
Longicorns; this is a fine insect^ from Fernando Po, 
which, I have satisfied myself from examination of the 
type in the British Museum, with the valuable aid of 
Mr. Charles 0. Waterhouse, is congeneric with the new 
species described below. 

Ommatomenus seeicatus, n. sp. (PI. II. fig. 1) . 

(J . Long, (mandib. exclusis) 29-34 lin. 
Elongato-ellipticus, paulo convexus ; saturate casta- 
neus, antennis basi nigris. Caput crebre subtiliter 
punctatum ; fronte concava, punctata, sericeo-fulvo- 
pubescente. Thorax supra paulo insequalis, subtiliter 
punctatus, dense sericeo-fulvo-pubescens; disco an- 
tico spinisque nudis. Scutellum pentagonum, in me- 
dio subtiliter punctatum, marginibus laavibus. Elytra 
ante medium paulo rotundato-ampliata, apicem versus 
angustata, angulis suturalibus breviteracuto-spinosis, 
supra subtiliter coriacea, opaca et punctulata, hu- 
meris punctato-rugosis ; plagis confluentibus sericeo- 
fulvis ornata. Sterna omnia dense sericeo-fulvo- 
pubescentia; abdomen nudum, nitidum, segmento 
ultimo transverse, late emarginato. 
The body is of an elongate elliptical shape, dilated 
behind the middle of the elytra, and very moderately 
convex ; the colour is dark chesnut brown, with the basal 
part of the antennae black. The head is finely and closely 
punctured, with the front concave and clothed with silky 
fulvous hairs: the hind part of the crown has not the 
well-marked ridge which distinguishes Ommatomenus 
megalops (White) . The thorax is a little uneven above, 
and very finely punctate, not rugose-punctate, as in 0. 
megalops. The sutural angles of the elytra are furnished 
with a short acute spine ; above, the elytra are of a 
leathery texture, and marked with numerous very fine 
punctures ; there are a few coarser punctures near the 
shoulders; the surface is opaque, and adorned with 
numerous patches of fine silky reddish-fulvous pubes- 
cence, which has a rich glow in certain lights. The 
sterna are densely clothed with longish silky fulvous pile, 
but the abdomen is smooth and shining. 

Obtained from near the mouth of the JN'iger, by Mr. 
Simpson. 



( 13) 

IV. On a neiv genus and some new species of Coleoptera, 
belonging to the family Lucauidge. By Charles 
O, Watekhouse, 

[Bead 1st March, 1869.] 

I WISH to bring before the Entomological Society's notice 
this evening, four species of Goleoptera, belonging to the 
family Lucanidos, which I believe to be as yet undescribed. 

One of these, although by no means the most remark- 
able at first sight, possesses such peculiarities as to make 
it necessary to form a new genus for its reception. 

This insect, which is from Northern India (I believe 
from the Cashmere district, although I have no precise 
locality) is entirely dullish black, and its general appear- 
ance led me at first to seek its place near Dorcus, but 
finding it differently constructed, I next referred it to 
and left it in the genus Cladognathus. Upon farther 
examination, however, I find that the mentum is unlike 
that of any other species of Lticanidoi that I have examin- 
ed; the eye is moreover entirely divided by the canthus, 
a character quite strange to Chidogvatlnis and to the 
other genera with which it could possibly be associated ; 
the produced portion of the presternum between the 
coxEe is very narrow and grooved, a character, I believe, 
without a parallel in the Liicanidce ; and finally, the pos- 
terior tibise are much enlarged at the apex, which is only 
to be found in the genus Lucamis, and even there, the 
enlargement does not, except in the females, exist to 
such an extent as in the insect now in question. I 
therefore propose to make a new genus of it, and to call 
it Axdacostetlms, which may be briefly characterized as 
follows : — 



AuLACOSTETHUs, gen. nov. 

Mentum broader than long, bowed in front, with the 
posterior angles rounded ; eyes entirely divided by the 
canthus, which is slender; prosternum between the an- 
terior coxae narrow, with parallel sides, longitudinally 
canaliculate ; the four posterior tihice much enlarged at 
the apex, each furnished on the outside in the middle 
with a small tooth ; tarsi somewhat short, the basal four 
joints of each furnished beneath at the extreme apex 
with two pencils of fine bristles. 

TEANS. ENT. SOC._1869. — PART I. (APEIL) . 



14 Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse on 

Aulacosteihus Arclieri, sp. nov. (PI. III. fig. 1) . 

$. Niger, sub-opacus; niaiidibulis elongatis, intus 
bidentatis ; capite subquadrato, depresso^ antice 
contractOj fronte excavata, lateribus fortiter rugoso- 
punctatis ; oculis omuino a cantlio divisis; thorace 
transverso, lateribus sub-rectis, angulis posticis 
oblique truncatis, marginibus anterioribus et poster- 
ioribus elytrorumque basi rugoso-punctatis ; tibiis 
anticis apicibus fortiter bidentatis, et extus denticulis 
quatuor armatis ; tibiis posticis extus in medio uni- 
dentatis, apicibus singulariter ampliatis; prosterno 
longitudinaliter carinato. 

Long, (mandibulis exclusis) 17^ liu. (37 mill.); man- 
dib. 1\ lin. (16 mill.). 

Black, somewhat dull. Head flattened, one quarter as 
broad again as long, slightly narrowed towards the front 
to the insertion of the antenna, then suddenly contracted, 
forehead excavated, projecting over the clypeus, which 
is transverse and gently emarginate ; the head is con- 
tracted posteriorly to be received into the thoi"ax, the 
posterior mai'gin and the portions over the base of the 
mandibles shining, the rest of the surface rendered dull 
by extremely tine granulations, on the disc there are a 
few larger punctures, and towards the sides and the parts 
about the eyes punctured, a patch reaching from the eyes 
almost to the posterior angles of the head, very rugosely 
punctured. Mandibles about equal in length to the head 
and thorax together, very gently curved, with a large 
blunt tooth springing froin the upper surface, distant 
from the base about one third the length of the mandible, 
another smaller tooth, also springing from the upper 
surface, being situate near the apex of the mandible, 
gives it the appeai^ance of being bifid. Mentum twice and 
a half as broad as long, slightly convex, with the basal 
portion in the middle depressed ; rounded in front, the 
posterior angles rounded, slightly overlapping the sub- 
mentum, the whole surface coarsely transversely reticulate. 
The 8th, 9th, and 10th joints of the antennee forming the 
club, the 8th joint half spongy, the 9th and 10th entirely 
so. Thorax twice as broad as long, posterior angles 
obliquely truncate in front, bis-emarginate ; sides rounded 
at the anterior angles, gently contracted posteriorly, and 
again projecting at the truncature of the angles, posterior 



some New Species of Lucanidoe. 15 

margin almost straight^ tlie disc somewhat shining, to- 
wards the sides the surface is rendered dull by extremely 
fine granulations, anterior border strongly margined, and 
with the margin towards the sides rugosely punctured ; 
side and posterior margins incrassate, the sides of the 
thorax sparingly but distinctly punctured, the posterior 
margins rugosely punctured. Scutellum broader than 
long, with the apex rounded, with a few small punctures. 
Elytra semi- opaque, broadest at the basal quarter, then 
gradually conti-acting to the apex, the extreme base 
rugosely punctured, the whole surface, except the suture 
and near the scutellum, thickly covered with very minute 
granules, an indistinct smooth line reaches from the 
shoulder nearly to the apex. Anterior tibice distinctly 
punctured, the punctures inclined to form longitudinal 
rows, the apex of the tibite is produced beyond the 
insertion of the tarsus to the third joint, the produced 
part turned outwards, bifurcate ; the outer edge of the 
tibias armed with four small teeth, the basal one very 
small ; the four posterior tibiae coarsely punctured, mucla 
enlarged at the apex, which is terminated by three strong 
teeth ; * each tibia armed with a small sharp tooth on 
the outside near the middle. Tarsi somewhat short, the 
basal four joints of each furnished beneath at the extreme 
edge with two pencils of fine fulvous bristles. Prostermim 
between the anterior coxse narrow, parallel, deeply 
longitudinally grooved. 

Hah. — N. India. In the British Museum. 

The British Museum is indebted to S. Archer, Esq., 
Assistant Surgeon, H. M. 98th Eegiment, for this and 
some other interesting Indian Coleoptera. It is possible 
that the species above described may be known to some 
by the MS. name Gladognathiis Batesii.'f 

The next insect I have to mention is a species of Cla^ 
dognatJnis closely resembling inclinatus of Motschulsky, 
from which it may be distinguished by its slightly greater 

* One of the posterior tibiae has four teeth, the central one of the usual 
three being divided. 

f [This is doubtless the insect which in vol. iii. (dated 1868) of Gem- 
minger and Von Harold's " Catalogus Coleopterorum hucusque descrip- 
torum " is cited as " Cladognathus Bcdesi,Favi-y, Trans. Ent. Sec, 1869." 
The reference by anticipation to this volume has shared the common fate 
of prophetic utterances. — Sec. Ent. Soc] 



16 Mr. C. 0. WateriiousQ on 

convexity and sliining appearance ; the mandibles have 
only two distinct teeth; the forehead is not furnished 
with a horizontal lamina, and the head behind the eyes 
is simply inflated and not triangularly prodaced. The 
exact locality of the specimen from which I have drawn 
up my description is not known ; it is either Japan or the 
Indian Archipelago. The specimen is lent me by Major 
Parry, who brought it me for description with the MS. 
name C, MotseJmlskU. 



CladognatJms MotscliuIsMi (Parry), sp.nov. 

Elongatus, subdepressus, punctatissimus, subnitidus, 
nigro-castaneus ; capite subquadrato, postice angulis 
nuUis, fronte excavata, angulis ante oculos prominu- 
lis; clypeo concave, quadrato, lateribus parallelis, 
angulis anticis oblique truncatis, apice emarginato; 
mandibulis elytrormn longitudiue vix brevioribus, 
inclinatis, intus clentibus duobus majoribus et 2-3 
parvis armatis ; thorace capite latiore, transverse, 
convesiore, lateribus vix rotundatis ; elytris angulis 
humeralibus obtusis ; tibiis anticis quatuor spinulosis, 
mediis unispinosis, posticis inermibus ; prosterno 
postice vix compresso. 

Long, (mandib. exclusis) 16| lin. (35 mill.) ; mandib. 
aiin. (17 mill.). 

This species very much resembles in general form and 
colour the C. incllnaius of Motschulsky (Etudes Ent. 
pt. 10, 1861, p. 13). The mandibles, however, are less 
deflexed, and are furnished with two larger teeth, one 
rather below the middle, and another near the apex ; 
between these there are indications of two or three small 
teeth, and between the second and the apex there are 
two small teeth. The foi-ehead is more deeply excavated, 
and is not provided with a horizontal lamina between the 
mandibles as in C. inclinatiis ; the clypeus has the sides 
straight, the front margin formed of two lines which 
would meet at an obtuse angle, if the vertex were not 
slightly emarginate. The sides of the head behind the 
eyes are nearly straight, the posterior angles completely 
rounded. The head is less depressed, the surface is more 
finely granular, the disc being slightly impressed and 



some New Species of Liicanicke. 17 

smooth. The thorax is slightly more convex, the sides 
are rather less parallel, but scarcel/ rounded ; the surface 
is more finely granulo.^e, the dis3 being almost smooth, 
sparingly punctured with distinct punctures. The elytra 
are smoother, and the specimen before me has the humeral 
angles obtuse. 'Jlie tibise arc shorter and stouter, the 
anterior tibiae, besides the usual bifurcate apex, are fur- 
nished with one distinct tooth only near the apex. The 
apex of the posterior tibia3 is enlarged above. The 
presternum, which is produced behind the anterior coxEe, 
although slightly compressed, is not lamelliform as in 
C. inclinatus. 

Hah. — Japan ? or Indian Archipelago. In Major 
Parry's Collection. 



The next insect is another species of Cladognathvs, 
closely allied to C. MacleUandi , with the type specimen 
of which Major Parry (who called my attention to this 
also) compared his examples, and considers them to be 
distinct. There are two specimens ( $ and ? ) in the 
National Collection, and I have drawn up my description 
from them. I may mention that Major Parry received 
this insect with the name 0. MacleUandi; he proposes 
the name of impressus for it. 



Cladognatlius impressus (Parry), sp. nov. 

$ . (var. minor ?) . Rufo-castaneus, nigrescens, parum 
convexus, nitidus ; capite transverse, subtiliter 
granuloso, punctis sparsis intermixtis, ante oculos 
parum triangulariter producto, pone oculos rotun- 
dato, fossa inter mandibula et oculos impresso ; fronto 
leniter concava; clypeo hexagono. Thorace trans- 
verso, subtilissime granuloso, punctis parvis efc 
sparsis intermixtis, disco subleevi, angulis posticis 
oblique truncatis, angulo a truncatione et latere 
formato producto. Elytris rufo-castaneis, sutura et 
circum scutellum nigrescentibus, dense punctatjs, 
arcuatim attenuates, basi thorace angustiori. Tibiis 
anticis apice bifurcatis, oxtus subserratis, dentibua 
parvis 5-6 armatis ; posterioribus quatuor extus ill 
medio dente parvo armatis ; tarsis fuscis. 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART I. (APEIL) . C 



18 Mr. C. 0. WaterHouse on 

Long, (inandib. esclusis) 9^ lin. (191 mill.) j mandib. 
U lin. (3 mill.) ; lat. 4^ lin. (8f mill.). 

9 . Angustior ; mandibulis brevibus, intus uniden- 
tatis ', capite fortiter denseque punctato, vertice 
la3vi, inter oculos et mandibula elevatione parva 
laevi, ante oculos contractor antice truncate ; clypeo 
parvo, transverse, angulis rotundatis ; tliorace disco 
fortiter et sparsiin punctate, lateribus parallelis 
dense fortiterque punctatis, angulis posticis trun- 
catis ; elytris disco sparsira, latera versus dense 
punctulatis, lateribus apiceque fortiter punctatis j 
tibiis anticis punctatis, excurvatis, apicibus triden- 
tatis, extus 1-2 denticulatis. 

Long, (cum mandib.) 8 lin. (17 mill.) ; lat. 3^ lin. 
(7* mill.). 

Hab. — India. In tbe British Museum. 

The S in the British Museum is from East India, the 
? from North India. 

The last insect I have to mention belongs to the genus 
ChiasognatJtus, and should, perhaps, have been mentioned 
first. The form of the mandibles, which, when viewed 
laterally, somewhat resemble a small greek t, the granu- 
lation of the elytra, and yellow colour, and the curiously 
bowed middle tibiae, will serve to distinguish the (J, 
whilst the evenly rounded sides of the thorax will separate 
the ? from the other species of the genus. 



Cldasognatlius pernvianus, sp. nov. (PI. III. figs. 2, 3). 

(J . ^neus, fuscescens ; mandibulis basi supra sub- 
tusque fortiter unidentatis, et apicibus intus denti- 
culo armatis ; capite, thorace, scutello, corpore toto 
subtus, femoribusque flavo-pubescentibus ; elytris 
cupreis, purpureo-micantibus, sub-opacis ; tibiis an- 
ticis Eeneis, basi flavis, incurvatis, apicibus biden- 
tatis, intermediis valgis, flavis, extus unidentatis, 
posticis basi et in medio coustrictis, flavis, apicibus 
fuscis, extus unidenticulatis. 

Long, (mandib. exclusis) , 1 unc. (26 mill.) : mandib. 
31 lin. (8 mill.) 



some Neiu Species of Liicanulce. 19 

? . Litior, mandibulis brsvibuSj basi estus obtuse 
dentatis ; thorace latsribus fortiter rotundatis ; elytris 
ssaescentibus, ragulosis ; tibiis anticis latis, extus 
quadridentatis^ quatuoi- posticis rectis, extus fortius 
unidentatis. 

Long, (cum inandib.) 13. t liu. (28 mill.) . 

(^ . .^iieous, slightly tinged with coppery-brown. 
Head transverse, with a transverse impression between 
the eyes; the portion of the head behind this impression, 
and that about the eyes, almost without punctures ; the 
disc closely punctured ; the sides of the head almost 
parallel, the anterior angles rectangular, anterior margin 
furnished above the base of each mandible with a tubercle, 
the portion between them, and on each side of them, 
emarginate. Mandibles deflexed, of equal length with 
the thorax, thickly punctured, somewhat straight, the 
apices acuminate, cui'vod inwards -, the extreme base of 
each mandible furnished above and below with a strong* 
acuminate tooth, the upper one the larger, very little 
punctured, slightly sloping inwards; the inner blade of 
the mandible armed above with a small tooth near the 
apex. Maxillary palpi very long, the last joint one-third 
longer than the penultimate. Thorax convex, one-third 
broader than long, not broader in front than the head, 
but gradually increasing in width posteriorly, the hind 
angles much rounded. Elytra three-quarters as broad 
as long, somewhat dull, of a coppery-brown colour, 
faintly tinged with purple; the sides are sub-parallel, 
slightly constricted below the shoulders; the whole sur- 
face is slightly uneven, very thickly and finely granulose- 
punctate. The femora and the apical half of the anterior 
tibioi are dark, shot with ajneous and purple. The an- 
terior tibis?^. are elongate, slightly curved inwards, with 
two strong teeth on the outside at the apex, the basal 
half of these tibia3 yellow; middle and posterior tibiae 
yellow, except at the apex, the former much curved, 
furnished on the outside near the apex with a small dark 
tooth ; the posterior tibi^ nearly straight, constricted at 
the base and in the middle, furnished on the outside, 
near the apex, with a very small dark tooth. Tarsi long, 
fuscous. 

The $ differs from the r? in being relatively broader j 
the mandibles are short, punctate, strongly triangularly 

c2 



20 Mr. C. 0. Waterliouse on Luccmidce. 

dilated on the outside at the base ; the head is formed 
ne:irly as in the rT, but with the sides less straight, the 
anterior angles slightly obtuse, the punctuation is thicker; 
the thorax is shorter, with the sides completely rounded, 
the diss is smooth, and the punctuation of the impression 
finer, the posterior part being finely punctured ; the 
elytra are geneoiis, the surface is less even ; the anterior 
tibiae are shorter, broad, with the base fuscous, furnished 
on the outside with three strong teeth, and one or two 
smaller ones near the base; the four posterior tibiae are 
straight, shorter and stouter, the external teeth being 
stronger. 

Eah. — Peru, (S and $ , in the British Museum. 



Explanation of Plate III. 



Fig. 1. Aulacostethus Archeri ; la, mentum ; 1 b, prostemum. 

2. Chios orjnathus x>eruvianus, $ . 

3. „ „ , ?. 

8c. „ „ , side \iew of mandible of <J , 



( 21 ) 

V. On Insects and Insectivorous Birds ; and especially 
on the Relation between the Colour and the Edibility 
of Lepidoptera and their Larvce. By J. Jennee 
Weie, F.L.S. 

[Read 1st March, 1869.] 

During the past Summer I made several experiments, 
as suo-o-ested bv Mr. Alfred E. Wallace, with a view to 
ascertain what species of Insects are eaten by Birds ; and, 
on the contrary, what species are rejected. 

Although the observations I am about to detail have 
only recently been made for a special object, yet my 
knowledge of the relations which exist in many cases 
between birds and insects extends over a period of more 
than thirty years. 

The difficulty of keeping alive purely insectivorous 
birds in captivity is so great, that I have been obliged to 
restrict myself to those whose food is of a mixed character, 
and which thrive in confinement. 

I have, therefore, relied mainly on the following 
species, viz. : — 

The Robin, Erithaca ruhecula. 

„ Yellow-hammer, Emberiza ciirinella. 

„ Reed Bunting, Emhcriza schceniclus. 

„ Bullfinch, Fyrrhida vulgaris. 

„ Chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs. 

„ Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra. 

,, Thrush, Tiirdns musicus. 

„ Tree Pipit, An thus arhoreus. 

And in a less degree, on 

The Siskin, Carduelis spinus. 
And The Redpoll, Linaria minor. 

Within the limits of the order Lepidoptera, the follow- 
ing results have been obtained. 

The apterous female of Orgyia antiqiia is the only 
Lepidopterous insect I have found to be entirely rejected 
in the perfect st ite ; this I distinctly saw refused, after 
examination, by both the Robin and Read Bunting, and 
it was quite disregarded by the other species; 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART I. (aPEIL) . 



22 Mr. J. Jonner Weir on 

The imago of Smlosnma vientliadri was refused by the 
Ballfineh and Chaffinch ; picked np by the Yellow- 
hammer, but dropped ; tiisted by the Reoi Banting, but 
not relished, and soon dropped ; the latter bird, however, 
attracted by the fluttering insect, returned to it, and 
ultimately swallowed it. Soilosoma meutJiastri was also 
eaten by the Robin. I had been led to expect that this 
insect would bo refused by all the birds ; it was certainly 
not eaten with avidity, but on the contrary, after much 
hesitation. 

All perfect Lo,}nclo]}tera apparently require preparation 
before they arc swallowed by birds ; they are taken be- 
tween the mandibles, shaken and bruised for a minute 
or two, and generally have the wings removed before 
they are eaten. This often afibrds a strong moth a good 
chance of escape, and such day-flying species as the genus 
Triphcena, which jump about in ajerking manner, and soon 
conceal themselves amongst the herbage, would, in a state 
of nature, almost always slip away from their tormentors. 
I have, even on the floor of my aviary, seen the struggle 
between the bird and the insect prolonged for several 
minutes. Triphama lyroiniba is very slippery, and the 
flight is but little impeded by the partial destruction of 
the under-wings, which by their yellow colour attract the 
bird^s attention, and are, therefore first attacked, and, 
perhaps, mutilated ; so that the difliculty of its capture 
compensates for its greater liability to pursuit, owing to 
its diurnal habits. 

Other brightly-coloured day-flying Bcterocera, such as 
Anthrocera Jilipenclidce, which ill no way attempts con- 
cealment, and is of sluggish habits, were unwillingly 
eaten, but I am by no means inclined to attach undue 
import:ince to this fact, because the birds, being- in con- 
finement, and deprived mainly of their usual insect food, 
might readily be expected to eat insects, which, in a 
state of nature, with a less limited choice, they would 
reject. 

It is characteristic of many genera of day-flying Lejn- 
doptera Hcterocera, that they have brightly-coloured, and 
more or less ornamented under-wings, and very dull 
gray or brown up]3er-wings, quite concealing the former 
when at rest ; these under-wings are of various colours, 
for instance, silvery in Agrotis ; yellow in Triphcena, 
Anarta, and other genera ; crimson, red, or blue ia 
Catocala and CallimorjjJta. 



Insects and Insectivorous Birds. 23 

f~ I feel quite satisfied from actual experiment^ that this 
distribution of colour is a great advantage to ihsse 
diurnal species in the struggle for existence. 

As before reraai'kei, the bird seizes the most conspi- 
cuous part, which is very fragile ; thus giving the insect 
another chance of escape, with a small notch only out of 
the under-wing. I once saw Triphcena fimbria in broad 
daylight rise to a great height, pursued by a swallow, 
which made several inefi'ectual attempts to seize it, and 
it certainly eflfected its escape ; the swallow giving up 
the pursuit, completely baffled. 

I have also seen a moth, Macaria notata, fly very fairly 
with only the two fore-wings developed, not, perhaps, 
quick enough to avoid such a swift bird as the swallow, 
but sufficiently to enable this wood-haunting species to 
reach a thicket in safety. 

The sudden manner in which the brilliantly coloured 
under- wings are displayed, is another great advantage to 
the insect ; the bird is startled, and draws back ; and 
before it recovers its surprise, the prey escapes. 

The flight of the TripJicence, and their mode of unex- 
pectedly rising from, and quickly dropping into, the 
herbage, and concealing themselves, is exactly the same 
as that of some species of European grasshoppers belong- 
ing to the genus CEdipoda, which also display bright 
crimson or blue under-wings, combined with earthy 
coloured upper-wings ; and I have no doubt are benefited 
in the same manner by a similar distribution of colours. 

The results obtained with the larv£B and pupge of Lepi- 
doptera were of a more decisive and satisfactory character. 

I found that all hairy caterpillars were uniformly 
uneaten. The species experimented with were Arctia 
caja, Eriogaster lanestris, Porthesia auriflua, and Orgyia 
antiqua ; none of these species were even examined by 
the birds, and were permitted to crawl about the aviary 
for days with impunity. 

I am disposed to consider that the flavour of all these 
larvee is nauseous, and not that the mechanical trouble- 
someness of the hairs prevents their being eaten. 

In order to throw some light on this point, I made an 
experiment with Spilosoma menthastri ; this species in 
the larval state is always rejected, but being fortunate 



2'4« Mr. J, Jenner Weir on 

onoilgh to obtxin about one hundrecl young larvse a few 
•liours old, having* indeed only just emerged from the 
egg, I introduced them into the avairy on their natal 
leaf. The movement of the little creatures soon attracted 
the notice of a Siskin ; the bird tasted one of the minute 
caterpillars, shook its beak as if it were disagreeable, 
and left the rest undisturbed ; a Redpoll followed, bnt 
. the result was the same. A West- African insectivorous 
Finch, Textor erythrorhynchus, next tried their flavour, 
but soon left them, evidently not liking it. No further 
molestation took place, and the minute larvas remained 
undisturbed. 

I cannot think that, in this case, the rejection arose 
from the hairiness of the larvse. I imagine that it was 
caused by their disagreeable flavour, and that the birds 
were deceived into tasting them, because the character- 
istic warning hairs were undeveloped ; and that, on the 
other hand, when the caterpillars are more developed, 
the hairs serve as a caution to the birds, that the larvae 
so clothed are uneatable. 

The results obtained with spined larvse were very 
similar, and the deductions I make are the same. The 
larvEe experimented on were those of Vanessa urtica^, and 
Vanessa lo; these species both, as is well known, feed 
on the tops of JJvtica clioica, without any attempt at con- 
cealment ; the larvse wore utterly disregarded by all the 
birds, and were allowed to crawl about the aviary for 
days. The metallic looking chrysalides of the two species 
were also invariably rejected, thus showing that the 
.spines were not the cause of the uneatableness of the 
larvse. 

Larvse which spin webs, and are gregarious, are eaten 
by birds, but not with avidity ; they appear very much 
to dislike the web sticking to their beaks, and those 
completely concealed in the web are left unmolested. 
When branches covered with the web of Hyponomeuta 
cvonymclla were introduced into the aviary, those larvse 
only which ventured beyond the protection of the web 
•were eaten. 

The experiments I was anxious to try were those with 
smooth-skinned, gaily-coloured caterpillars, which never 
conceal themselves, but, on the contrary, appear to court 
observation. 



Iniecis and Insectivorotis- Birds, 25 

My first experiment was with the larvae of Ahraxas 
grossuJariata ; and in order that the birds might be fairly- 
attracted towards them, I placed them on a shelf in the 
aviary amongst other eatable species. I watched the 
birds carefully ; they soon ate up all the well-relished 
and dull-coloured species, but left Ahraavs grossulariata 
untouched. I quitted the aviary for some hours, but on 
my return, they were still crawling about unmolested. 

The same result followed the experiments with Diloha 
cceruleocephala, and Anthrocera filvjpendulce, both con- 
spicuous species in the lai^val state. 

I was most desirous to try the larvae of the genus 
Cucullia, and at last succeeded in getting several of 
C'ucidlia vtrhasci of different sizes. These larvae, as is 
well known, feed on the leaves of Verhascwn thapsus, and 
are most beautifully coloured With bright blue, yellow, 
and black ; and their skins are perfectly smooth. It 
appeared to me that experiments with this species 
would be conclusive ; and I confess to feeling very ex- 
cited when I made them. I had however the pleasure of 
finding that this crucial test did not fail. The larvce 
were placed on the feeding shelf one afternoon. I found 
them there after dinner, and the next day some were 
still living, and quite-rmnrole&ted. 

I will now add a few words on those larvse which are 
eaten greedily by birds, and my remarks on the subject 
will be brief; it will be unnecessary to detail all the 
experiments made, as the results are easily generalized. 

All caterpillars whose habits are nocturnal, dull- 
coloured, with fleshy bodies and smooth skins, are eaten 
with the greatest avidity. 

Every species of green caterpillar is also much 
relished. 

All Geometrce, whose larvas resemble twigs as they 
stand out from the plant on their anal prologs, are in- 
variably eaten. 

To sum up, I have quite satisfied myself that insecti- 
vorous birds, as a general rule, the Cuckoo, perhaps, 
being an exception, refuse to eat hairy larvae, spinous 
larvEe, and all those whose colours are very gay, and 
which rarely, or only accidentally, conceal themselves. 

On the other hand, they eat with great relish, all 
smooth-skinned larvEe of a green or dull-brown colour, 
which are nearly always nocturnal in their habits, or 



^6 Mr. Weir on Insectivorous Birds. 

mimic the colour or appearance of the plant they 
frequent. 

I propose, during the coming Summer, to continue 
my investigations, and shall feel grateful to any of the 
Members who may kindly send me living insects for 
experiment. 



{21) 



VI. Fcmarls vpon certain Caterpillars, ^'c, ivJiich are 
unpalatable to their enemies. By A. G. Butlee, 
F.L.S., &c. 

[Bead 1st March, 1S69.] 

As I understood that my friend Mr. Jenner Weir was 
intending to bring forward this evening the results of 
his experiments in regard to the insect-food of birds, I 
thought it might not be out of place to bring together 
such facts as I have myself observed, with regard to the 
rejection of certain larvas and imagines by lizards, frogs, 
and spiders. 

In the year 1863, I purchased three green lizards 
{Lacerta viriclis) which I turned into a glass case, out of 
doors ; this vivarium measured one yard square, and had 
been especially constructed with a view to keeping 
reptiles ; I had so arranged the plants, and modelled 
the earth in this case, that the lizards might well suppose 
themselves to be at liberty, and I have no doubt they 
did so ; they ate enormously, so much so indeed, that I 
made a note of the number of victims devoured by them 
between the 3rd and 13th of July, 1863, which was as 
follows : — " 119 large flies {Eristalis vulpinns) , numerous 
bluebottles, house-flies, and caterpillars (chiefly Mamcstra 
hrassicm and Phragmatohia fulicjinosa) , 3 humble bees 
[Boinhus terrcstris) , and 14 white butterflies [Pieris hras- 
sicoi and rapai) ." 

Notwithstanding their eagerness for food of all kinds, 
from a lemon-cheesecake to a spider, there were some 
catei'pillars, and even moths, which they would seize 
only to drop in disgust ; amongst these, all that I 
especially took note of at the time, were the caterpillar 
of Abraxas (jrossulariata-, and the imago of Avthrocera 
filipemJidce ; I bred a hundred of the latter species in the 
year 1864, to try and establish a colony of them at South 
Kensington, and though I repeatedly turned crippled 
specimens into my lizard-house, none were ever swal- 
lowed ; a lizard might spring at the insect when intro- 
duced, but after a severe pinch, which did not disable 
it, but disgusted its captor, it was flung away, and not 
again disturbed. 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PABT I. (APEIL) . 



28 Mr. A. G. Butler on 

As with the lizards, so it was with frogs. My lizards 
being all dead, early in the year 18i38, I turned two 
frogs into the case, and fed them almost daily with cater- 
pillars, &c., from the garden ; the result of my experi- 
ments with the larvEe of Abraxas grossulariata and Halia 
vauaria are noted in tlie "Entomologist's Monthly Ma- 
gazine " for October last, as follows : — 

When the frogs " first became aware of the introduc- 
tion of the caterpillars, they seemed greatly excited, 
sprang forwards, and licked them eagerly into their 
mouths ; no sooner, however, had they done so, than 
they seemed to become aware of the mistake that they 
had made, and sat with gaping mouths, rolling their 
tongues about, until they had got quit of the nauseous 
morsels, which seemed perfectly uninjured, and walked 
off as briskly as ever.'" 

The same thing' may be said of another insect perse- 
cutor, the spider; the rejection of these two caterpillars 
by my frogs, induced me to try whether spiders would 
show a similar aversion to them. I repeatedl}^ put them 
into the webs both of the geometrical and hunting 
spiders [Ereiha dUidema and Lycosa, species ?) ; but in the 
former case, they were cut out, and allowed to drop ; in 
the latter, after disappearing in the jaws of their captor 
down his dark silken funnel, they invariably re-appeared 
either from below, or else taking long strides up the 
funnel again. 

Thus, in three instances, I have proved the same 
caterpillars to be distasteful to insect persecutors ; surely 
such evidence may be looked upon as conclusive of the 
fact, that some species have an advantage over others, and, 
therefore, are more likely to survive in the great struggle 
for existence : it is well known that Abraxas grossnlarinta, 
Halia vauaria, and AntJirocera fiUpcndnJce are three of the 
commonest of our British Moths, and here is one reason 
why they are so common ; with regard to the two former 
species, it is true that the perfect insect is greedily 
devoured, where the laiwa is rejected ; but when we 
remember that the larval state is the most subject to 
mortality from surrounding causes, such a fact only 
tends to explain how it is that these species have not 
become a perfect plague. 

The caterpillars of Abraxas grossidariata wer3 more 
distasteful to my lizards than were the large stinging 



I 



Caterpillars which are unpalatahlc. 29 

bees; for I have seen the latter fought with, rubbed 
against the ground until powerless, and, finally, de- 
voured ; this, however, generally occurred when the 
lizards were hungry ; though I have seen a frog, sitting 
composedly u]5on a bed of stoue-crop, leap up aud catch 
the bees which flew over his bead, and swallow them 
in utter disregard of their stings ; how this is to be 
explained I am at a loss to say ; all I know is, that such 
was certainly the case. 

I hope that the facts I have adduced may be of some 
little use in supporting those which my friend Mr. Weir 
has observed. 



(31 ) 



VII. VosQriptions of tivo new Species of Papilio frovi 
Ecuador. By W. C. Hewitson, F.L.S. 

[Read ISth March, 1869.] 

I AM indebted for these two species of TapiUo to a 
kind friend, Mr. James Backhouse, of York, who re- 
ceived them from his collector in Ecuador. 



1. Papilio Philetas. 

Male. Upperside. Dark green : the fringe with 
lunular white spots, broad and conspicuous on the pos- 
terior wing. Anterior wing crossed beyond the middle 
by a furcate band of green-yellow spots, which com- 
mences in two places near the costal margin, and unit- 
ing at the second disco-cellular nervule, is continued in 
five hastate spots to the anal angle. Posterior wing 
with a submarginal band of pale green spots, the first of 
which at the costal margin is linear. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that there 
are two rays of green from the base, that the spots of the 
band are much larger, and that the whole of the wing 
from the band to the apex is irrorated with green. Pos- 
terior wing with the basal half thickly irrorated with 
green, the nervures through it black, the outer half of 
the wing dark green, first marked by pale green striae, 
crossed below these by a band of seven scarlet spots, 
with here and there between them irrorations of white ; 
these spots are surrounded with purple, and followed by 
a second band of six yellow spots : the lunular spots on 
the margin broader than above. The abdomen white. 

Female. Does not diff"er from the male, except in 
having the abdomen dark green. 

Exp. 4^ inches. 

Hah. — Ecuador. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

It will be seen at once that this very beautiful species 
belongs to that section of Papilio which contains Belus 
and Crassus. 



32 Mr. W. C. Hewitson on Papilio. 

2. Fapilio Phalcecus. 

Male. Upperside. Very dark green, apparently black 
out of a bright light, suffused with purple towards the 
outer margin of the posterior wing, the fringe with white 
lunules, deeply indented on the posterior wing; it has 
o,ne. broad tail. Both wings crossed beyond the middle 
by a common band of white tinted with yellow, divided 
by the nervures, and so thickly irrorated with black on 
the anterior wing, and the lower part of the posterior 
wing, as to appear gray; this band commences near 
the costal margin of the antei'ior wing by three spots, 
which form a triangle ; near the fifth spot on its inner 
border there is a small spot of the same colour (more 
conspicuous in the female) . Posterior wing with a sub- 
marginal baud of six or seven carmine lunular spots, 
some of which are scarcely visible. 

Underside. As above, except that the carmine spots 
are more distinct. 

Female. Does not differ from the male, except in its 
greater size. 

Exp. 3^ inches. 

Hah. — Ecuador. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Most nearly allied to P. Ascanius. 



(33 ) 

VIII. Descriptions of six neio Species of Diurnal Lepi- 
doptera from Nicaragua. By W. C. Hewitson, 
F.L.S. 

[Bead 15th March, 1869.] 

The collection of butterflies recently brought to this 
country by Mr. Belt, from Nicaragua, contains twelve 
new species. The following are descriptions of six of 
them ; belonging to the genera Heliconia, Eresia, Euba' 
gis, Hcetera, Mesosemia, and Nymphidium. 

1. Heliconia Diotrephes. 

Upperside (except the apex of the anterior wing, 
which is dark brown), blue-green, the outer margins 
spotted with white. Anterior wing with the central 
half nearly white, and a spot within the cell which forms 
part of it, pure white, divided by very fine black ner- 
vures : a submarginal series of indistinct white spots. 
Posterior wing with three apical white spots. 

Underside as above, except that it is dark brown : 
that the anterior wing has a submarginal band of rather 
large white spots : that the postei-ior wing has the costal 
margin (except the base, which is yellow), and two 
bands which cross the wing (one of which is parallel to 
the costal margin, and the other to the outer margin) , 
brick-red ; a linear white spot on the costal margin at 
the apex, the three apical spots as above, and a submar- 
ginal series of white spots in pairs. 

Exp. d^ inches. 

Ha h . — Nicaragua . 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

This species is very nearly allied to H. Galanthus of 
Bates, but differs from it on the underside, in having a 
submarginal series of white spots on the anterior wing, 
and in having the base of the posterior wing yellow. 

2. Eresia Alsina. 

Female. Upperside. Dark brown. Anterior wing 
with a broad band from the base : crossed obliquely by 
three bands, the first of which (the longest) , before the 
middle, is divided into four by the nervures, the second 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869.— PART I. (APRIL). D 



34 Mr. W. C. Hewitson on 

beyond the middle divided into five, and the third near 
the apex trifid : besides these there is a submarginal 
band of five spots, all orange-yellow. Posterior wing 
with the costal and outer margins broadly dark brown ; 
a submarginal band of seven orange-yellow spots. 

Underside as above. 

Exp. 2^ inches. 

Hah. — Nicaragua. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Most nearly allied to E. Phillyra. 

3. Euhagis Sosthenes. 

Male. Upperside. Glossy green. Anterior wing 
with the outer margin dark brown, widest at the apex 
and anal angle. Posterior wing with a large brown 
triangular spot at the anal angle, the outer margin dark 
brown, narrow. 

Underside. Anterior wing rufous-brown, with six large 
white spots : three small spots of brilliant light blue, two 
within and one outside the cell. Posterior wing white, 
crossed by five rufous bands, the first near the base, the 
fifth submarginal and united with the fourth at both 
margins : two small black spots at the anal angle, one of 
which is marked with blue : a linear spot of blue below 
this. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hah. — Nicaragua. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

This species difi'ers little on the underside from E. 
Chryseis of Bates. 

4. Hcetera polita. 

Female. Upperside. Transparent, very glossy on both 
sides, the margins dark brown, narrow, the nervures 
brown, very fine. Anterior wing crossed by three very 
pale brown bands, the first short within the cell, the 
second before the middle crosses the cell extending to 
near the inner margin below the middle, the third from 
the costal margin beyond its middle to the anal angle . 
Posterior wing with a submarginal band of pale brown : 
a round black eye-like spot at the apex, marked by a 
white spot, with a similar white spot on each side of it. 

Exp. 2\ inches. 

Hah . — Nicaragua. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitaon. 



New Diurnal Lepidoptera. 35 

5. Mesos&mia Asa. 

Male. Upperside. Dark brown. Anterior wing with 
the base, which is brilliant blue, marked by a band in the 
cell J a spot below it, the usual round eye-like spot (which 
has three white dots), and a band below this, all black. 
Posterior wing brilliant blue, with a broad dark brown 
outer margin. 

Underside. Gray-brown. Each wing with the central 
black eye bordered with green, with three white dots on 
the anterior wing, and one on the posterior wing : pre- 
ceded on both wings by a short band of gray and dark 
brown, and followed by a similar band which crosses both 
wings, by a broad band of dark brown, and a series of 
submarginal brown spots. 

Female. Dark brown. Anterior wing crossed beyond 
the middle by a broad white band : the central black spot 
with a band of yellow on each side. Posterior wing mark- 
ed as on the underside (but without the central spot), 
which does not differ from the male. 

Exp. 1 j^ inch. 

Hah. — Nicaragua. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Near to M. Telegone, the underside of which is nearly 
the same. 

6. Nymphidium OncBum. 

Male. Upperside. Dark brown, the outer margins 
with the usual arched black spots, bordered with white ; 
a large triangular space of white common to both wings ; 
each wing* with a large orange spot at the anal angle. 
Anterior wing with three large orange spots near the 
base, and a spot of white at the apex of the large trian- 
gular space of white. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hah. — Nicaragua. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Nearest to N. Lysimon, but differs from the other 
species in having conspicuous orange spots near the base 
of the anterior wing. 

The other new species in Mr. Belt's collection are 
small, and must be left for illustration by figures. 



(37 ) 



IX. Contrihutions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon 
Valley (Coleoptera^ Prionides) . By H. W. Bates, 
F.Z.S., Pres. Ent. Soc. 

[Bead 15th March, 1869.] 

The following pages contain a description of the genera 
and species of Longicorn Coleoptera, Tribe Prionides, 
obtained by me in the region of the Amazons^ and are a 
continuation of a series of papers commenced in the 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History^ in July, 1861. 
Those papers completed the tribe Lamiides, leaving for 
subsequent publication the tribes Prionides and Ceramly- 
cides. My reasons for postponing the continuation of 
the workj on the completion of the first part^ were the 
want of a general classification of the Longicorns founded 
on a study of the whole family, and a conviction of the 
inconvenience to science of partial classifications appli- 
cable only to a single fauna. Such a classification I was 
compelled to invent for the Lamiides group ; which, 
although it seemed to suit well the material I had before 
me, I afterwards found impossible to reconcile with the 
arrangements proposed by other writers, probably equally 
well-suited to other faunas. This was especially the case 
with the classification adopted by Mr. Pascoe for the 
Longicorns of the Malay Archipelago, and the incon- 
venience to which I have alluded was felt in this way, 
that it was ipapossible, with two such distinct arrange- 
ments, to institute those comparisons which all Naturalists 
find so interesting, between the faunas of these two equa- 
torial regions. The work which all Coleopterists inter- 
ested in this family have been so long expecting, the 
eighth volume of Lacoi-daire's "Genera" has at length 
appeared, containing a new and well-considered classifi- 
cation of the family, and there is no longer need to delay 
the description of my collections. In so difficult a group 
it would be presumptuous to alter this classification, 
without a laborious study of material, as large as that 
which has been at the command of Professor Lacordaire ; 
and to do so in a partial manner would hinder rather 
than forward the progress of our knowledge of the 
group ; I shall, therefore, adopt it implicitly in the 
following descriptions, although I believe, in some 
points, it is far from natural in its arrangement. 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART I. (APEIL) . 



38 Mr. H. W. Bates on 

According to Lacordaire, the Longicorns are divisible 
into three tribes ; the Lepturides, formerly considered by 
most authors as a fourth tribe, being sunk to the rank of 
a subordinate group under the Ceramhycides. Having 
traced the successive modifications of the forms allied to 
Lepturides, in the order given by Lacordaire, I have 
recognized the justice of this arrangement, and the error 
of the opinion expressed in the introduction to the 
Lamiides of the Amazons, on the same subject. The 
Prionides are distinguished from the two other tribes by 
the pronotum being distinct from the flanks of the pro- 
thorax, and by the anterior coxae lying in transversely- 
elongated sockets. In common with the Ceramhycides, 
they differ from the Lamiides, by the palpi never termi- 
nating in points, and the anterior tibiee being simple 
instead of grooved on their inner sides. 

The number of Prionides obtained by me from the 
Amazons is only twenty- six ; a small proportion of the 
whole number found in Tropical America, namely 166. 
A great many, however, described from other quarters, 
will probably be found to be varieties or opposite sexes 
of other species ; in confirmation of which opinion I may 
point to the seven false species of one genus only, Pyrodes, 
which I have reduced to synonyms in the following 
descriptions. But the equatorial plains seem to be less 
rich in the group than the borders of the tropics, or the 
mountainous regions. The species are mostly nocturnal 
in their habits, and of great rarity. When found 
in situ, it is generally on the trunks, or under the 
bark, of the largest forest trees. They fly abroad at 
night, and are sometimes overtaken by a sudden storm, 
and cast into lakes or rivers, whence the swell carries 
them to the sandy beaches ; several of the species here 
recorded have been found under these circumstances. 
I have not thought it necessary to insert in the Prionides 
the sections and "tribus^^ of Lacordaire; the genera 
follow in the order of his classification. 

I. Prionides abekrantes. 

Genus Parandra. 

Latr. Hist. Nat. des Crust, et Ins. xi. p. 262. 

1. Para7idra gracillima, n. sp. 

P. elongata, angustata, mandibula dentibus molaribus 
basalibus contiguis, apice tridentatis, orbitu oculorum 



Amazonian Prionides. 39 

valde elevato acuto^ thorace regulariter et forte an- 
gustato ab apice usque ad basin, elytris fortiter punc- 
tatis. 

Long. S (mandib. incl.) 9 lin. 

A distinct species remarkable for the gradual tapering 
of the thorax from apex to base ; so that near the base 
it is no broader than the length. The mandibles agree 
in shape with the group to which P. mandibularis of Perty 
belongs, that is, they have in the cJ a very large basal or 
molar tooth, the opposing teeth meeting in the centre, 
near the apex is an acute tooth, and the apex itself, being 
notched, forms two others; above, each mandible has a 
sharply-defined triangular depression, and the surface is 
rather coarsely punctured, and black. The submentum 
is not separated from the gula or throat by an impressed 
line ; it is very broad, blackish, opaque, and is covered 
with very large and shallow circular pits, the anterior 
edge has not a raised border or impressed line, and the 
anterior angles are broad, and very obtuse. The orbit 
behind the eyes is very abruptly elevated, its upper edge 
being above the level of the eyes. The head and thorax 
are finely punctured, the elytra coarsely punctured, and 
the whole surface less shining than in the allied species. 

I took one example only of this species (the only Pa- 
randra found on the Amazons) at Ega, under the bark 
of a dead tree. 

The genus Parandra has been excluded from the family 
of Longicorns, by some modern authors, and restored to 
its place recently by Lacordaire. It may perhaps be 
objected to the arrangement of the latter, that he includes 
it in an artificial group termed '' Prionides aherrants/' 
with a number of forms such as Hypoceplialus , Sceleocan- 
tha, &c., with which it has nothing in common, except 
the fact of being aberrant. Parandra would seem rather 
to be an extreme development of the Mallodon type of 
Prionides; its chief peculiarity, namely, linear tarsi, with 
an onychium furnished with two bristles between the 
tarsal claws, being lessened in importance by the fact o 
a typical Prionid of the Mallodon group, Hystatus, 
(Thoms.), possessing a distinct onychium. I have more- 
over noticed that the onychium is absent, or extremely 
reduced and destitute of bristles, in at least one species, 
the North American P. brunnea, F. Another charac- 
ter of the genus, the distinct fourth joint of the tarsi. 



40 Mr. H. W. Bates on 

doubtless arises from the absence of lobes in tlie third 
jointj for in all Prionides where these lobes are reduced 
in amplitude,, the fourth joint is more or less visible. 
JSTo importance is to be attached to the form of the ligula, 
this point being excessively variable in the Prionides. 



II. Prionides veri. 

Cohort 1. Suhterranei. 

Genus Psalidognathus. 
G. R. Gray, in GrifiBth^s An. King. Ins. ii. 115. 

1. Psalidognathus Incas. 

P. Incas, Thorns. Arc. Nat. p. 42. 
P. Limenius, Erichs. Archiv. fiir Nat. 1847, i. 139, ?. 

$ . Ps. cupreo-violaceus ; a femina Ps. Friendii dif- 
fert, 1° antenuis articulo 3io rugoso-jDunctato, 2° 
elytris magis subtiliter vermiculato-rugosis, et magis 
distincte tricostatis, 3° prosterno fortiter scabroso. 

One example, a female, obtained at Tabatinga, on the 
frontier of Brazil and Peru. 

Cohort 2. Sylvani, 

Genus Enoplocerus. 
Serville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1832, p. 146. 

1. Enoplocerus armillahis. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. ii. 622; Oliv. Ent. QQ, pi. v. f. 17, $ . 

E. maximus, elongato-oblongus, brunneus, cinereo- 

tomentosus, elytris cinnamoneis nudis, antennis 

pedibusque nigris nitidis, S scabrosis, $ Isevi- 
bus. 

Long. unc. $ 3-4i, ? 3^. 

I obtained three examples only of this species ; on the 
Upper Amazons, , on the trunks of dead treeg„ 



Amazonian Prionides. 41 

Genus Orthomegas. 
Serville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1832, p. 149. 

1. Orthomegas cmnamoneus. 
Lin. Syst. Nat. ii. 623; Drury, 111. i. 89. t. 40. f. 2, ? . 

0. oblongo-linearis, cinnamoneus, aureo-fulvo sericeus, 
laevis ; thorace lateribus pone medium dente magno 
obliquo, antice denticulis duobus vel tribus armato. 

Long. 22-30 lin. {$ , ? ). 

Found occasionally, in repose on leaves in the forest, 
throughout the Amazons region. 

Genus Mackodontia. 
Serville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1832, p. 140. 

1. Macrodontia cervicornis. 
Lin. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 65 ; Oliv. Ent. 66, jdI. 2, f. 8. 

M. magna, depressa, rufo nigroque varia, elytris flavo- 

rufis, lineis plagisque nigris variegatis. 
Long. unc. 24-4. {^, ? .) 

A rare insect on the Amazons ; on dead trees, banks 
of the Tapajos, and at Ega. 

2. Macrodontia crenata. 
Oliv. Ent. 66. p. 27, pi. 12. f. 45, $ . 

c?. A $ differt spina anteriore thoracis brevissima, 
et mandibulis multo longioribus. Oblonga, depressa, 
fusco-castanea, elytris cinnamoneis. Caput supra 
concavum, grosse punctatum, mandibulis capite ses- 
qui longioribus, triquetris, cum antennarum basi (ar- 
ticuli reliqui desunt) nigris. Thorax transversus, 
quadratus, basi valde angustatus, lateribus inter spi- 
nas rectis, crenulatis, angulo antico spina minuta 
acuta oblique antrorsum spectante armato, spina pos- 
tica majore sed brevi, angulis posticis distinctis acutis ; 
supra creberrime punctatus, medio plaga longitudinal! 
lineisque aliquot elevatis nitidis, sparsim punctatis. 
Elytra marginibus pone humeros valde explanatis, 
margine foliaceo usque ad apicem extenso sed sensim 



42 Mr. H. W. Bates ow 

angustato^ apice late rotundato, angulo suturali 
spinoso ; supra opaca^ subtiliter alutacea, cinnamonea, 
absque lineis elevatis. Corpus subtus nitidum, im- 
punctatum, castaneum. Pedes nigro-castanei^ nitidi. 
Long. $ (mandib. incl.) 28 lin. 

I am not aware that the male of this very rare species 
has been heretofore described. It differs greatly from 
the female in the punctuation of the thorax, and in the 
size of the antero-lateral spine. A similar sexual differ- 
ence exists in M. Jlavipennis (Chevrolat), the female of 
which is named serridens in Chevrolat's collection, and 
in M. Dejeanii (Gory); the male in all these species 
having a finely punctured opaque thorax, with a glossy 
space in the middle, and the female being uniformly 
scabrous-punctate, slightly shining. 

I met with one example only of M. crenata on the 
Amazons, near Bga. 

Genus Titanus. 
Serv. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1832, p. 133. 

1. Titanus giganteus. 
Linn. Mant. p. 531; Drury, 111. iii. p. 73, pi. 49. f. 1, ? . 

T. ( ^ , ? ) fusco-castaneus, thorace lateribus trispinosis, 
supra punctato-rugoso, medio late impunctato, tibiis 
(J intus multispinosis, ? Isevibus, antennis utroque 
sexu dimidium corporis hand excedentibus, seg- 
mento ultimo ventrali cJ in medio late exciso, ? 
integro. 
Long. 4^-6 unc. 

In addition to the sexual difierences mentioned in this 
short diagnosis, may be mentioned the much greater 
width of the tarsi in the ^ than in the ? . The tarsi of 
the $ are of remarkable width, and the second joint is 
transverse quadrangular, instead of triangular as in the 
? and in Longicorns generally. On the Amazons this 
colossal Longicorn was found only near Manaos, on the 
Rio Negro ; where it is occasionally picked up on the 
shores of the river after a stormy night, the insect being 
cast into the water whilst flying across.* 

* In the system of Lacordaire the group Ancistrotides follows the Tita- 
nides, but in a note on a subsequent page (Genera, viii. p. 163) he justly 
doubts whether they would not be better placed near the group Tragoso- 
mides. The following new species of Acanthinodera (group Ancistrotides) 
tends in favour of this emendation. 



Afmmonian Prionides. 43' 

Genus Ctenoscelis. 
Serv. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1832, p. 134. 

1. Otenoscelis ater. 
Oliv. Ent. &Q, p. 11, pi. 7, f. 24, $ . 

Ct. piceo-niger, tarsis posticis lobis angustissimis et 
longe spinosis ; elytris apice apud suturam sinuatis, 
angulo suturali spinoso. 

Long. 3^-31 unc. {$ . ? ). 

$ . Thorax minutissime et creberrime punctatus, disco 
utrinque plagis angustis tribus grosse scabrosis 
nitidis ; antennae longitudine corporis, intus denti- 
culatge ; tarsi lobis intermediis et posticis spinosis. 

9 . Thorax omnino grosse scabrosus ; antenna dimi- 
dium corporis attingentes, punctatse ; tarsi lobis 
omnibus spinosis. 

I obtained many specimens of this fine species at Ega, 
on the Upper Amazons, on the trunks of large felled 
trees. 

2. Ctenoscelis Dyrrhacus. 

Buquet, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1843, p. 235, pi. 9, 
fig- 1. c?. 

Ct. piceo-niger, tarsorum lobis ov&;tis, hand spinosis ; 

thorace utroque sexu scabroso, medio laevi, nitido ; 

antennis articulo basali breviori et validiori ; elytris 

apice nee sinuatis nee dentatis. 
Long. 3 unc. 4 lin. — 4 unc. 4 lin. {S ? ) ; lat. elytr. 
(c?) 18 lin. 

AcomtMnodera hihamata, n. sp. 

(? . Oblonga, depressa, rufo-castanea, tibiis tarsisque flavo-castaneis, 
capite, thorace, scutello et pectore quam A. Cumingii, $ , minus dense 
flavo-lanuginosis, puncturis grossis capitis thoracisque patentibus. 
Antennae robust®, leviter serratse, corpore paulo longiores, articulis 
subaequalibus, primo punctate, reliquis laevibus. Thorax 'transversus, 
lateribus utrinque antice valde bihamatis. Elytra oblongo-quadrata, 
depressa, marginibus explanatis, apice sub-truncata, angulo suturali 
spinoso, supra subtiliter alutacea et elevato-reticulata costis quatuor 
vix perspicuis. Pedes elongati, graciles, valde compressi, sparsim 
hirsuti ; tarsis elongatis, linearibus, articuli tertii lobis angustissimis 
acutis. 

Long. 11 lin. 

Eab. — Mendoza. A Dom. Ed. Steiaheil recepta. 



44 Mr. H. W. Bates on 

(^ . Antennae longitudine corporis^ articulis basalibus 
tribus aspere punctatis_, omnibus intus denticulatis ; 
tarsi omnes lati_, lobis rotundatis. 

9 . Antennge dimidium corporis attingentes, tenui- 
ter punctatae, nee denticulatae ; tarsi lobis com- 
pressis. 

The thorax is coarsely scabrous on the sides in both 
sexes, and has a broad shining space in the middle, 
finely punctured ; the basal joint of the antennge is 
shorter and thicker than in any other known species. 
The female has not before'been described. 

The species occurred at Santarem, Obydos and Manaos, 
on the Amazons. 

3. Ctenoscelis Nausithous. 

Buquet, Ann. Soc. Bnt. Fr. 1843, p. 236, pi. 9, 

f. 2, S. 

Ct. gracilior, thorace angustior; piceo-niger, thorace 
scabroso, spatio mediano Isevi subtiliter punctato ; 
elytris apice rotundatis, angulis suturalibus dentatis. 

Long. 3 unc. 4 lin. 

(J . Antennae corpore longiores, articulis extus 
breviter tuberculatis, tribus basalibus subtiliter punc- 
tatis, reliquis Igevibus. 

$ . Antennae dimidium corporis superantes, spar- 
sim punctatse; tarsi lati, lobis posticis acutis. 

The shape of this species is much more slender than 
in the rest of the genus ; the thorax of the female is 
scarcely to be distinguished from that of the same sex in 
Ct. Dyri'hacns, but the elytra differ in being much nar- 
rower, and especially more parallel- sided ; the tibiee also 
are relatively longer, and more slender. 

I met with one example only of this species, a female, 
at Serpa, near the mouth of the River Madeira. Not 
being acquainted with the male, I have drawn up the above 
imperfect diagnosis from the description of M. Buquet, 
who obtained the insect from Bolivia. 

Lacordaire founds his generic characters of Ctenoscelis, 
in great measure, on the sexual differences in the punc- 
tuation of the thorax, as shown in Ct. ater and acantho- 
ptis J this part of his diagnosis will no longer be appli- 
cable, as Ct. Dyrrhaciis and Nausithous show no such 
differences. 



Amazonian Prionides. 45 

Genus Ialyssus. 
J. Thomson, Syst. Ceramb. p. 296, 

1. Ialyssus tuherculatus. 
Oliv. Ent. QQ, p. 20, pi. 6, f. 22. 

I. oblongus, fusco-castaneus, elytris (basi scabrosa ex- 
cepta) rufo-ochraceis, Isevibus, opacis, angulis sutu- 
ralibus spinosis ; antennarum articulis primo et 
tertio longitudine sequalibus. 

c?. Thorax subtiliter creberrime punctato-rugosus, 
opacus, disco utrinque plaga triangiilari lineisque 
duabus, et basi linea transversali, elevato-scabrosis, 
nitidis. 

? . Thorax omnino scabrosus. 
Long. 2 unc 4 lin. 

I found one example only, a male, of this rare species ; 
at Ega, washed up on a sandy beach, after a storm, on 
the river Teffe, 

Genus Mallodonhoplus. 

J. Thomson, Classif. des Ceramb. p. 320; Lacord. Genera, 
viii. p. 117. 

Distinguished from the genus Mallodon by the femora 
and tibiee, at least of the anterior legs, being armed with 
rows of short denticulationsj and by the scabrous punc- 
tuation of the thorax. The portion of Lacordaire's 
definition relating to the mandibles, will have to be 
modified, to include the following species, which is 
undoubtedly congeneric with the type species, M. 
nohilis. 

1. Mallodonhoplus crassidens, n. sp. 

M. oblongus, paullulum convexus, piceo-niger, capite 
grossissime punctato, labro antice ligulaque fulvo- 
hirsutis, mandibulis capite brevioribus ( $ ) extus 
a basi valde rotundato-dilatatis vel tumidis, apice 
acutissimis, supra scabrosis, intus concavis vix hir- 
sutis et margine interiori medio dilatato quadri- 
dentato ; antennis dimidium corporis superantibus, 



46 Mr. H. W. Bates on 

articulo primo grosse punctato ; thorace quadrato, 
supi'a scabrosOj in medio elevationibus indistinctis 
duabus Iffivioribus ; elytris vix nitidis, passim crebre 
minus profunde punctatis, angulis suturalibus spino- 
sis ; sternis omnibus grosse punctatis, pedibus anticis 
denticulatisj tarsis piceo-rufis ; ventris segmentis sin- 
gulis valde convexis. 

Long. (^ (mand. incl.) 2 unc. 4 lin. 

Very similar in shape and sculpture to M. nohilis, 
Thoms., from Venezuela, tlie thorax being almost exactly 
of the same outline and surface ; it differs in being 
entirely black, in the absence of fulvous hairs from the 
epistome, and in the great thickness of the mandibles. 
These organs are much shorter than the head, and are 
abruptly dilated externally, the apex of each ending in 
a long acute point, and the inner edge about the middle 
being advanced, and ai-med with four short broad teeth, 
nearly as in Mallodon spinibarhis. The elytra have a 
marked convexity from base to apex. 

I met with only one example of this species, at Ega^ 
cast up on a sandy beach, after a storm. 

Genus Mallodon. 
Serville; Lacord. Genera, viii. p. 125. 

1. Mallodon spinibarhis. 
Lin. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 67. 

M. piceo-niger, elytris castaneis, vel omnino fusco- 
niger, capite grosse punctato, genis sub mandibulis 
prolongatis acutis ; thorace plagis politis septem, in- 
terstitiis in c? subtiliter crebre punctatis, in ? 
scabrosis ; elytris subtilissime sparsim punctatis ; 
processu prosternali piano, c? crebre punctato, ? 
glabro. 

A widely-distributed insect, found sometimes in great 
numbers, under the loose bark of felled trees ; it is very 
unstable in the outline of the thorax in both sexes, but it 
may always be distinguished from the nearest allied 
species by the angles of the cheeks below the mandibles 
forming a simple point, instead of being bifid, I have 
specimens from Mexico, Cayenne, and Rio Janeiro, as 
well as from the Amazons. 



Amazonian Prionides. 47 

2. Mallodon hajulus. 

M. hajulus, Erichs. Consp. Ins. Col. Peru. p. 138. 

M. occvpitale, Thomson, Physisj I. p. 93, ?. 

$ . " OblonguSj depressus, fusco-niger, nitidus, ge- 
narum processu bidentato : prothoracis disco polito, 
medio serie punctorum obsoletorum longitudinali 
notatOj lateribus punctato-rugosis, margine obtuse 
crenulato, angulis posterioribus denticulo acutiusculo 
terminatis, elytris punctulatis. Long. 1" 5"'." 
(Erichs.) . 

$ . Mandibulis brevibus, supra et infra grosse punc- 
tatis ; capite grosse confluenter punctato ; thorace 
plagis septem elevatis politis, omnibus (exteriori 
utrinque excepta) basi conjunctis, interstitiis crebre 
grossius punctatis ; elytris distincte punctatis ; pro- 
cessu prosternali convexo, vix punctato. 

Eah. — St. Paulo, Amazons. 

I think it extremely probable that M. occipitale, 
Thoms., from Venezuela, belongs to the same species : 
specimens before me referable to this species differ only 
in the finer punctuation of the elytra. Mallodon hajulus, 
of Erichson, has been generally cited as the $ of Chias- 
inetes Limce of Guerin, but Erichson^s diagnosis lends no 
support to such an inference ; the terms " depressus — 
genarum processu bidentato •'■' being quite inapplicable to 
Chiasmetes j on the contrary, they fit the present species 
of Mallodon which I found in the same tract of country 
where Erichson^s insect was discovered by the traveller 
Tschudi. M. Thomson makes no mention, in his mono- 
graph of Mallodon, of the form of the anterior angles of 
the cheeks, without which it is scarcely possible to give 
satisfactory descriptions of the species. 



Genus Stictosomus. 
Serville; Lacord. Genera, viii. p. 144. 

A remarkable genus, distinguished by its oblong-linear 
depressed form^ long acute mandibles curving downwards 



48 Mr. H. W. Bates 



on 



and a little backwards towards the apex, and by the ex- 
tremely long claw-joint of the tarsi ; the third joint of 
the antennge is nearly as long as the four following taken 
together, and is thickened and cylindrical. 



1. Stictosomus semieostatus. 
Serv. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1832, p. 153. 

St. oblongus depressus, niger, passim grosse punctatus, 

elytris costis quatuor distinctis. 
Long. 1 unc. 10 lin. (J. 

One example, found near Montes Aureos, in the in- 
terior, East of Para. 

Genus Polyoza. 
Serville ; Lacord. Genera, viii. p. 152. 

1. Polyoza lineata, n. sp. 

P. oblongo-linearis, rufo-fulva, elytris utrinque sutura 
et carinis quatuor elevatis, interstitiis nigris : an- 
tennis ( J" ) dimidium corporis vix superantibus, arti- 
culis 3 — 8 basi laminas elongatas emittentibus. 

Long. 11 lin. (c?). 

Resembles in form P. Lacordairei ; the head, palpi, 
mandibles, and eyes offer scarcely any difference : the 
thorax has on each side three teeth, the foremost one 
very small, and the hindmost pointing towards the 
shoulders of the elytra ; its surface is sculptured in a 
raised reticulate pattern. The elytra offer a raised 
suture and four carinas, the interstices of which are of a 
dark colour, the whole surface is finely rugose-punctate, 
and the sutural angle acute, but not spinose. The an- 
tennae are very much shorter than in P. Lacordairei, and 
the long foliaceous appendages to the joints placed more 
closely together. The underface and legs are finely 
punctate-granulate and hairy, and of a paler hue. 

One example, taken in a dead tree at Ega. 



Amazonian Prionides. 49 

Cohort 3. Poecilosomi. 

Genus Mallaspis. 
Serville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1832, p. 188. 

The characters of this genus, in Lacordaire^s " Genera,'* 
derived from the antennee, especially those of the $ , 
are no longer applicable, since species have lately been 
discovered * which differ frora the types in this respect. 
In fact, there is now no character to distinguish the genua 
from Pyrodes, except the pilose scutellum. 

* These are as follows. 

Mallaspis Beltii, u. sp. 

Species distinctissima, antennis in utroque sexu articulis linearibus, 
colore ? a (J valde diverso ; mesosterno et metasteruo sutura dis- 
tincte divisis. 

^ Long. 18-20 lin. 

Oblonga, convexa, postice attenuata, asneo-castanea, capite thoraceque 
seneo-fuscis, antennis tibiis et tarsis rufo-castaneis. Caput magnum, 
elongatissimum, subremote modice punctatum, lateribus parallelis, 
fronte, late sulcata. Thorax pone medium valde dentatus, antice iri 
linea subrectus, angustatus, minute irregulariter denticulatus, pone 
dentem sinuatus, angulis posticis nullis, supra aBqualis, modice crebre 
punctatus, subnitidus, lateribus rugulosis. Elytra parte basali con- 
vexa, iDostice declivia, apice oblique truncata, angulo sutm-ali pro- 
minenti acuto, humeris antice protrusis, supra prope basin vermicu- 
lato-punctata, postice subtiliter punctato-coriacea. Corpus subtus 
ffineum, griseo-tomentosum ; pedes rufo-castanei, femoribus obscu- 
rioribus. Antennae corjjore paulo longiores, rufae, articiilis a 3° 
omnibus linearibus, 3° pauUo latiori sed lineari, ultimis duobus basi 
intus spinosis. Scutellum aureo-tomentosum. 

$ 15 lin. Forma (J similis ; postice minus angustatus, capite breviori ; 
thorace et elytris basi fortiter rugoso-puuctatis, colore omnino satu- 
rate-feneo vel obscure-cyaneo, antennis pedibusque cyaneis ; corpore 
subtus glabro. Antenna corporis dimidio longitudine Eequales, arti- 
culis linearibus, c}'aneis. Processus prosterni canaliculatus. 

Hah. — Chontales, Nicaragua. Dom. Belt invenit. 

Mallaspis Salvini, n. sp. 

M. Beltii proxime affinis ; eadem differentia sexuum formaqiie protho- 

racis et antennarum. 
{? Long. 15-16 lin. Oblonga, depressa, postice attenuata, supra tota 

Isete anea, subtus aureo-refulgens. Caput thorax et elytra ut in M. 

Beltii, sed illud grossius pmictatimi nitidum, hsec prope apices minus 

attenuata, obtusius rotundata. Antennas corpore longiores, articulis 

duobus ultimis basi tuberculatis, rufae. Pedes rufi, femoribus sneo- 

tinctis. 
? 15 lin. Jlf. Beltii ? forma et colore simillima ; caput multo grossius 

rugoso-pimctatum ; antennae omnino violacese ; processus prosterni 

haud canaliculatus. 
Hah. — Costa Rica. A Dom. Salvin receptus. 

TKANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART I. (apRIL) . E 



60 Mr. H. W. Bates on 

1. Mallaspis scutellaris. 

Oliv. Ent. QQ, p. U, pi. 2, a. b. 

M. obscure senea, elytris basi excepta cinnamoneis, 
thorace lateribus antice rotundatis et multidenticu- 
latis, antennis articulis 4-7 basi et apice 8-11 totis 
rufis^ c? corpore multo longioribus articulis com- 
pressis denticulatis, $ brevioribus articulis dilata- 
to-compressis. 

Extremely rare ; found only at Nauta, on tlie Upper 
Amazons. 

Genus Pyegdes. 
Serville ; Lacord. Genera, viii. p. 177. 

1 . Pyrodes pulch errimus . 

P. pulclierrimus, Perty, Del. An. Art. Bras. p. 8Q, t. 17, 

f . 4, ? . 

P. fastuosus, Ericbs. Consp. Ins. Col. Peru. p. 139, ? . 

P. heterocerus, Erichs. Consp. Ins. Col. Peru. p. 139, c?. 

P. antennatus, White, Cat. Long. Brit. Mus. p. 51, pi. 2, 

f. 6, S; Lucas, Voy. de Castelnau, Ins. pi. 

10, f. 8, S. 

P. jpetalocerus, White, Cat. Long. Brit. Mus. p. 50, S • 

S . Medio valde convexus, colore variabilis, fusco- 
ferrugineus vel seneo-fuscus, vel antice ferrugineo- 
cupreus, postice ferruginous; scutello apice prolon- 
gate ; antennis articulo tertio magno lato compresso, 
azureo, reliquis rufis ; capite thorace et scutello 
crebre eequaliter punctatis ; elytris vermiculato-coria- 
ceis; femoribus cyaneis. 

? . Azureus vel cyaneus, elytris rugulosis nitidis, 
fascia lata ante medium flavescenti-alba ; antennis 
cyaneis, articulo tertio simplici lineari. Variat thorace 
maculis duabus rufis. 

This beautiful and singular species was not infrequent 
at Ega. The two sexes, as here described, have always 
been considered distinct species ; but the fact that all of 
one form are males, and all of the other females, and that 
they are invariably found together, on the trunks of trees, 
induces me to consider them as pairs, although I never 
ound them in copula. 



Amazonian Prionides. 51 

2. Pyrodes Sniithianus. 
White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 12. 

P. pulcherrimo ( ? ) forma similis, thorace latiori, lateri- 
bus antice rotundato-dilatatis. Cupreo-eeneus, elytris 
aureo-viridescentibus ; antennis brevibus tenuibus ; 
thorace elytris latiori, cum capite et scutello crebre 
distincte punctatis ; scutello elongate ; elytris sutura 
et costis duabus utrinque elevatis, crebre rugosis. 

Long. 15 lin. ( $ ) . 

I found one specimen of this species on the foliage of 
a low tree, at Caripi, near Para. Unfortunately it was 
not reserved for my private collection, and I have drawn 
up the above diagnosis from the type specimen in the 
British Museum, which was found by Mr. J. P. G. 
Smith, also at Caripi. 

3. Pyrodes formosus, n. sp. 

P. 'pulcherrimo (?) forma simillimus, colore omnino 
laete saturato-c^ruleus, plagis duabus elytrorum 
violaceis exceptis; caput thorax et scutellum sub- 
opaci, confertim punctati ; antennae ut in P. pul- 
cherrimo ( $ ) lineares, vel prope apicem incrassatse, 
cyanese; elytra fortiter, prope apices vix minus 
forte, vermiculato-rugulosa, angulis suturalibus haud 
productis, nitida ; corpus subtus, et pedes, saturate 
casrulei. 
Long. 15-18 lin. ? . 

Two female examples only of this beautiful species 
were found, near St. Paulo, Upper Amazons. In the 
British Museum there is a specimen from Cuenca, Equa- 
dor, entirely of a beautiful greenish-blue colour, and 
rather more coarsely sculptured. 

4. Pyrodes graiiosus, n. sp. 

P. hifasciato, Linn., affinis, minor, colore $ valde di- 
verse, et antennis distincte 11-articulatis. 

^ . Oblongus, laete eeneo-viridis, nitidissimus, elytris 
testaceo-translucentibus. Caput et mandibula spar- 
sim punctata, illo antice aureo, sulco frontali fundo 
laevi. Thorax quadratus, lateribus denticulatis, 

£2 



52 Mr. H. W. Bates on 

medio fortiter dentatis^ angulis posticis dentiformi- 
bus, supra grosse punctatuSj disco impressione raagna 
triloba. Scutellum leeve. Elytra oblongo-quadrata, 
tertia parte basali grosse punctato-rugosa, dein 
subito crebre subtiliter rugosa ; viridi-senea, basi et 
medio testaceo translucentia. Corpus subtus glaber- 
rimum, prosterno gibbo^ laevi. Antennae corpore 
paulo longiores, robustge^ filiformes, nigrae, articulis 
4 basalibus cupreis. Pedes rufi^ genicuiis fuscis. 
Long. 6 lin. 

? . Oblongus, saturate cyaneus, capite thoraceque 
grossius punctatis^ vix nitidis^ elytris basi tantum 
micantibus^ miniato-rubris^ fascia sub-basali curvata 
purpureo-nigra. Sulcus frontalis fundo Itevis. Thorax 
ut ■ in c? quadratus^ -lateribus medio dente forte 
armatisj angulis posticis dentiformibus, punctatus 
scabrosuSj medio impressione magna triloba. Scu- 
tellum grosse punctatum, opacum. Elytra oblonga, 
basi convexa^ prope basin fortiter punctato-rugosa, 
dein subito subtiliter rugosa. Antennee corpore 
paulo breviores, minus robustge^ filiformes^ cyaneae, 
basi cupreo-violaceae^ articulis 3-7 supra sulcatis. 
Corpus subtus cyaneum^nitidissimum. Pedes cyanei, 
genicuiis et tibiis aj)ice violaceis, tarsis rufis. 

Long. 10-12 lin. 

This beautiful species is readily distinguished in the 
female from P. Irifasciatus by the elytra having only one 
dark fascia^ and that near the base^ commencing below 
the shoulder^ and curving towards the suture^ which it 
does not reach ; the rest of the elytral surface is of a 
clear red-lead colour^ or dark vermillion, almost opaque, 
except near the base, where it has a metallic lustre. The 
slender 11 -jointed antennse distinguish it at once from 
the female of P. nigricornis, Guer., besides the colour. 
I obtained three female specimens of precisely similar 
colours, two of which are in my own collection. The 
males of these closely-allied species are less easily to be 
distinguished ; I obtained only one example with the 
three females ; but have seen a second, similar in size, in 
Mr. Fry^s collection, also from Para. The antennse are 
hotably more slender than in the ($ of P. nigricornis, 
and the terminal joint is much less elongate, being very 
little longer than the penultimate, whilst it is half as long 



( 



Amazonian Prionides. §3 

again in P. nigricornis. The species seems peculiar to 
the neighbourhood of Para. P. hifasciatus is found at 
Surinam and Demerara, and all the female specimens I 
have examined have the two terminal joints of the an- 
tenn£e blended into one elongate joint, with a trace of 
the articulation, 

5, Pyrodes nocUcornis, u. sp. 

? . P. hifasciato simillimus, gracilior, antennis 10- 
articulatis, thoracis angulis posticis haud prominenti- 
bus. Oblongus, nigro-cyaneus, supra vix nitidus, sub- 
tus politissimus. Caput et thorax grosse crebre 
punctati, hoc quadrate an gusto, in medio paulo dila- 
tato et valde dentate, angulis posticis haud pro- 
minentibus, supra impressione profunda triloba. 
Elytra postice haud attenuata, medio vix rotundata, 
supra praecipue versus basin et suturam grosse rugoso- 
punctata, laete miniata, fascia lata communi prope 
basin (margines haud attingente) alteraque apicali 
(cum precedente vitta lata suturali conjuncta) cya- 
neo-violaceis. Pedes cyanei, violaceo-micantes. 
Antennae corpore paulo breviores, graciles, articulo 
decimo precedentibus latiori, colore cupreo-violaceae, 
articulo tertio haud sulcato. 

Long. 11 lin., lat. 6 lin. ? . 

One example, taken at St. Paulo, Amazons. Very 
similar in form and colour to P. hifasciatus ; differs in 
the tenth antennal joint being short and ovate, without 
trace of constriction in the middle, and also in the 
absence of projecting hind angles to the thorax. 



6. Pyrodes nigricornis. 

P. nigricornis, Guerin, Verhandl. zool.-bot. Verein zu 
Wien, 1855, p. 598, c?. 

P. ruhrozonatus , Lucas, Voy. de Castelnau, Entom. 
p. 180, pi. xi. f. 2 (1857) S . 

c?. Breviter oblongus, variat vel fulvo-testaceus 
geneo tinctus, antennis (basi excepta) violaceo- 
nigris, vel aureo-viridis splendens, elytris semifascia 
rufa, vel cupreo-violaceus, fascia elytrali integra, vel 



H Mr. H. W. Bates on 

palliduSj pedibus rufis, vel ut ante coloratus, pedibus 
rufis femoribus tibiisque posticis plus minusre viola- 
ceo-metallicis. P. grafioso differt antennis magis ro- 
bustis_,articulisbrevioribus, elytris grossius punctato- 
scabrosis, thoracis angulis posticis dentiforraibus. 
Latitude thoracis variat. 
Long. 8 lin. $ . 

? . Breviter oblongus^ cyaneus, elytris violaceis, basi 
splendide cupreis, pone medium fascia interrupta 
rufa; thoracis angulis posticis dentiformibus ; an- 
tennis robustis, corpore multo brevioribus, 11-articu- 
latis, articulo tertio haud sulcato : tarsis rufis. 

I took many specimens of this species at St. Paulo, 
Amazons, on the leaves of trees in the forest. One pair 
were taken in cojntld. I have examined Guerin^s type of 
P. nigricornis, and found it to agree with the palest of 
my specimens. It was probably taken in the same 
locality as mine, by Osculati, who spent some time at 
the village of St. Paulo on his voyage down the Amazons. 

7. Pyrodes dispar, n. sp. 

P. precedentibus affinis, differt pedibus grosse et pro- 
funde punctatis. 

(J . Oblongus, leete viridi-geneus ; thorace insequali, 
grosse punctate, scabroso, lateribus medio spinosis, 
angulis posticis dentiformibus. Elytra passim crebre 
et grossius punctato-scabrosa. Pedes rufi, grosse 
et profunde punctati, femoribus tibiisque posticis 
cyaneis. Antennse corpore breviores, robustae, fili- 
formes, cupreae, articulo ultimo cum precedente quasi 
concrete. 

Long. 8 lin. 

$ . Breviter oblongus, affinibus multo latior ; viola- 
ceus, supra passim crebre rugosus, sulci frontalis 
fundo haud leevi, thoracis disco haud feveate, angulis 
posticis dentiformibus. Elytra plaga basali, altera 
laterali pone medium, et margine exteriori inter has, 
rubro-cupreis. Corpus subtus cupree-nitidum, abde- 
mine crebre punctate, pedibus cyaneis, grosse et 
profunde punctatis. Antennee dimidium corporis 
vix excedentes, cyanete, lO-articulatae, articulo tertio 
haud sulcato, decime precedente latiori et duple 
longieri. 



Amazonian Prionides. 55 

The nearly coalescent two terminal joints of the antennaa 
will distinguish the male of this from the three preceding 
species^ as well as the much more deeply and roughly 
punctured femora and tibiae; the other characters, and 
the colour, I think, may be more variable. The female 
is distinguished from all by its great width of body, and 
coarsely punctured femora and tibise. It differs greatly 
from F, noclieornis in general form of body, and in the 
prominent dentiform hind angles of the thorax. The 
two terminal joints of the antennfe are blended into one 
in both species, without trace of separation, but the joint 
thus formed is short and ovate in P. noclieornis, and 
very elongate in P. dispar. 

I have seen one pair only of this species, taken by 
Mr. J. Hauxwell, at Pebas, on the Amazons. 

In this group of Pyrodes, the scutellum seems to afford 
no reliable specific characters, as it varies in shape and 
sculpture in specimens undoubtedly belonging to the 
same species ; the form is nearly as in the common P. 
speciosus, but its apex is more prolonged. In all the 
species where the hind angles of the thorax are produced, 
the lower margin is also dentiform, giving an appearance 
of two teeth at the angle, one above the other. The 
margin of the thorax anterior to the lateral spine, in all 
the species, is irregularly and variably denticulate. 
The general form and colours of the hifasciatus group 
are so variable, that if future discoveries prove the ter- 
minal joints of the antennae to be variable, the whole will 
constitute one variable species, remarkable for its incon- 
stancy in structural characters.* 

* The genus Fyrodes, after withdrawing P. pidus (Perty) which having 
the sides of the scuteUum pubescent is better placed in Mallaspis, and 
P. columhinus (Guer.) which belongs to the genus Esmeralda, contains the 
following species : 1. P. pii,l cherrimus (ut supra). 2. P. formosus. 3. 
P. tenuicornis, White, $ ($ =:))iargma.iits, White, Catal.p.49, <J =:angusti- 
collis, Lucas, Voy. de Casteln., p. 179, pi. 11. f. 1; the description leaves 
no doubt whatever of this synon;^Tn, and the locality given by Lucas must 
be erroneous) . 4. P. Smithianus, White. 5. P. speciosus, Oliv. 6. P.wneus, 
Buq., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1860, p. 618. 7. P. hifasciatus, L., Oliv. 8. P. 
nigricomis, Guer. {ruhrozonatus, Lucas). 9. P. gratiosus. 10. P. nocli- 
eornis. 11. P. dispar. There remains only one undescribed species in 
all the extensive collections of Longicorns which I have examined in Lon- 
don; this is a fine one from New Granada, represented by a single female 
example, in Mr. Frj''s possession, derived from the Dejean-Laferte Col- 
lection. 



$Q Mr. H. W. Bates 



on 



Genus Esmeealda. 

J. Thomson, Classif. des Ceramb. p. 303 ; Lacord. 
Genera, viii. p. 178. 

Distinguished from Pyrodes by the great width and 
length of the scutellum, which, in the male, is nea;"lj; 
half the length of the elytra ; and by the metastex^num 
being* greatly advanced between the middle coxas, and 
nearly hiding the grooved mesosternum, which lies 
obliquely on its anterior face ; the presternum is also of 
great width, and its point does not interlock with tha 
mesosternum. The antennje in the (^ are very robust, 
compressed, and subserrate ; the tibiae also are com- 
pressed into thin blades in both sexes, and the tarsi are 
excessively short. 

The only species of this charming group hitherto de- 
scribed is E. suavis, Thoms. But I have no doubt what- 
ever of this being the ($ of Pyrodes columhinus, of Guerin 
(said by White, erroneously as I think,* to be the 
Ceramhyx aurahis of Linnaeus) . I captured the male and 
female of the following species together, but not in 
copula, on the trunk of a slender tree, and as the differ- 
ences between them are not at all greater than in many 
species of Pyrodes, the conclusion that they are sexes of 
one and the same species is not to be resisted. 

1. Esmeralda Icetifica, n. sp. 

c? . Oblonga, depressa, viridi-senea, nitidissima, capite 
antice et infra thoraceque toto testaceo-rufis aureo- 
tinctis, femoribus 4 anticis et processu metasternali 
rufis, elytris violaceis, subtilissime rugoso-puncta- 
tis, bicostatis, triente basali excepta sparsim punc- 
tatis. 
Long. 6 lin. 

? . Late oblonga, subdepressa, laete cyanea, scutello 

et corpore subtus violaceis. 
Long. 9 4 lin. 

Differs from E, columhina, Guer. ( S , suavis, Thoms.) 
in both sexes, by the basal third of the elytra being 
glossy, and marked with very few punctures ; the scutel- 
lum has a few very fine punctures on each side. The 

* The phrase of Linnffius " elytra rubro-viridi-aurata " is not at all ap- 
plicable to any specinien of E. columhina which I have seen. 



Amazonian Triomdea, 57 

thorax in the S has its lateral margins free from crenu- 
lations, and is of a tawny-orange colour above and 
beneath, except a narrow mark on the hind margin on 
each side ; above, it has a few strong punctures on the 
sides, and in the deep central fovea. In the ? the 
thorax is crenulate on the sides, and has numerous 
large punctures on the sides and in the central fovea, 
most of the elevated portions being impunctate. The 
posterior part of the elytra, in both sexes, is rendered 
rough and opaque by the extreme closeness and minute- 
ness of its punctuation. In the $ , the middle coxge, 
the greater part of the anterior and middle femora, and 
the broad metasternal process, are fulvous-red. 

I met with one pair only of this species, on the trunk 
of a slender tree, in a small clearing in the forest, near 
St. Paulo, on the Amazons. They were actively moving 
about in the heat of the mid-day sun. 

The following genus seems to be a degraded form of 
the Pyrodes type, wanting the grooved mesosternum, the 
sulcate head, and many other minor characters of the 
group. Its projecting metasternum indicates a nearer 
affinity with Esmeralda than with the Poecilosomince, in 
which group it is placed by Lacordaire. No other 
member of the Pcecilosomina^ or Solenopterince is found 
on the Amazons.* 



* The following very interesting species has recently been discovered 
by Mr. Belt at Chontales, Nicaragua ; it connects the two North-American 
genera Holonotus and Sphenostethus. 

Eolonotus nigroceneus, n. sp. 

Elongatus, convexus, scaphiformis, Sphenostetlio serripenni similis, sed 
Bcutello hand elongate, aterrimus nitidus, supra praecipue elytris aeneo- 
tinctus. Caput parvum, supra late sulcatum, grosse sparsim puncta- 
tum. Anteimae ( $ ) dimidio corporis breviores, articuhs valde com- 
pressis latis, vix pimctatis. Thorax a basi usque ad apicem attenuatus 
et declivis, marginibus lateralibus integris, disco sparsim subtiliter, 
lateribus grosse et rugose punctatus, margine postico elytris angus- 
tiore, utrinque sinuato, lobo mediauo truncato. ScuteUum latum, 
triangulare, apice depressum, l^ve. Elytra a basi usque ad apices 
regulariter attenuata, humeris obhquis rotundatis, apicibus rotundato- 
truncatis serratis ; supra coriacea, subnitida, passim modice punctata. 
Subtus glaber, pectoris lateribus punctatis, vix pilosis ; mesosternum 
crassum, apicem prosterni incimibens. Pedes nigerrimi, nitidi, tarsia 
brevibus, latis. 

Long. 1 unc. 2 lin., lat. 5 lin. $ . 

Hah. — Chontales, Nicaragua ; in Mus. nostr. 



58 Mr. H. W. Bates on Trionides, 

Genus Nicias. 

Nicias, J. Thomson, Arch. Entom. i. p. 136. 
SamadryadeSi Thomson, lib. cit. p. 22 {olim) . 

1. Nicias alurno'ides. 
J. Thomson, Arch. Ent. i. p. 23, pi. 9, f. 3. 

N. niger, nitidus, elytris stramineis, quarta parte api- 
cali maculaque utrinque mediana transversa nigris ; 
abdomine rufo-testaceo. 

Long. 7 lin. $ . 

I found two examples of this pretty and singular 
Prionid, on different days, on the foliage of trees at 
Ega ; one of them is now in my own collection, the other 
I believe was sent to Paris. The beautiful figures of 
M. Thomson render further description unnecessary. 



(59 ) 

X. Synopsis of the Species of Panorpa occurring in Europe 
and the adjoining Countries ; with a Description 
of a singular neiv Species from Java. By R. 
McLachlan, F.L.S., Sec, Ent. Soc. 

[Bead 15th March, 1869.] 

In this paper I have attempted to give a synopsis of 
the European species of Panorpa, with comparative diag- 
noses in a tabular form^ and remarks. I enumerate 
twelve species^ whereof two are insufficiently known, and 
five are new^ two of the latter coming from Mingrelia, 
a country which, though politically forming part of 
Europe, is more decidedly Asiatic. 

Owing to the similarity of markings, much confusion 
has existed ; but the decided characters exhibited in the 
abdomen of the male, especially in the four terminal seg- 
ments, separate the species very readily; the form of 
the two narrow appendices lying on the face of the 
claw-bearing terminal segment is also a means of differ- 
entiating closely allied forms ; and the parts under these 
appendices would, no doubt, well repay attentive study, 
in the living insect. The markings in the wings furnish 
less important characters ; for though each species has a 
certain typical arrangement of the markings, the devia- 
tions are so many, and frequent, that reliance cannot be 
placed on it alone. The neuration is probably still more 
given to vary, especially in the number of the furcations ; 
but the comparative length of the sub-costal vein divides 
the species into two groups. The number of teeth in 
the claws of the tarsi is not noticed in this paper, because, 
in dry specimens, one or more of the teeth are frequently 
hidden by the large spongy pulvillus, and hence this 
character is a dangerous one on which to ground specific 
distinctions. 

In the citations of authors, only the most important 
are noticed ; and I have omitted Klug's monograph alto- 
gether, because all the European species are grouped 
therein under P. communis, and no indication given of 
the male abdominal characters ; in Westwood^s mono- 
graph the same omission occurs for the European forms; 
but at the time these two works were published, these 
all-important characters were little understood. In 
Walker's British Museum Catalogue several species are 
confounded under P. germanica and communis, 

TKANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART I. (APEIL) . 



60 Mr. E. McLachlan on 

The plate accompanpng this synopsis gives figures of 
each species^ with the most general arrangement of the 
markings^ and also enlarged outlines of the terminal 
segments of the male abdomen and aj)pendices. 

In conclusion, I express my thanks to Baron de Selys 
Longchamps, and Chevalier Victor Ghiliani, for their 
liberal gift and loan of examples, without which aid this 
work could not have been attempted. 



Genus Panorpa. 

Tabula 8pecierum Europcearum, 

A. Sub-costa alarum omnium costse medium (nee ultra) 

tangens. 

a. Alee parce brunneo-punctatse. Abdominis* $ 

segmenta 7 et 8 modica, conica. 

P. alpina, Rambur. 

aa. Al£e valde atro-punctatee fasciataeque. Abdomi- 
nis segmenta 7 et 8 elongata, angustata, conica ; 
7 supra ad basin conspicue tuberculatum. 

P. caucasica, (De Selys) . 

B. Sub-costa alarum anticarum pterostigma tangens. 

b. Abdominis J" segmenta 7 et 8 conica. 

c. Segmentum 6 apicem versus gradatim angus- 
tius, truncatum j 7 et 8 modice elongata. 
d. Appendices segmenti 9 elongatge, haud 
truncatse. 
e. Alee fascia subapicali completa. Segmen- 
tum Gum 7mo longius. P. communis, L. 
ee. Alas fascia sub-apicali interrupta. Seg- 
mentum 6um 7mo aequale. 

P. connexa, McLach. 

* Fanor'pce abdomen censeo novem segmenta habere, quorum primum 
sub metanoto partim latet. 



Panorpa. 61 

dd. Appendices segmenti 9 breves^ ad apicem 
dilatat^ truncatee. 
/. Appendices breviores^ ad apicem recte 
truncatee^ vix rotundatse. 

P. germanica, L. 

f. Appendices longiores, ad apicem oblique 

truncatse, processus segmenti 3 valde 

major. ... P. gihherosa, McLach. 

cc. Segmentum 6 oblongum, supra concavum et 

ad apicem triangulariter productum, latera- 

liter excisum 3 7 et 8 brevia. 

P. meridionalis, Rambur. 

hh. Abdominis c? segmentum 7 plus minusve irregu- 

lariter cylindricum^ supra dilatatum, 8 vix coni- 

cum, 6 quadratum vel oblongum^ profunda 

lateraHter excisum. 

g. Alse conspicue atro-fasciatae et maculatse. 

h. Segmentum 7 supra ad basin valde dilata- 
tum ; appendicibus segmenti ultimi linea- 
ribus, elongatis, fere rectis^ divaricatis. 

P. annexa, (De Selys) . 
hh. Segmentum 7 supra in medio paullo dilata- 
tum ; appendicibus segmenti ultimi brevi- 
bus, gradatim latioribus^ ad basin apicem- 
que convergentibus. P. GJoiUanii, McLach. 
gg. Alse paullo fusco-nigro signatse. Segmentum 7 
fere regulariter cylindricum; appendicibus 
segmenti ultimi rectis^ linearibus^ divari- 
catis P. cognata, Rambur. 

Species mihi non satis cognitce. 

a. Alge flavo-tinctge^ fasciis duabus^ maculis duabus vel 
tribus, apicibusque conspicue atro-signatee. ( c? 
ignotus) P. picta, Hagen. 

/3. Al£e punctis tribus ante medium^ linea irregulari 
obliqua pone stigma, apicibusque fuscis ; ptero- 
stigmate magno rufo. . P. rufostigma, Westwood. 



62 Mr. E. McLachlan on 

Tabula magnitudinum. 

P. alpina, exp. alar. 12-13| lin. (anglic.) = 25-28 millim. 

P. caucasica ,, ,, 12 lin. =r25 mill. 

P. communis „ „ 12-15| lin. =25-32 mill. 

P. germanica ,, ,, 10-12 lin. =z 2 1-25 mill. 

P. gihherosa ,, ,, 12 lin. =25 mill. 

P. connexa ,, ,, 13 lin. =27 mill. 

P . mericUonalis „ 12-15 lin. =25-31 mill. 

P.annexa „ „ 13|-14 lin. =28-29^ mill. 

P. GUUanii „ „ 10^-13 lin. =22-27 mill. 

P. cognata „ „ 13^-141 lin. =28-30^ mill. 

P.pida „ „ 141-17 lin. =30^-37 mill. 

P. rujostigma ,, ,, 13 lin. =27 mill. 

A. Suh-costa in all the ivings becoming confluent with the 
costa about half-ivay betiueen the base and apex. 

1. Panoepa alpina^ Eambur. (PI. IV. fig. 1). 

P. alpina, Rambur, Nevrop. p. 330 (1842). P. variabilis, 
Brauer, Neurop. Aust. p. 35 (1857). 

Found only in elevated districts, and probably occurs 
in all the mountain ranges of central Europe. Halloy in 
Belgium (De Selys) . Has not yet been noticed in Britain. 

The species with the wings least spotted of all, there 
being only scattered brown dots, whereof that at the 
pterostigma is the largest. Third abdominal segment 
( $ ) considerably produced in the middle of its apex 
above; sixth slightly narrowed from base to apex, trun- 
cate ; seventh and eighth cone-shaped, each as long as 
the sixth, narrow at the base, and the seventh with an 
indistinct tubercle at that part above ; appendices of the 
last segment straight, flattened, and linear, short ; claws 
of this segment short. 

Rambur's type has lost, as he notes, the terminal seg- 
ments, and he does not notice the short sub-costa, but 
the example now in De Selys' collection, proves the 
identity of the species with that of Brauer. 



Panorpa. 63 

2. Panoepa caucasica, n. sp. (PI. IV. fig. 2). 

P. caucasica, De Selys, MS. 

Taken in Mingrelia, by M. T. Deyrolle, in 1868. 
Two $ and three $ in De Selys' collection. 

A species with the wings strongly marked ; the sub- 
apical fascia forms a large, irregularly oblong spot, ex- 
tending from the costa half across the wing, and then 
emitting two narrow curved branches to the inner mar- 
gin. The antepenultimate and penultimate segments 
(c?) extremely long, and very narrow at the base, and 
very gradually and regularly dilated, the antepenultimate 
(7th) with a distinct tubercle at the extreme base above j 
the claws of the terminal segment very long. The whole 
body, including the terminal segments, deep black. 

A very distinct and well-marked species. 

B. Suh-costa in the anterior ivings reaching to the 
pterostigma. 

3. Panoepa communis, Linne. (PL IV. fig. 3). 

P. communis, Linn. Faun. Suec. p. 384 (1761), et auct. 

The commonest species in Northern and Central Europe. 

The sub-apical fascia is angulate, and usually furcate 
on the inner margin, especially in the $ , the apical spot 
large, and more or less broken up into smaller spots in 
its lower portion. The third abdominal segment ( c?) is 
scarcely produced above at its apex ; the sixth very long 
and truncate at the apex; seventh and eighth each 
shorter than the sixth, conical ; appendices of the ter- 
minal segment long and cylindrical, approximating at 
the base and apex. 

Var ? diffinis, mihi. From Belgium and Piedmont I 
have c^ $ of an insect which I cannot separate from P. 
communis by any certain structural characters, yet it 
has a somewhat difl"erent aspect, being smaller (exp. alar. 
12 lin.) than usual, and more compact; the third seg- 
ment is, perhaps, more sensibly produced in the middle. 
Baron de Selys Longchamps finds it with the type-form, 
yet preserving its peculiar facies : further investigation 
may perhaps establish its right to specific distinction. 
An insect figured in Imhofi" and Labram^s " Insekten 
der Schweiz," under the name of P. vulgaris, may pos- 
sibly be the same as this. 



•64 Mr. R. McLacUan on 

4. PanoRpa germanica, Linne. (PI. IV. fig. 4) . 

P. germanica, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 915 (1767); Curtis, 
Brit. Ent. pi. 696 ; Rainb. Nevrop. p. 329 ; Eaton, Ann. 
and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1867, p. 397. P. a^nis, Leach, Zool. 
Misc. ii. p. 98, pi. 94, fig. 2 (1815) ; Steph. 111. p. 52. P. 
apicalis, Steph. 111. p. 52 (1836). P. montaita, Br aner, 
Neurop. Aust. p. 36 (1857) . P. horealis, Steph. 111. p. 53 
(1836) ? 

Almost equally common with the last in all Northern 
and Central Europe, and certainly the true species de- 
scribed by Linne, according to the tyjDO in his collection. 

Wings with a slight brownish tinge ; markings macu- 
late (not fasciate) , the apical spot moderate (varies very 
greatly in number and intensity of markings) . The 
third abdominal segment (c?) is strongly produced in 
the middle of the apical margin above; the sixth scarcely 
longer than the seventh, truncate at the apex ; seventh 
and eighth cone-shaped ; appendices of the terminal 
segment short, flattened, dilated and truncate at the apex. 

5. Panoepa gibbeeosa, n. sp. (PI. lY. fig. 5). 

Montenegro ( S ) and Isle of Tinos ( $ ) . Taken by 
M. Erber, and sent by him to the Baron de Selys 
Longchamps, who has submitted it to my examination. 

A species evidently allied to P. germanica, yet de- 
cidedly distinct ; in size rather larger. In the S the 
wings have a faint yellowish tinge ; in the basal half are 
one or two indistinct dots ; at the pterostigma is a large 
quadrate blackish-brown spot, and a dot below it, and the 
apex is also blackish-brown. The third abdominal seg- 
ment is produced, in the middle of its apical margin above, 
into a large rounded hump ; the sixth longer than the 
seventh, formed as in P. germanica ; the seventh and 
eighth equal, conical ; appendices of the terminal seg- 
ment formed somewhat as in P. germanica, but longer ; 
the apex oblique, produced at the inner angle, and after- 
wards very slightly excised ; beyond the apex of each of 
these appendices is to be seen the point of a large crotchet 
which underlies them (this is also evident in P. germa- 
nica, but less conspicuously) . 

The $ , from Tinos, which I consider to pertain to the 
same species, has the wings more strongly marked ; the 
basal spots are larger, that at the pterostigma smaller, 



Panoi'ija. 65 

but below it are two others, the three forming a macu- 
lose fascia; the apex as in the c? ; several of the trans- 
verse veinlets much clouded. 

The (^ much resembles some forms of P. cognata in 
its markings. There is a strong probability that this 
is P. rtifodirima, Westwood {vide post, p. 68), and the 
? above noted agrees remarkably in its markings with 
those of the S of that species, as described by Pro- 
fessor Westwood ; yet both sexes want the large red 
pterostigma from which the name was derived, that por- 
tion of the wings being only more decidedly yellower in 
M. Erber's examples. Under these circumstances, I 
think it best to describe the species as distinct. The 
abdominal characters are much as in P. germanica, but 
the hump on the third segment is very much larger, and 
the appendices of the last segment differ, although formed 
after the same plan. 

6. Panorpa connexa, n. sp. (PI. TV. fig. 6). 

Taken in Mingrelia, by M. T. Deyrolle, in 1868. Two 
<J in De Selys' collection. 

Of the same size as P. gnrmanica, and allied thereto. 
The wings show a wedge-shaped spot extending from 
the pterostigma half across the wing, with an elongate 
spot on the inner margin, the two markings forming an 
interrupted sab-apical fascia ; the apical spot small ; two 
or three small spots in the basal half. Thii"d abdominal 
segment (c?) not produced in the middle of the apical 
margin above ; sixth as in germanica j seventh and eighth 
conical, more elongate than in germanica, the seventh 
slightly the longer ; appcaidices of terminal segment 
long, linear, slightly dilated towards the apex, but not 
truncate. 

7. Panorpa meeidionalis, Rambur. (PI. IV, fig. 7). 

P. meridioncLlis, Rambur, Nevrop. p. 329 (1842) ; Ed. 
Pict. Nevrop. d'Espagne, p. 83, pi. viii. fig. 9-12. 

Middle and South of Finance, Pyrenees, Spain. 

A large species, with the wings very strongly marked 
with deep black, and the veins also black : ordinarily 
there is an isolated black spot in the middle of the base, 
two large opposite spots before the middle (nearly form- 
ing an interrupted fascia), a costal spot in the middle, a 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART I (aFEIL) . F 



06 Mr. R, McLachlan on 

fitib-apical fascia furcate in its lower half, and a broadly 
black apex, in which are two pale dots. The third abdo- 
minal segment (c?) scarcely produced in the middle of 
the apex above; sixth oblong, the upper surface concave 
and produced at the anex in a triangular form, the sides 
excised (not edged with yellow) ; seventh and eighth 
cone-shapecl, short, narrow at the base, and very much 
dilated at the apex ; appendices of the terminal segment 
linenr, flattened, approximating at the base and apex (a 
small lobe at the base of the claws of this segment). 
Head and terminal segments bright reddish. 

This species has the sixth segment formed after the 
manner of that in the succeeding species, but the seventh 
and eighth both cone-shaped, as in the preceding. 

8. PaNORPA A^^NEXA. (PI. IV. fig. 8) . 

P. anncxa, De Selys, MS. ; P. meridioiialis, Schneider, 
Stett. Zeit. 1845, p. 340 {nco Rambur) , P. cognata, var., 
Hagen, Ann, Soc. Ent. France, 18G0, p. 747, {neo 
Rambur) . 

Monte Viso (Piedmont), Sicily; probably in all Italy. 

All the markings smaller and less intense than in P. 
meridiondli's, the apical border enclosing one large hyaline 
spot in its lower half; the veins less strongly black. 
Third abdominal segment {S) slightly produced in the 
middle of its apical margin above; sixth short, quadrate, 
broader than long, the lateral margins deeply excised 
(ordinarily edged with yellow) , the apex above scarcely 
produced ; seventh longer than the sixth, inserted below 
the excision, viewed from the side its lower edge is 
straight, its upper edge greatly swollen near the base, 
then deeply concave, and finally raised at the apex; 
eighth sub-cylindrical, scarcely cone-shaped, slightly 
swollen above towards the base ; appendices of the last 
segment straight, linear, flattened, slightly divergent 
from base to apex (a small lobe at the base of the claws 
of this segment) . Head, rostrum, and terminal segments 
ordinarily reddish. 

Hitherto confounded with P. meridionah's, but very 
distinct. The examples from Monte Viso (Ghiliani) are 
smaller than those from Sicily, and darker; the head 
sometimes marked with blackish, and the apical margin 
of the sixth segment not edged with yellow. 



Panorpa, -i^ 

9. Panorpa Ghiltanii, n. sp. (PI. IV. fig. 9) . 

Ttirin (received from the Chevalier Victor Ghiliani) . 

A small species, and strongly marked with black. In 
the anterior wings there is a small spot in the disc near 
the base, three spots before the middle, a small costal 
spot in the middle, a sub-apical fascia formed by a large 
costal spot emitting two narrow branches to the inner 
margin, and a very broad black apex, which encloses one 
or two pale dots at its upper and lower edges. Third 
abdominal segment (c^) not produced above; sixth 
formed as in P. annexa, but longer, and with the apex 
more produced above, as in P. mefidionalis ; seventh in- 
serted below the excision, slightly shorter than the sixth, 
formed much like that in P. annexa, but shorter, thinner 
at the base, the upper edge less swollen, and the swelling 
further from the base, afterwards less concave and less 
elevated at the apical margin ; eighth shorter than the 
seventh, sub-cylindrical, scarcely cone-shaped ; appen- 
dices of the last segment short, flattened, rather broad, 
obtusely rounded at the apex, nearly parallel (a larger 
lobe at the base of the claws of this segment). 

I have seen two ^ and one ? of this distinct species. 

10. Panoepa cognata, Rambur. (PI. IV. fig. 10) * 

P. cognata, Rambur, Nevrop, p. 330 (1842) ; Eaton, 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1867, p. 397; McLach. TranS. 
Ent. Soc. Lend. 1868, p. 216. P. germanica, Brauer, 
Keurop. Aust. p. 36 {nee Linn.). P. alpina, Hag, Ent. 
Ann. 1858, p. 32 [nee Rambur). 

Central Europe, South of England, Belgium. 

Wings less marked than any of the European species, 
excepting P. alpina, and the markings are brown, and 
not black or blackish ; ordinarily there is a small dot at 
the commencement of the second sector, a large more or 
less quadi'ate spot at the pterostigma, scarcely united 
to a smaller one below it, and an irregular apical spot 
(but frequently theie are only the apical spot and that 
at the pterostigma) . The third abdominal segment is 
considerably produced in the middle of its apical margin 
above; sixth oblong, longer than broad, somewhat pro- 
duced at its apex above, the sides excised; seventh sub- 
cylindrical, its upper edge scarcely swollen near the base, 
concave towards the apex, and with the apex slightly 

f2 



6B Mr. R. McLachlan on 

elevated, rather shorter than the sixth ; eij^hth cylindri- 
cal, obscurely cone-shaped ; appendices of the terminal 
segment long-, cylindrical, straight, slightly divergent. 
Head and terminal segments reddish. 

Eambur was unacquainted with the locality of his type, 
and thought it might be exotic ; but it undoubtedly re- 
presents this leather local European species. 

{S^jccics insu^ciently known to mc) . 
11. Panorpa picta, Hagen, (PI. IV. fig. 11). 

P. picta, Hagen, Wien. Ent. Monatsch. vol. vii, p. 199 

(1863). 

Asia Minor and South Russia. 

The male of this species is yet unknown. Hagen's 
type from Asia Minor is a $ , and I possess an example 
of that sex, received from Professor Zeller {'iiir/riroatris, 
Zeller, MS.), collected by Kindei-mann in Southern 
Russia, which I believe to belong- to this species^ though 
it is considerably smaller (exp.alar. 144 li^^- =30^ mill.) 
than the dimensions given by Hagen. 

It is a large insect, with the body (rostrum included), 
save the terminal abdominal segments, deep black, and 
belonging to section b. The wings are broad and obtuse, 
slightly tinged with yellowish, and with the black mark- 
ings strongly indicated. At the base of the disc of the 
anterior wings is an isolated spot, above which, on the 
costi, is a smaller one ; before the middle is a broad 
irregular fascia ; in the middle of the costa a large spot; 
a broad sub-apical fascia, forked in its lower half, and 
much constricted before the furcation ; and a broad apical 
band, enclosing a large hya'ine spot in its lower half. 

The only European species with a complete fascia be- 
fore the middle. 

12. Panorpa eufostigma, Westwood. 

P. rufostigma, Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond. vol. iv. 
p. 186 (1845). 

Albania. 

Indicated by Westwood as perhaps a var. of P. ger- 
manica, and remarkable for its large red pterostigma. 
The type is in the collection of Mr. S. S. Saunders, of 
Corfu, and I am unable to give any more precise infor- 
mation concerning the species. A Grecian species is 
also noticed by Stein (Berl. Ent. Zeits., 1863, p. 414) 



Fanorjw. C9 

under P. coimmmis, which may possibly be the ? of 
Westwood's insect; and both may be the same as P. 
gibberosa {ante, p. 04). 



JDcscription of a new species from Java. 
Panorpa nematogaster, n. sp. (PL IV. fig. 12). 

P. nigra. Thoracis dorsum rufc-varium ; pectus pe- 
desque rufi vel rufo-fusci. Abdominis segmentum 
Sum processu curvato supra in medio Icnge produc- 
tum ; 4tum tuberculo uno supra instructura ; 6am 5to 
duplo Icngius, apicem versus gradatiin paullo angus- 
tius, truncatum ; 7um et 8uin singulatim Gto duplo 
longius, per-angustum, apicem versus paullo grada- 
tim dilatatum; 9um parvum, forcipe elongato, ap- 
pendicibus crassis, rectis. Alae per-angust£e, flavo- 
testacese, nitid^e, haud signatte ; pterostigmate 
rufo-fuscescente. Tarsorum ungues bi-dentati. 

Long. Corp. ^ lOf", ? C" ; cxp. alar. J 13^'", ? 
14"'. 

Hah. — Java. In Muss. Brit. (Wallace), et Oxon. 

c?. Head, antenncc, and abdomen dull black. Pro- 
notum black, posteriorly reddish at the sides. Meso- 
and meta-nota red, the former black in front. Breast 
red, with two small black dots on each side. Eostrum 
reddish, with a broad lurid stripe down the front. Palpi 
reddish, the apical joint black. Legs reddish ; claws of 
the tarsi with two broad and blunt teeth internally below 
the apex. Wings very narrow, shining pale yellowish 
testaceous, without markings of any kind, save that the 
pterostigma is slightly fuscescent ; veins blackish, sub- 
costa reaching to the pterostigma in the anterior wings. 
Abdomen very slender ; third segment produced in the 
middle of its apical mai-gin above, into a long slender 
cuiwed process, slightly dilated at the extremity ; fourth 
with a small tubercle in the middle above ; third, fourth, 
and fifth nearly equal in length ; sixth nearly twice the 
length of the fifth, gradually but slightly narrowed to- 
wards the apex, which is obliquely truncate ; seventh 
and eighth each about twice the length of the sixth, very 
slender, the apex gradually dilated ; ninth small, the 
forceps very long, the points curved and crossing each 
other, appendices short and thick, straight. 

w- $ . Differs in the breast and legs, being more ob- 
scurely reddish, somewhat fuscescent. 



79 Mr. R. McLachlan on Panoqm. 

A singular species ; remarkable for the Iblig and very 
slender abdomen of the male, and for the pale wings 
without markings, which give it somewhat the appear-? 
ance of a small Bittactcs. There is one c? and one 
? in the collection of the British Museum (formerly in 
that of Mr. W. W. Saunders), collected in Java by Mr. 
A. R. Wallace ; and one S in the Oxford Museum. 

I do not know P. Cliarpenticri of Burmeister, from the 
'^ East Indies," which, from the brief diagnosis, is a very 
slender species, without markings, save one dot in each, 
wing. 

Note on the distribution of the genus Panorpa. 

TJp to the present time about thirty-six species have 
been noticed. In Europe and the adjoining countries, 
twelve ; some of these, no doubt, extend to North Africa, 
but the genus has not been brought from the tropical 
and southern parts of that Continent ; three are described 
from the Asiatic Continent, excluding Caucasia and Asia 
Minor ; five are indicated from Japan, some of which, 
probably, occur also in North China ; three from Java ; 
and about thirteen from North America. South America 
has not as yet furnished any species, though it is probable 
that some may occur in Chili. From Australia they are 
also absent, for P. ruficeps, of Newman, which comes from 
that quarter, should be referred to "Westwood's genua 
Euphania^ as a second species. 

* It appears to me that Eupha^ia is identical with- Qhoxistq>.-oi^K]i^B i 
^Xii that E. luteola is the same as C. anstralis. 



' E-saplanaUon of Plate JF. 

(PanofT^a; a 'dehbtee apex of abdomen; b, appendices). 

I'ig. 1. Anterior wing of P. alpina, S ■ (1»i 1^). 

2. J, „ P. caucasica, ^ . (2a, 26). 

3. „ „ P. communis, S • (3a, 3b), 
'4. ,, „ P. fjermanica, $. (la^ 46). 

•'6. „ „ P.gihlerosa, <J . (5a, 56). 

6. „ ,, P. connexa, S • (6ai 66). 

7. „ „ P. meridionalis, $ . (7a, IV). 
?• I, ■ „ " P< annexa, <J . (8a, 86). 

. 9. „ „ P. Ghilianii, <J (9a, Q6). 

1^ ,, „ P. cojnata, S ■ (10a, i06). 

II.' M ., P-x-icta, ^'. 

12. P. nematogaster, abdomen of ^, and tenninal-seg- 
ment maguihed. 



( 71 ) 



XI. DcscripHovs of new Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 
By W. C. HjiWiTsoxV, F.L.S. 

[Read 5th Aprils 1869.] 

The following are descriptions of six new species of 
butterflies, belonging to the genera I^cptalis, Fieri s, Cata- 
gromma, IlcfcrocJiroa, and Atcrica ; to those is added a 
description of the male of Harma Hypatha, the female of 
■roliich has been fio^ured in "Exotic Butterflies." 



1 . Lcjjtalis CartJicsis. 

Male. Upperside. Dark brown. Antoi'ior wing long 
and narrow, costal margin much and regularly curved, 
apex rounded, outer margin sinuate : crossed at the 
middle by a band divided into four by the nervures, 
deeply sinuate (nearly cut in two) on its inner margin 
near and below the sub-costal nervure : a sub-apical band 
of three spots, and a large oval spot on the inner margin, 
all white. Posterior wing with the costal half polished, 
and bordered outwardly by a band of white, dentate on 
its outer border at the nervures ; the wing beyond this 
band brown. 

Underside. Anterior wing with the basal half (except 
the costal margin, which is brown) polished ; the spot 
on the inner margin much larger, the central band the 
same as above ; beyond it brown, the apical band larger, 
divided into five by the nervures. Posterior wing brown, 
the costal margin, a band below and parallel to it (partly 
orange), three spots below this (two tinted with orange), 
and a central band from the base, yellow ; below this 
band, rufous crossed by dark brown nervures, and a sub- 
marginal band of pale yellow spots. 

Exp. 22'o inches. 

Hah. — Demerara. 

In the collection of Mr. Herbert Druce. 

I do not know any species with which to compare this. 
It has the form of L. Astijuovic and the colour of L. Crl' 
tomedia. 

TKANS. ZNT. SOC. 1869. — PAET I. (APEIL) .- 



72 Mr. W. C. Hewitson on 

2. Pieris Favor eia. 

Upperside, white. Anterior wing with the costal mar- 
gin dark brown, narrow : the apex and outer margin 
broadly dark brown, deeply sinuate on its inner border 
and marked by five hastate white spots indistinct below 
the apex. Posterior wing with the margin (which is 
broken into spots ueir the anal angle) and three or four 
spots near the apex, dark brown. 

Underside, white, tinted with yellow on the posterior 
wing. Anterior wing with the apical spots much larger 
than above, six in number, and tinted with yellow. Pos- 
terior wing with the base, a spot at tlio end of the cell, 
and the outer margin, brilliant yellow, with two sub- 
marginal bands of black spots ; the inner band of seven 
large spots. 

Exp. 2^ inches. 

Hub. — Cape Coast Castle. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Very near to P. Calj/pso, but, I believe, distinct. It 
is without the black spots which mark the end of the 
cell on both wings of that species. 

3. Catagravima Aplddna. 

Male. Upperside. Black : the fringe of both wings 
spotted with white. Anterior wing with the basal half 
carmine ; a sub-apical bifid band of white, with some 
irrorations of white at each end of it. Posterior wing 
with two or three srtots of r^ale blue near the anal angle. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that the 
costal margin at its base is yellow, that there is a line of 
blue near and parallel to the costal margin, that the sub- 
apical band is longer and tinted with yellow, and that 
there is a sub-marginal band of CcBrulean blue, and be- 
tween it and the apex a band of gray. Posterior wing 
lilac-gray : the base yellow : two lines of dark brown 
commence at the base of the costal margin each by a 
carmine spot, run nearly straight and parallel to each 
other and the inner margin to the anal angle, are con- 
tinued near the outer margin and slightly undulated, and 
join the costal margin near the middle : these lines enclose 
between them, near the anal angle, some spots of cgeru- 
lean blue : the outer margin dark brown : at the centre 



Kcw species of Diurnal Lepidopiera. 73 

of the wing there are two large black spots, one (near 
the costal margin) marked by three spots of cserulean 
blue, the other with two, all bordered with ochreoua 
yellow. 

Exp. ly^^ inch. 

Hah. — Venezuela (Valencia). 

In the collection ofW. C.Hewitson. From Mr. Goering. 

Near to C. Thamyras, of Menetries. The underside 
of the posterior wing is, however, of a very different and 
unusual colour, and unlike any other butterfly. 

4. Heterochroa Cciphira. 

Female. Upperside. Dark brown. Both wings crossed 
by a broad white band, which commences at the second 
median nervulc of the anterior wing, where it is crossed 
by black nervures, and ends at the anal angle of the 
posterior wing, crossed by white nervures. Anterior 
wing with four black lines in the cell: a large spot near 
the costal margin beyond its middle, two small spots be- 
low this, and two near the apex, all orange: two sub- 
marginal black bands. Posterior Aviug with three sub- 
marginal bands. 

Underside. Rufous brown, with the central band as 
above. Anterior wing with the base white, crossed in 
the cell by a line of brown, followed by a large white 
spot, and beyond the cell by two small ones, all bordered 
with black (as in H. Melona) ; the orange spots of the 
upperside white, the apical spots forming part of a sub- 
marginal band of spots, between which and the margin 
there is another band of spots, also white. Posterior 
wing with the base white, crossed by two rufous bands: 
the central band bordered above with rufous-brown, the 
wing below the white band dark brown, crossed by three 
bands of pure white, and a fourth band much less distinct. 

Exp. 2^ inches. 

Hah. — Venezuela (Valencia) . 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitscn. From Mr. 
Goering. 

6. Aterica Zeugma. 

Female. Upperside. Orange-rufous. Anterior wing 
with two spots within the cell bordered with dark brown s 



H Mr. W. C. Hewitson ou 

tho apical half dark brown, crossed obliquely by a band 
of white divided into five parts by the nervures : a sub- 
apical band of four white spots. Posterior wing darker 
near the outer margin^ with two sub-marginal bands of 
brown spots. 

Underside. Rufous-yellow, with the outer margins 
rufous brown. Anterior wing with the band and spots 
of white as above : a spot in the cell and the inner 
margin of the band dark brown. Posterior wing with a 
spot in the cell and an oblique band before the middle 
(dark on the costal margin, indistinct below) both dark 
brown, the submarginal bands marked by pale spots, 
those of the inner band white. 

Exp. 2 j^Q- inches. 

Eah.— Old Calabar. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Like the females of A. Tadema and Aynpedusa abore : 
but much brighter in colour, and completely different on 
the underside. 



6. Aterica Ahesa. 

Male. Uppersido. Bark blue-brown (so dark that it 
is not easy to see the still darker spots) . Anterior wing 
with two spots within, and one outside the cell : crossed 
by bands iDefore and after the middle, and by two sub- 
marginal bands of large dark brown spots. Posterior 
wing without spots. 

Underside. Lilac-gray, rufous at the inner margin of 
the anterior wing : both wings clouded with pale brown, 
both crossed near the middle by a zig-zag brown line, 
followed on both by a band of small brown spots. An- 
terior wing with a small brown spot, and two larger 
spots, bordered with brown, witliin the cell : a pale spot 
on the costal margin beyond the middle. Posterior 
wing with two or three small black spots at the base. 

Exp. 2 Jjf inches. 

Hub. — Cape Coast Castle. 

In the collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Like A. Veronica and Ccendea on the upperside, but 
very different from any other species on the underside. 



Neiu species of Diurnal Lepidojptcra. 75 

7. Harma Hyjpatlia, c?. 

? . Harma Hypatha, Hew. Ex. Butterflies, vol. iii. 
pi. 21), figs. 7, 8. 

Male. Upperside. Orange. Both wings crossed by 
a band of black, which commences at the second median 
nervule of the anterior wing, and extends to near the 
anal angle ; the base and abdominal fold of the posterior 
wing, and the outer margin of both wings, brown, irro- 
rated with yellow; both with a sub-marginal band of 
black spots. Posterior wing with a line of black at the 
anal angle. 

Underside. Rufous-brown, tinted with lilac ; darker 
from the base to the middle, where they are crossed by 
a slightly undulating line of dark brown, followed by a 
band of indistinct brown spots, and by a sub-marginal 
band of small brown spots bordered below with paler 
colour, both with a zig-zag line at the middle of the 
costal margin. Anterior wing with two spots within 
the cell bordered with brown. Posterior wing with a 
brown spot within the cell, and two sub-basal spots of 
pale yellow. 

Exp. 3^^ inches. 

Ba&.— Old Calabar. 

In the collection of Mr. Herbert Druce. 

Resembles H. Thcodota and Hyarhita of the " Exotic 
Butterflies." 



( 77 ) CV. 

XII. Notes on Eastern Butterflies. By Alfred I^. 
Wallace, F.Z.S., V.P. Eut. Soc, &c. 

[Read 5th April, 1869.] 

As ray collection still contains some undescribed species, 
many sexes and variations not yet noticed, and specimens 
from many localities which have not yet been published, 
I propose to give a series of short papers embodying 
whatever information I possess on the genera which are 
more especially characteristic of the Malay Archipelago and 
adjacent regions. I hope thus to furnish some materials 
towards the general catalogue of butterflies now prepar- 
ing by Mr. Kirby, as well as to correct a few errors in 
specific and sexual determinations, and in synonymy, 
which those who have had less copious materials may 
have fallen into. 

I begin with the genera Myncs and Prothoc. 

Genus Mynis, Westwood. 

The genus Myiies originated with Boisduval, who 
placed in it two species, M. Leticis, Boisd., and M. Geoffroyi, 
Gutr. (the Nymphalis Geotfrnyi of Guerin Mtneville), but 
gave no characters whatever by which to distinguish it. 
Professor Westwood, in the Genera of Diurnal Lepidop- 
tera, first chai-acterized the genus, taking as the type 
Mynes Genfroyi, the only species at that time existing in 
the national collection. In 1862, Mr. Hewitson figured 
and described several forms (which he considered varie- 
ties) of Mynes Lends, collected by myself. A little later 
Vollenhoven described as distinct one of the varieties 
figured by Mr. Hewitson; but I cannot find that any 
other author has occupied himself wth the genus, owing 
perhaps, to the great rarity of all the species. 

On comparing my specimens with Westwood's de- 
scription of the genus, I found, to my astonishment, that 
M. Leucis and its allies differ most remarkably from M. 
Geofjroyi, in the neuration of the wings and other charac- 
ters, so as to render it impossible to keep them in the 
same genus ; while they agree so closely with ProtJioe as 
to make it equally impossible to separate them from that 
genus. The antennse, palpi, and feet, the form of the 
discoidal cell, and especially the curious and unusual 
arrangement of the branches of the subcostal vein, are 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART I. (APRIL) . 



78 Mr. A. R. Wallace on 

identical in bofch; so that notwithstanding a slight differ- 
ence of facies and of marking, and a remarkable contrast 
in geographical distribution, I feel compelled to place 
Lends and its allies in the genus ProtJioc. The genus 
Mynes is thus reduced to the single species M. Gec^'royi, 
to which, however, I have now to add two new ones. 
This small group consists of rather active insects, fre- 
quenting the more sunny parts of the forest, and settling 
On foliage or on flowers. Their head-quarters are New 
Guinea, and the adjacent islands of the Papuan group. 

1. Mynes Geopfroyi. 

Kymphalis Geofroyi, Guerin, V07. de la Coqiiille, Ins. 
pi. 16, f. 1. 

Mynes Geofroyi, Boisd. Voy. de PAstrolabe, Entom. pt. 1, 
p. 130 ; Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 268. 

Hah. — New Guinea (Dorey) ; Salwatty ; Waigiou 
(Wallace). 

The female differs in having the ground-colour of the 
wings paler greenish-white, and the dark margins less 
intense and less sharply defined. The apical spots on the 
under surface are less yellow. A beautiful variation 
occurs, in which the disc of the under surface of the 
hind-wings is almost covered with a large oval transverse 
white spot washed with rich yellow towards the anal 
margin. This specimen (a male) was found at Dorey, 
along with others having the usual black hind-wings, 
and I was, at first, disposed to consider it a distinct 
species; but in a female specimen from Salwatty, I 
observe the commencement of a similar white spot which 
is unequal on the opposite wings, showing the tendency 
of this part to sport or variation. 

2. Mynes Guerini, n. sp. 

Female. Apex of upper wings more rounded, and the 
short tails of the hind wings rather more divergent 
thgn in M. Geojroyi. 

tlppefside. Anterior wings with rather more than the 
Outer half black, with a curved band of three or four 
yellowish- white spots just within the apex; base green- 
ish-white, with scattered dusky scales towards the limits 



Eastern J^uitcrjlic;^, 70 

of the black portion. Hind wings with a broad black 
border^ within which is a broad slaty-greenish band, the 
basal third of the "vvings being yellowish-white ; on the 
outer posterior portion of the wing is a narrow submar- 
ginal bluish-green band. 

Underside. Almost entir'^ly black, the base and inner 
margin of the anterior wings alone being Avhitish ; the 
apical band as in M. Oeofroyi. but deep yellow, the white 
spot on the costal margin almost obsolete. On the hind 
wings the markings as in M. Genffroyi, but more defined, 
and the yellow band deeper, within which are two faint 
crenated ashy bands, not reaching the outer angle. 

Expanse of wings, 2^ inches. 

Sab. — Queensland, Australia. (Coll. Wallace, B. M.) 

I received a single specimen in a small collection from 
Queensland, and consider it to be undoubtedly distinct. 
A rather larger specimen, also a female, and from the 
same locality, is in the British Museum. 

3. Mynes Doubledaii, n. sp. 

Female. Form of wings as in M. Geoffrny!,. 

Above, dusky brown ; the anterior wings yellowish at 
the base, and with a yellow sub-apical arc divided by the 
dusky nervures ; posterior wings whitish at the base and 
abdominal margin. 

Beneath, blackish brown ; anterior wings with the cell 
yellow, apical arc more dilated than above, and continued 
in a sub-marginal line to the outer angle, yellowish : a sub- 
marginal yellow spot near the middle of the costa, an 
irregular one attached to the end of the cell, and two 
before the sub-apical arc ; an ovate red spot in the 
middle of the outer margin on the inside of the submar- 
ginal line. Hind-wings with the basal margin red, the 
abdominal and posterior region yellow-ochreish, with 
faint dusky lunulate bands, and a double marginal stripe 
of yellowish-white. 

Exp. S^iy inches. 

Hab. — Ceram. 

I receired this curious and very distinct species in a 
collection from Ceram, and have named it after the late 
Edward Doubleday, in the continuation of whose cele- 
brated work, the Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera, the 
genus was first described. 



8b Kr. A. R. Wallace on 

Genus Peothoe, Hiibner. 

1. Prothoe Franckii. 

Ni/m}:)lialis Franckii, Godt. Enc. Math. ix. p. 825. 

Prothoe FrancJcii, Hiibn. Samml. exot. Schmett. ii. pi. . 

Westwood, Gen. Diarn. Lap. p. 256, pi. 51. f. 3. 
Pajyhia Franckii, Horsfield, Lap. of Java, pi. 5, f. 4, 4a.. 

Hah. — Java (Horsfiald), Malacca, Sumatra (Wallace). 

This beautiful insect is not uncommon in Sumatra. It 
has the habit of settling" with closed wings on sticks or 
the trunks of trees, with which the peculiarly shaded 
markings of its underside harmonise so as to render it 
difficult to detect. 

2. Prothoe Leucis. 

Mynes Leucis, Boisd.Voy. del' Astrolabe, Ent.pt. I,p.l29j 
Hewitson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 87, 
var. A. d . (? ? ); var. b. pi. ix. f. 1, ? . 

Nym2:)Jia.lis australis, Guer. Voy. de la Coquille, Ins. 
pi. 14 bis, f. 4. 

Hah. — T^ew Guinea (Dorey), Mysol, Salwatty, Waigiou 
(Wallace) . 

The specimens described by Boisduval and Guerin were 
from Waigiou (Offack) . The females, as in some allied 
forms, have the markings either white or yellow, the 
males I believe alwaj's yellow. A considerable number of 
specimens collected by myself shew that this species is 
pretty constant in its external characters. This and the 
allied species frequent shady places in the forest ; they 
fly slowly, and the females often settle on the ground 
while the males rest on low foliage. 

3. Prothoe Muldeei. 

Myncs Mulderi, Vollenh. Tidj . v. Ent. vi. 1 29, pi. 8. f. 1 , 2, c? . 
Mynes Leucis, var. d., Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 88. 
var. E., Hewits. I. c. pi. ix.". 2, 3. 

Hah. — Batchian, Gilolo, Morty Is. (Wallace). 

This species, like the last, has the females marked either 
with white or ochreish yellow, the males with yellow of 
a paler and clearer tint. This is a strikingly distinct 
species, and is confined to the geographical sub-district 
of the northern Moluccas. 



Eastern Biitterjlies. 81 

4. Pkothoe Westwoodii, n. sp, 

Mynes Leucis, var. Y., Hewitson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, 
p. 88. (?). 

Form of wings as in P. Mulcleri, but the anterior are 
less rounded, and the posterior more produced behind 
into a broad tail. 

Male. Above, resembles P. Mtilderi, but the spots are 
less divided by the nervures, and the base is much less 
ashy. The large spot on the hind-wings is obliquely 
truncate towards the anal angle, not regularly rounded 
as in P. Miilderi. Beneath, the spots on the disc are 
paler and larger, the marginal spots very small on the 
upper wings, the yellow caudal spot much larger, and the 
two pairs of blue lunules above it united so as to form 
complete heart-shaped figures. 

Female. Differs from the corresponding sex of P. 
Mulderi by the white patch on the anterior wings in- 
cluding the two lower submarginal spots. The markings 
are either pure white, or rather paler yellow than in the 
male. 

Hab. — Aru Islands. 

The decided difference, both in form and markings, 
although slight in amount, induces me to consider this a 
distinct species. 

5. Prothoe Hbwitsoni, n. sp. 

Mynes Leucis, var. G., Hemtson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, 
p. 88, pi. ix. f. 4, ? . 

Hah. — New Guinea, Mysol. (Wall.) 

The male agrees very closely with Mr. Hewitson's 
figure of the female, the yellow bands being somewhat 
narrowed, a little better defined, and more deeply 
coloured. The underside has the same markings as 
the upperside, with the basal and marginal spots and lines, 
as in the allied species. 

The three specimens which I possess, including both 
sexes, agree so closely with each other, and are so re- 
markably different from the allied forms, that I have no 
hesitation in considering it a distinct species; and have 
much pleasure in naming it after the gentleman to whom 
we are indebted for thousands of accurate and beautiful 
figures of butterflies. 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PAUT I. (apRIL) . Q 



( 83 ) 



XIII. Characters of some undescrihed Species of Phyto- 
phaga belonging to the Families Cassididse and 
Hispid^. By J. S. Balt, F.L.S. 



List of Species. 



Cassidid^. 
Dolichotoma distincta 
Calaspidia Bacchus 
Calaspidia connectens 
Mesomphalia honorata 
Batonota collaris 
Batonota rifo-ornata 

HlSPIDiE. 

Alurnus ornatus 
Eurispa Odewahnii 
Eurispa normalis 
Eurispa Howittii 



Nicaragua. 

Para. 

Upper Amazons. 

Bolivia. 

Upper Amazons. 

Nicaragua. 

Nicaragua. 
South Australia. 
Queensland. 
Melbourne. 



Fam. CASSIDID^. 

Dolichotoma distincta. 

Late rotundata S , subrotundata ? , modice convexa, 
subtus (cum capite) nigra, nitida, supra viridi-£enea, 
subopaca, pube brevissima depressa adspersa; tho- 
race fere impunctato, utrinque depresso, medio ten- 
uiter canaliculato, antice leviter carinato; elytris 
minus distincte rugoso-punctatis, antice retusis, 
gibbosis, margine valde explanato (prsesertim in 
medio S ) , obsolete transversim ruguloso, medio 
macula magna insequali subrotundata ornato. 

Long. 7^ lin. 

Sah . — Nicaragua. 

Much larger than D. hiplagiata and its allied species, 
its elytra more finely punctured and less rugose, being 
nearly intermediate in punctation between D. puhescens 
and hiplagiata. 



TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PAKT I. (aPKIl). 



g2 



84 Mr. J. S. Baly on some 

Calaspidea Bacchus. 

Subrotundata, postice paullo angustata ^ , magis ovata 

$ , convexa, nigro-asnea, subnitida ; elytris san- 

guineis, distincte punctatis, limbo exterior! (basi 

dilatato) maculisque impressis subseriatis nigro- 

seneis. 

Long. 7^-9^ lin. 

Hah. — Para. 

Antennee black, longer than the thorax, robust, taper- 
ing at base and apex, third joint distinctly longer than 
the fourth. Thorax twice as broad as long, sides some- 
what obliquel}^ rounded and dilated to beyond the middle, 
thence nearly parallel and slightly rounded to the base; 
surface subopaque, broadly excavated on either side, 
excavation impressed with a shining obtusely angled line ; 
middle of disc nitidous, impressed with a fine longitudinal 
groove. Elytra much broader than the thorax, shoulders 
prominent, obtusely rounded ; sides obliquely rounded and 
dilated nearly to their middle, thence obliquely rounded 
and narrowed to their apex ; above convex, distinctly punc- 
tured on the disc, the latter shining ; the dilated margin 
subopaque, more finely punctured ; sanguineous, the 
outer limb, dilated on the humeral margin, and numerous 
depressed spots scattered over the surface, nigro-asneous ; 
those on the disc small and arranged in nearly regular 
longitudinal rows ; those on the dilated limb larger and 
less regularly placed. 

Most nearly allied to G. columbiana ; its antennse are 
shorter and rather more robust, the sides of the thorax 
are less oblique ; the nigro-eeneous border of the elytra 
is much broader, and the patches of the same colour on 
their dilated limb are much larger than in that species. 

Calaspidea connecfens. 

Subrotundata ^ , sub triangularis ? , convexa, viridi- 
senea, subnitida, subtus nigra, nitida ; thorace long- 
itudine duplo latiori, lateribus ad medium minus 
oblique ampliatis, hinc ad basin fere parallelis, basi 
ipsa paullo convergentibus, obtuse rotundatis ; elytris 
subopacis, elevato-reticulatis, reticulis nitidis, areolas 
minores includentibus, vitta lata sublaterali san- 
guineo-reticulata, infra basin ad apicem extensa, 
postice angustata ornatis; antennis thorace paullo 
longioribus, gracilibus. 



New 8j)ecies of Phytopliaga. 85 

Long. 7-9 lin. 

Hah. — Pebas^ Upper Amazons. 

The present insect forms almost an intermediate link 
between G. regalis and G. cliscors, agreeing in colouring 
with the former J and in form of thorax, antennee, and 
sculpture of elytra with the latter : from G. regalis it 
may be at once known by the much more slender an- 
tennee, and by the finer sculpture of the elytra ; the form 
of the thorax is also entirely different; in G. regalis this 
part of the body is much broader, and the sides are 
obliquely rounded, and dilated considerably beyond their 
middle ; in G. connectens (as also in G. cliscors) the thorax 
is narrower, its sides are first produced almost directly 
outwards (being only slightly and obliquely rounded) 
to their middle : thence to their base they are nearly 
parallel, and very obtusely rounded. The diagnosis 
between G. discors and the species under considera- 
tion is rather more clifiicult : the two insects entirely 
agreeing in the slender antennse and form of thorax, but 
difii"ering both in colouring and in the general form of 
the body. The $ of G. connectens (judging from a single 
specimen in my collection) is more rotundate and less 
narrowed towards the apex of the elytra ; whilst the $ 
is more decidedly triangular in form, the elytra being 
broader and less narrowed at the shoulders than in G. 
discors; the red colour on the elytra is confined in G. 
discors to a large ovate patch on the anterior half of the 
dilated border; in G. connectens it forms a broad sub- 
marginal stripe, similar to that on the elytra of G. regalis. 

Mesomjphalia lionorata. 

Subtriangularis, modice convexa, nigro-eenea, sub- 
opaca; elytris pube brevi cinerea sparse adspersis, 
ante medium gibbosis, disco tenuiter lateribus sat 
profunde punctatis, elevato-reticulatis, reticulis sub- 
nitidis, areolas parvas includentibus, plaga magna 
trigonata, ab humero ultra medium et intus fere 
ad suturam^ extensa, fulvo-flava fusco notata ornatis. 

Long. 8^ lin. 

Sah. — Bolivia. 

Antennas black ; thorax more than twice as broad as 
long, very slightly emarginate in front, sides produced 



86 Mr. J. S. Baly on some 

nearly directly outwards to beyond their middle, thence 
very obtusely rounded and slightly converging to their 
base ; upper surface very minutely punctured, slightly 
excavated on either side, impressed in the medial line 
with a very faint longitudinal groove. Elytra much 
broader than the thorax, shoulders not produced, obliquely 
rotundate-ampliate ; sides rotundate-angustate from the 
shoulders to the apex, the latter conjointly acute ; upper 
surface gibbose before the middle, the gibbosity obtuse, 
slightly compressed on the sides, space in front of the 
gibbosity covered with two or three large foveee, re- 
mainder of the surface (base and apex of the dilated 
border excepted) covered with slightly raised, irregular 
reticulations ; those on the yellow patch (which, stretch- 
ing along the outer margin of each elytron from the 
shoulder to beyond the middle, extends inwards nearly 
to the suture) coarser and more elevated than the rest ; 
outer margin broadly dilated, the portion of its outer 
edge covered by the yellow patch deeply punctured. 

This insect resembles in form M. textiUs ; its colour, 
however, is entirely different, and the lateral margin of 
the elytra is much broader and flatter. 

Batonota collaris. 

Subtriangvilaris, convexa, subtus nigra, nitida, supra 
opaca, et pube brevi cinerea sparse adspersa ; anten- 
narum basi pedibusque anticis intus, obscure flavis ; 
thorace scutelloque obscure rufis, illo antice carinato ; 
elytris obscure viridi-teneis, antice retusis, trans- 
versim gibbosis, sat profunde punctatis, interstitiis 
obsolete elevato-reticulatis ; margine laterali tenuiter 
punctato ; humeris antrorsum paullo prominulis, apice 
angulatis, obtusis, dorso carinatis. 

Long. 5^ lin. 

Kah. — Pebas, Upper Amazons. 

Similar in form to the ? of B. truncata, the shoulders 
less produced laterally, more obtuse, their anterior mar- 
gin more distinctly rounded. Elytra deeply punctured, 
the raised reticulations ill-defined, enclosing small irre- 
gular spaces. 

Batonota rvfo-ornata. 

Sub-triangularis, convexa, subtus nigra, nitida, supra 
obscure nigro-a^nea, opaca, pubc brevissima cinerea 



New Species of PhytopJiaga. 87 

adpressa parce adspersa; thorace tenuissime punc- 
tatOj antice carinato, basi quadri-impresso^ antice 
obsolete rufo marginato ; elytris basi retusis, trans- 
versim gibbosis, minus profunde substriatim punc- 
tatis^ vittis elevatis tribus, duabus prope suturam 
altera prope disci medium positis, postice abbreviatis, 
inter se ramulis connexis instructis, margine late 
explanato^ parce tenuiter punctate 3 humeris latera- 
liter productis, margine antico concayis^ apice acutis, 
dorso carinatis; utrisque plagis duabus, una parva 
reticulata dorso pone gibbum^ altera subovata sub- 
marginali vix ante medium, fulvo-rufis, ornatis. 

Long. 6^ lin. 

Hah . — Nicaragua, 

Very similar inform and sculpture to B. msidiosa; the 
anterior border of the shoulders is more distinctly con- 
cave, the dilated limb of the elytra is metallic green 
beneath, and the fulvo-rufous patch is longer, extending 
upwards nearly to the base of the limb. 

Fam. HISPID^. 

A lurnus orna his . 

Subelongatus, niger, nitidus ; thorace antice subcylin- 
drico, ad latera et ad basin sat profunde et crebre 
punctate, sanguineo, margine basali medio paullo 
dilatato, utrinque abbreviate, punctoque apicali ad 
■ marginem adfixo, nigris ; elytris oblongis, flavis, 
apice maculisque tribus utrisque nigris. 

Long. 11 lin. 

Hah . — Nicaragua . 

The antennse in my specimens are unfortunately 
broken, but the four lower joints are more slender than 
in any of the other known species of the genus, the third 
joint is more than three times the length of the fourth. 
Thorax much narrower than the elytra, narrowed and 
subcylindrical in front, transversely convex at the base, 
basal half and sides coarsely and almost rugosely punctate, 
middle portion of the anterior disc distantly punctured. 
Elytra broader and shorter than in A. (V Orhignyi, punc- 
tured in a similar manner, yellow ; their apical fourth, a 
patch on the humeral callus, a second near the suture 



88 Mr. J. S. Baly on some 

halfway between the base and middle of the disc, and a 
broad, slightly curved, transverse fascia, placed just be- 
low the middle, and abbreviated some distance before 
reaching either the suture or the outer margin, black. 

Eurispa Odeivahnii. 

Filiformis, subcylindrica, nigra, sub opaca, profunda 
punctata, albo-squamulosa, abdominis segmentis 
]3asi rufo-piceis ; capite ante oculos valde producto, 
thorace cylindrico, pallide rufo-piceo, vittis tribiis 
nigro-fuscis (duabus exterioribus minus distinctis) 
ornato ; elytris sordide albo-fuscis, anguste flavo 
marginatis, apice productis, utrisque spina brevi 
acuta desinentibus, elevate- costatis, interstitiis pro- 
funde punctato-striatis ; unguibus obsoletis. 

Long. 3^-4 lin. 

Hah. — Grawlor near Adelaide, South Australia. 

This species, which was first sent to this country by 
Mr. Odewahn, may be at once known from E. alhipennis 
by the entirely different form of the head ; in the insect 
now described, that portion of the face on which the 
antennae are placed, is strongly produced anteriorly and 
broadly truncate, the eyes being placed laterally halfway 
between the truncate apex and the thorax. Head coarsely 
granulose, deeply punctate, the upper surface of the frontal 
prominence impressed with a deep longitudinal groove. 
Thorax one-third longer than broad, narrowed from base 
to apex, sides straight, sinuate just in front of the base, 
and immediately behind the anterior angle ; disc deeply 
impressed with large round punctures, each one of which 
(as well as those on the head) is occupied by a single 
broadly obovate white scale. Scutellum shining, black. 
Elytra scarcely broader than the thorax, nearly parijllel, 
narrowed at the apex, and produced far beyond the, ex- 
tremity of the abdomen into a distinct tail, the apex of 
each elytron being still further produced into a short, 
flat, broad, acute spine; upper surface subcylindrical, 
deeply striate-foveolate, each puncture being furnished 
with a single scale, somewhat narrower than those cloth- 
ing the head and thorax ; each elytron with four 
distinct costge, the first and fourth unite just before 
the apex and form a single costa, which runs onwards 



New Species of Phytophaga. 89 

until it reaches the apex of the caudal spine ; the second 
and third unite just below the middle of the elytron, and 
are continued onwards as a single raised line, which 
gradually becomes less distinct, and is entirely lost be- 
fore reaching the point of junction of the first pair. Legs 
coarsely granulose, clothed, as well as the abdomen, with 
adpressed obcuneiform scales, those on the tarsi narrow 
and almost linear. 

E. Odewahnii agrees with E. alhipennis in the total 
absence (as a separate joint) of the fourth or claw joint 
of the tarsi ; in both species the third is entire, and 
evidently composed of the third and fourth so closely 
soldered together, that not the slightest trace of su- 
tural lines is visible even under a powerful lens; the 
unguiculi are entirely absent. This abnormal form of 
the tarsus was overlooked by me at the time of publica- 
tion of the Catalogue of Hispidce ; and is, I believe, 
peculiar to the two above-named insects. I cannot call 
to mind another instance amongst the extensive tribe of 
Phytophaga in which the claw is not fully developed as a 
distinct joint of the tarsus. 

Eurispa normalis . 

Filiformis, subcylindrica, nigra, nitida, albo-squamosa ; 
capite supra, femoribus tibiisque pallide rufo-piceis, 
thorace elytrisque sordide albidis; illo crebre foveo- 
lato-punctato, fusco-trivittato, vittis duabus exteri- 
oribus minus distinctis ; his apice attenuatis, utrisque 
in caudam acutam dehiscentem productis, striato- 
foveolatis, quadricostatis ; capite ante oculos vix pro- 
ducto; unguibus distinctis. 

Var. A. Thoracis vittis duabus obsoletis, pedibus nigris. 

Long. 3^ lin. 

Kah. — Queensland, Moreton Bay. 

Body clothed with adpressed, narrow obcuneiform 
scales, those on the legs, breast, and abdomen nearly 
linear. Head between the eyes scarcely produced, ob- 
tuse ; basal half of antennge obscure rufo-piceous. Thorax 
about one-third longer than broad, cylindrical, scarcely 
narrowed anteriorly, sides nearly parallel ; surface deeply 
foveolate-punctate. Elytra subcylindrical, rather shorter 
and broader than in E. Odeivahnvi, less produced at the 
apex, the apex of each elytron forming an acute tail ; 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART I. (aPRIL) . H 



90 Mr. J. S. Baly on Phytophaga. 

upper surface sculptured as in the preceding species. 
Claw large and distinct, articulating freely with the 
third joint ; outer edge of tibise stained with black. 

E. normalis resembles closely in form E. albipennis ; 
it may be known at once from that insect, as well as from 
E. Odeiuahnii, by the free claw joint. 

In the two specimens that I possess of this species, 
the thorax differs somewhat in form ; in one the thorax 
is distinctly shorter, and the sides are bisinuate ; this 
difference is probably sexual. 

Eurispa Sowittii. 

Filiformis, sub cylindrica, nigra, nitida, albo-squamosa ; 
capite ante oculos vix producto, vertice nigro-piceo, 
pedibus (tarsis exceptis) abdomineque pallide rufo- 
piceis; thorace elytrisque albo-fuscis; thorace sub- 
conico, minus crebre foveolato-punctato, medio vitta 
nigro-picea ornato, lateribus vix sinuatis, albo-linea- 
tis ; elytris subcylindricis, extus albo-limbatis, striato- 
foveolatis, interstitiis apicem versus subcostatis, 
apice attenuatis, utrisque in caudam acutam dorso 
carinatam productis ; unguibus distinctis. 

Long. 3| lin. 
Hah. — Melbourne. 

Body clothed with adpressed, narrow, white obcunei- 
form scales, those on the legs linear. Thorax nearly a 
third longer than broad, subconic, sides slightly converg- 
ing from base to apex, upper surface less closely punc- 
tured than in E. normalis, lateral border slightly thick- 
ened, white. Elytra attenuated at the apex, each pro- 
duced into a long acute tail ; surface deeply striate- 
foveolate, interspaces behind the middle costate, the 
costce uniting near the apex of the elytron into a single 
strongly raised ridge, which runs along the caudal spine 
to its apex. 

Closely allied to the last described species, differing 
principally in the more conical and less closely punctured 
thorax, and in the absence of the elevated costse on the 
anterior half of the elytra ; it possibly may be a local 
variety. 



( 01 ) 

XIV, A Bevision of the British Species o/Homalota. By 
David Sharp, M.B. 

[Read 5tb April, 1869.] 

Having undertaken the revision of the British species of 
the genus Hom-alota, with a view to the completion, as 
far as possible, of a list of the native species, I now offer 
the results of my study in the form of detailed descrip- 
tions of all our species. I hope thus to enable such as 
are willing to give the necessary care to the task to de- 
termine their specimens of this most difficult genus. 

Mr. Waterhouse's last catalogue contains eighty-nine 
species of Eomalota ; of these, two find no place in my 
paper, viz., H. dehiUcornis (to which a ? is attached by 
Mr. Waterhouse), because I have found no specimen of 
it extant ; and H. parvula, which has already been de- 
clared by Mr. Watei'house to be a synonym of another 
of the species of his catalogue. The present paper con- 
tains descriptions of 157 species, of which twenty-nine 
are considered as previously undescribed. 

The length of the descriptive part of this paper is so 
great, that I must refer the student to the works of 
Erichson and Kraatz for all generalities with regard to 
the genus ; for a like reason I have limited the synonymy 
to the quotation of the original description, and to refer- 
ences to Erichson^s " Genera et Species Staphylinorum," 
to Kraatz's 2nd vol. of the '^ Insecten Deutschland^s,^' 
to Thomson's " Skandinavien's Coleoptera," and to Mr. 
Waterhouse's catalogue. 

I must, however, say a few words as to the arrange- 
ment I have adopted. 

In a genus containing such an inordinate number of 
species as does the present one,* an arrangement by 
which it shall be possible to discover the position of a 
species without wading through an enormous number of 
unclassified diagnoses, becomes absolutely necessary. 
Thomson in his Skand. Col. has endeavoured to ac- 
complish this by the division of the genus, as understood 
by Erichson, by Kraatz, and by Lacordaire, into no less 
than thirty distinct genera ; but the result of his attempt 
is to much increase, instead of to diminish, the difficulty 

* Harold's catalogue gives 412 as the number of described species of 
the geuus, and Stein's recent catalogue of the European species makes 
their number 230. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART II. (mAy). I 



92 Dr. Sharp's Eevision of the 

of determination of the species. Moreover, the undoubted 
fact, that the species of the genus are, as a whole, closely 
allied to one another, is disregarded by his having inter- 
posed amongst these divisions a very considerable number 
of quite alien genera ; as an instance of this, H. incana 
is separated from the pretty closely allied if. nigella by a 
crowd of Falagrice, Caloderce, Tachyusce, Oxypodm, and 
even Myllcenoe. I have found myself quite unable to 
take advantage of Thomson's divisions in any way ; but 
I cannot notice his work, without bearing testimony to 
the originality, acumen, and zeal, of which it displays 
abundant marks. 

Ki'aatz has, in the Insecten Deutschlands, proposed a 
system of arrangement which has been found to be, on 
the whole, a very serviceable one. I have, therefore, 
adhered to this in the main ; though, as it has seemed to 
me capable of simplification in some respects, I have in- 
troduced considerable modifications. Kraatz's division 
of the genus into two main groups, — I, with elytra longer 
than the thorax ; — II, with elytra not longer than the 
thorax — is altogether artificial, and of but little actual use, 
as the first division contains 136 species, the second only 
six. I have, therefore, put it entirely on one side, and 
placed the few species with short elytra in immediate 
proximity with their respective allies. 

Kraatz gives altogether thirteen groups. I propose to 
amalgamate some of these, and reduce the number of 
sections to eight, as given hereafter ; and, moreover, to 
arrange the species, in each section, in natural groups, 
in such cases as I am able to find characters for these. 
It must be understood, howevei% that the sections and 
groups are often apparently but little natural, or charac- 
teristic, as regards certain individual species ; and that 
the device is adopted as a mere artificial assistance to 
study, no actual lines of separation existing in nature 
between the various groups and sections. 

I may add, that I am proposing to attempt something 
towards the completion of the knowledge of the European 
species of the genus, if I can obtain the necessary material, 
and shall feel much obliged to those who will assist me by 
the communication of specimens. 

I have already received the kindest assistance from 
most of our British entomologists who have collections 



British Species of Ilomalota. 93 

of this g-enus^ notably from Messieurs Crotch, Power, 
Rye, and Waterhouse : while M. Ch. Brisout de Barneville 
has, by the loan of his types of species recently described 
by him, rendered me an assistance for which I return 
him my most sincere thanks : from Messieurs Scriba, 
Fauvel, Thomson, and others, I have also received 
important communications, and specimens ; and I most 
cordially thank my friend Mr. G. R. Crotch, of Cam- 
bridge, for the zealous assistance he has been able and 
willing to render me, by means of his extensive relations 
with European Coleopterists. 

I adopt, then, eight sections. 

A. Abdomen parallel ; thoeax quadeate (about as 

BROAD AS long) ; THE SIX PENULTIMATE JOINTS OP 
THE ANTENNiE LONGER THAN BROAD, OR NEARLY AS 
LONG AS BROAD. 

(Contains groups I. — V. Species 1 — 35) . 

B. Abdomen parallel; thorax quadrate, or subquad- 

RATE ; SIX PENULTIMATE JOINTS OF THE ANTENNA 
TRANSVERSE, BUT NOT VERY STRONGLY SO. 

(Croups VI. and VII. Species 36 — 54) . 

C. Abdomen parallel; thorax quadrate, or subquad- 

RATE ; six PENULTIMATE JOINTS OF THE ANTENNAE 
STRONGLY TRANSVERSE. 

(Groups VIII. and IX. Species 55—63) . 

D. Abdomen parallel ; thorax moderately transverse, 

ITS SIDES evenly ROUNDED. 

(Groups X.— XII. Species 64—78) . 

E. Abdomen parallel ; thorax distinctly or strongly 

TRANSVERSE ; PENULTIMATE JOINTS OJ" THE ANTENNiG 
NOT, OR BUT MODERATELY, TRANSVERSE. 

(Groups XIII.— XV. Species 79—107) . 

F. Abdomen parallel ; thorax strongly transverse ; 

PENULTIMATE JOINTS OP THE ANTENNA STRONGLY 
TRANSVERSE. 

(Groups XVI and XVII. Species 108—122) . 

G. Abdomen a little narrowed to the apex ; the hind- 

er ANGLES OP THE THORAX WELL MARKED : LIVE IN 

ANTS NESTS. 

(Group XVIII. Species 123—125) . 



94 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

H. Abdomen more or less distinctly narrowed; hinder 

ANGLES OP THE THORAX ROUNDED. 

(Groups XIX.— XXII . Species 1 26—157) . 



Section A. 

Group I. Ahdomen with the sixth segment nearly im- 
punctate. Male with a tubercle or Jceel on the upper side of 
the sixth abdominal segment. (Species 1 — 7). 

The seven species contained in this group form a really- 
natural and well-defined cluster. H. languida is found 
in marshes, as is also sometimes H. pavens ; the others 
occur only on the banks of rivers and lochs. 



1. Homalota ciirrax. 

Depressa, sat lata, nigro-fusca, subtiliter punctata, pe- 
dibus obscure testaceis, antennis tenuibus, apicem versus 
haud incrassatis ; thorace basin versus angustato; elytris 
thorace longioribus ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-5 sat 
dense punctatis, segmento sexto Isevigato. Long. 2 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento sexto dorsali medio ante 
apicem tuberculo acuto, 7° apice denticulis 4 instructo ; 
segmento 7° ventrali producto. 

H. currax, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 198 ; Wat. Cat. Brit. Col. 

A large, dark species, with slender legs and antennae, 
and close and fine punctuation. The antennee are as 
long as the head, thorax, and half the elytra, pitchy- 
black, the basal joints pitchy, slender, not thickened 
towards the apex, each joint considerably longer than 
broad, the second and third of about equal length ; from 
the fourth to the tenth each joint slightly shorter than 
the preceding one ; the eleventh joint abovit half as long 
again as the tenth, about the length of the first joint. 
Head black, broad, but evidently narrower than the 
thorax, with a distinct longitudinal impression on the 
upper surface ; very finely punctured, the palpi pitchy- 
testaceous. Thorax narrower than the elytra, about as 
broad as long, the sides rounded in front, then evidently 
narrowed behind the middle ; the base a good deal 
rounded, so that the posterior angles are very obtuse ', 



British Species of Homalota . 95 

very finely and closely punctured with a central longitu- 
dinal channel, beginning at an obscure impression in 
front of the scutellum, and not reaching to the front of 
the thorax. Elytra one-third longer, and nearly one- 
third broader than the thorax, their length about equal 
to their breadth, closely and very finely punctured. Ab- 
domen with segments 2-5 above distinctly and tolerably 
densely punctured, sixth smooth and shining. Legs dirty 
yellow. 

The male has on the upper surface of the sixth seg- 
ment of the abdomen, a large, pointed, keel-like, tubercle 
before the apex ; the hind margin of the seventh segment 
is furnished with four, small, distinct teeth, two placed 
very near one another in the middle, and one at each 
side ; between the middle ones and the external ones the 
margin is very obsoletely crenulate ; the under plate of 
the seventh segment is also narrower, and more pro- 
longed behind than in the female. 

A fine and very distinct species, not likely to be con- 
founded with any other. H. hyyrotopora is somewhat 
similar in appearance, but has shorter and stouter an- 
tennas, and the thorax scarcely narrowed behind. 

Found not uncommonly on the banks of rivers and 
streams in the North of England and Scotland. 

There are specimens of H. currax in the British Museum, 
sent by Dr. Kraatz ; they agree entirely with our British 
ones. 



2. Homalota languida. 

Subdepressa, nigro-fusca, dense subtilissime punctata, 
antennis abdominisque segmentorum marginibus rufo- 
fuscis, antennarum basi pedibusque flavis ; antennis 
elongatis, apicem versus lenissime incrassatis ; thorace 
subquadrato, basin versus vix angustato; elytris hoc 
longioribus ; abdcmine supra segmentis 2-5 subtiliter 
confertissime puiictatis, sexto laeviusculo. Long. l|-2 lin. 

Mas J abdomine segmento sexto supra in medio tuber- 
culo acuto, 7° apice denticulis 6, 4 intermediis approxi- 
matis, instructo ; segmento 7° ventrali apice medio ob- 
tuse angulato. 

H. languida, Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 318 ; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 86 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 213; Disopora languida, 
Th. Sk. Col. iii. 58. 



90 Dr. Sharp's Revisiotb oj the 

Var. — Minor, (long. 1| lin.) 

H. longicollis, Muls. Op. i. 18 ; Scriba, Berl. Ent. Zeit. 
1866, p. 379. 

Variat, colore fere toto testaceo, plus minus ve infuscato. 

A tolerably large, bvit rather narrow, species ; the an- 
tenntB are long, scarcely thickened towards the apex, 
first, second, and third joints elongate, and of about equal 
length, the third about half as long again as the fourth : 
from the fourth to the tenth each joint is a little shorter 
than the preceding one ; the length of each joint is greater 
than its breadth, eleventh joint about half as long again 
as the tenth. Head a little narrower than the thorax, 
with a distinct channel in front (often absent in the small 
var.); together with the thorax finely punctured and 
pubescent. Thorax narrower than the elytra, about as 
long as broad, the sides nearly straight, scarcely at all 
narrowed behind, thickly and finely punctured, with an 
obsolete fovea in the middle at the base. Elytra a little 
longer than the thorax, and redder in colour than it, 
about as long as broad, thickly and finely punctured. 
Abdomen with the hind margins of the segments paler ; 
segments 2-5 very densely and finely punctured, the sixth 
nearly impunctate. Legs yellow. 

The male has a distinct tubercle in the middle of the 
sixth abdominal segment, and the hind margin of the 
seventh is furnished with six small, but distinct teeth, 
four placed rather near one another in the middle, and 
one at each outside ; the seventh segment underneath is 
not rounded at the apex, but pointed, the point being, 
however, only a very obtuse angle. 

This is a very distinct species, and differs from the 
following by its thorax not narrowed behind, and its 
very densely punctured abdomen, as also by its difi'erent 
colour, antennae, &c. 

Yery rare. I have taken a male specimen at Hammer- 
smith Marshes, and have seen a few others from the 
neighbourhood of London. 

The small var. longicollis is also very rare, but has 
been several times taken near London; Scriba has fol- 
lowed Mulsant in regarding it as specifically distinct ; 
but he has considered the next following species as H. 
languida (I am indebted to him for the inspection of his 
types) ; so that his opinion must be put aside. 

Specimens of H. languida, sent by Kraatz to the British 
Museum, agree entirely with our British ones. 



British Species of Hotnalota. 97 

3. Homalota insecta. 

Fusco-picea, subdepressa, subnitida, subtiliter punc- 
tata, autennarum basi pedibusque testaceis, elytris fuscis ; 
thorace basin versus angustato, medio canaliculate ; ab- 
domine supra segmentis 2-5 dense subtiliter punctatis. 
Long. 2 lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento sexto medio tuberculo 
acuto, 7° apice denticulis 4 instructo. 

H. insecta, Tli. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1856, p. 93 ; Aloco- 
nota insecta, Tli. Sk. Col. iii. 8. H. languida, Scriba, 
Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1866, p. 379. 

A species nearly as large as H. currax, but narrower 
in proportion to its length than that species. Antennae 
pitchy-testaceous, with the base paler ; moderately stout, 
and evidently, though not 'strongly, thickened towards 
the apex : first, second, and third joints elongate, of 
about equal length ; fourth to ninth each of about equal 
length, but each one a little thicker than the preceding, 
so that though the length of the fourth joint is much 
greater than its width, the ninth is about as broad as 
long ; tenth scarcely transverse ; eleventh oblong-ovate, 
nearly twice as long as the tenth. Palpi testaceous. 
Head a little narrower than the thorax, much narrower 
than the elytra, with a distinct longitudinal impression on 
the upper surface ; finely punctured. Thorax narrower 
than the elytra, its length about equal to its breadth, the 
sides rounded in front, then distinctly narrowed from the 
middle towards the base, thickly and finely punctured, 
and with a distinct channel along the middle. Elytra 
narrower at the shoulders than at the apex, a little 
longer than the thorax, lighter in colour than the head 
and thorax, thickly and finely punctured. Abdomen with 
segments 2-5 evenly, and rather densely, and finely, 
punctured; sixth shining and nearly impunctate, ex- 
tremity of seventh a little paler. Legs yellow. 

The male has a distinct tubercle in the middle of the 
sixth segment above, and the apex of the seventh seg- 
ment furnished with four small indistinct teeth, varying 
in the extent of their development, and sometimes very 
obsolete. 

This species is closely allied to H. pavens, Er. It is 
on the average a little larger, has the head and the 
thorax more shining and more sparingly punctured, the 
antennae not so much thickened towards the apex, and 



98 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

with the joints longer than in pavens. The head and 
thorax are more distinctly channelled^ the thorax rather 
longer in proportion to its widths and more narrowed 
behind than in H. pavens. I have seen it placed in col- 
lections both as H. languida and H. pavens. It is readily 
distinguished from languida by the thicker joints of the 
antennae, the thorax narrowed behind, and the abdomen 
not so densely punctm^ed, 

I have seen no specimen named by Thomson, and have 
identified the species only by his description. He says 
(Sk. Col. iii. 9) , that the male characters are difierent from 
H. lissonura [pavens, Er.), but as he makes no mention 
whatever of what these characters are, I fancy the male 
of H. insecta was unknown to him, especially as it is 
much rarer than the female. 

Generally distributed, but uncommon. London, Scot- 
land, Carnarvon. 

I possess thirty-two specimens of this species, of which 
only three are males. 

4. Homalota pavens. 

Linearis, sub-opaca, dense subtiliter punctata, elytris 
antennisque fuscis, harum basi pedibusque testaceis; 
thorace subquadrato, basin versus subangustato, obsolete 
canaliculate ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-5 sat dense 
subtiliter punctatis, 6° Isevigato. Long. If lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento sexto medio carinula longi- 
tudinali elevata, segmenti apicem fere attingente, seg- 
mento 7° apice denticulis 4 instruct©. 

H. 'pavens, Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 689; Gen. et Spec. Staph, 
85; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii, 214. H. qui squili arum, Er. 
Kjif. Brand, i. 317; Heer, Faun. Col. Helv. 337. Aloco- 
nota lissonura, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 9. H. sulcifrons, Wat. 
Cat. 

Var. — Elytris thorace fere brevioribus. 

Larger than H. elongatula, and not so flat and de- 
pressed. The antennte are pitchy testaceous, with the 
base a little paler, moderately long and stout, a little 
thickened towards the apex; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd joints 
moderately long, of about equal length, the fourth joint 
not much more than one half the length of the third, 
from the 4th to the 10th each joint is shorter and a little 
stouter than its predecessor, 4th and 5th longer than 



British Species of Homalota. 99 

broad, 6-8 about as long as broad, 9 and 10 a little trans- 
verse, lltli ovate, acuminate, about twice as long as the 
tenth. Palpi testaceous. Head a little narrower than 
the thorax, thickly and finely punctured, with an obsolete 
fovea in front. Thorax narrower than the elytra, its 
length abovit equal to its breadth, the sides a little rounded 
in front, then slightly narrowed towards the base, densely 
and finely punctured, with a not very distinct channel. 
Elytra fuscous, scarcely longer than the thorax, not so 
long as broad, finely and tolerably densely punctured, 
the punctuation not so dense as on the thorax. Abdomen 
Avith segments 2-5 thickly and finely punctured, 6th 
nearly impunctate. Legs yellow. 

The male has an elongate raised tubercle on the upper 
side of the sixth abdominal segment, which reaches nearly 
to the apex, and the hind margin of the seventh segment 
is armed with four indistinct teeth. 

Not common. Nithsdale, Rannoch, Edinburgh, Brigh- 
ton. The male is much rarer than the female. 

I have a small variety found in Nithsdale, in which the 
elytra are not quite so long as the thorax. 

Ohs. — In the Brit. Mas. are four specimens of H. pa- 
vens sent by Dr. Kraatz ; these agree with the examples 
just described. It is, I believe, the H. sulcifrons of Mr. 
Waterhouse's Catalogue, but I cannot say with certainty 
whether it is Stephens^ Aleochara sulcifrons. His name 
would appear to point rather to H. insecta. 

5. Homalota Eichoffi. 

Depressa, nitidiuscula, nigro-fusca, antennis elytrisque 
fuscis, pedibus testaceis, subtiliter hand confertim punc- 
tata; capite subtriangulari, antennis tenuibus, apicem 
versus vix incrassatis ; thorace subquadrato, postice sub- 
angustato ; elytris hoc paullo longioribus ; abdomine supra 
segmentis 2-5 subtiliter minus crebre punctatis, segmento 
sexto fere leevigato. Long. 1\ lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento sexto supra medio tuberculo 
acuto; 7° apice medio denticulis 2, lateribus utrinque 
denticulo singulo obsolete, instruct©. 

H. Eichoffi, Scriba, Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1867, p. 390. 

A delicate fragile species allied to S. camhrica, {velox, 
Kr.) . Pitchy, shining, the antennae, legs, and elytra 



100 Dr. Sharp's Bevlsion of the 

paler; antennae rather long and slender, a little thick- 
ened towards the apex, third joint not quite so long as 
the second, about twice as long as the fourth, fourth not 
so long as fifth, 5-10 differing little in length, the 5th dis- 
tinctly, the 10th scarcely, longer than' broad, eleventh 
oval, half as long agaiu as the tenth. Head large, a little 
narrower than the thorax ; shining, narrowed in front, 
with an indistinct impression between the eyes, very finely 
punctured. Thorax but little narrower than the base of 
the elytra, its length about equal to its breadth, the sides 
a little narrowed towards the base ; very finely and pretty 
densely punctured, with a short channel or impression, 
in front of the scutellum. Elytra scarcely longer than 
the thorax, narrower at the base than at the apex, their 
length not quite so great as their width ; their punctuation 
not quite so fine as that of the thorax. Abdomen some- 
what narrowed towards the apex, segments 2-4 above 
finely and rather sparingly punctured, the fifth segment 
not quite so thickly punctured, 6th almost impunctate. 
Legs yellow. 

In the male the 6th abdominal segment is furnished 
above with a distinct pointed tubercle, and the posterior 
margin of the seventh with four teeth, two distinct ones 
placed close together in the middle, and an obsolete one 
on each side. 

Distinguished from H. camhrica, by being rather larger, 
n^o-e shining, with a differently shaped head, by its rather 
stouter antennse, and by its shorter and paler elytra. 

Found by Mr. Crotch and myself on the borders of 
Loch Eannoch in Perthshire, May, 1866. 

Obs. — Judging from description only, this species must 
be allied to H. debilicornis, Er., Kr., which species is 
placed as British in Mr. Waterhouse's Catalogue, but as 
I have never seen a British specimen, and there was 
probably a mistake in the determination, the name must 
be erased from our Catalogue. 

6. Honialota camhrica. 

Depressa, vix nitida, dense subtilissime punctata, an- 
tennis elytrisque fuscis, pedibus testaceis ; antennis ten- 
uibus; thorace subquadrato, posticevix angustato; elytris 
hoc fere sesqui longioribus; abdomine supra segmentis 
2-5 subtiliter sat crebre punctatis, segmento sexto lasvi- 
gato. Long. 1^ lin. 



British Species of Homalota. 101 

Mas; abdomine segmento sexto supra medio tuberculo 
acuto ; segmento 7° margine posteriore medio deuticulis 
2, utrinque denticulo obsoleto instructo. 

H. camhrica, Wollaston, Zoologist, 1855, App. p. ccv. 
H. velox, Kr. Ins. Deutscli. ii. 201. 

Var. — Capite antice foveolato. 

A delicately formed species, somewhat like H. gre- 
garia, but much smaller and more fragile. Antenna 
slender, longer than the head and thorax, scarcely at all 
thickened towards the apex, pitchy or pitchy testaceous, 
joints 1, 2, 3 moderately long, of about equal length, the 
3rd about half as long again as the fourth, 4-10 differing 
but little in length, each longer than broad, eleventh 
oblong, about half as long again as the tenth. Head sub- 
quadrate, a little narrower than the thorax, finely punc- 
tured. Thorax about as long as broad, scarcely narrowed 
behind, a little narrower than the elytra, thickly and very 
finely punctured. Elytra a little paler in colour than the 
head and thorax, longer by a half than the latter, their 
length greater than their width, very thickly and finely 
punctured. Abdomen with segments 2-5 finely, but not 
very densely punctured, the sixth nearly impunctate. 
Legs slender, yellow. 

In some examples the head has a fovea in front, and 
the thorax is more or less distinctly channelled. Also in 
some specimens, each elytron has a distinct impression 
near the apex ; the antennas also are a little more thick- 
ened towards the apex in some specimens, than in others. 

The male has a large raised tubercle on the middle of 
the upper surface of the sixth segment of the abdomen, 
and the apex of the seventh segment is furnished with 
four teeth, two small distinct ones placed together in the 
middle, and a scarcely visible one on each side ; more- 
over the hind margin of the seventh segment underneath 
takes the form of an obtuse angle in the male, while it is 
gently rounded in the female. 

Common amongst the shingle on the banks of the 
Scotch rivers, also in Wales. 

Ohs. I. — In the British Museum are specimens of H. 
velox sent by Dr. Kraatz; these agree with the species 
I am at present considering. 

Obs. II. — Mr. Wollaston's description of H. camhrica, 
(loc. cit.) evidently refers to an immature form of this 
species ; one of the examples thei'e described is now in 



102 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Mr. Crotch's collection^ and is undoubtedly an immature 
female of H. velox, Kr. Moreover the locality where it 
was taken (Bettws-y-coed) has since produced H. velox 
commonly, and no other species to which Mr. Wollaston's 
description could be applied. Hence, as the name H. 
camhrica is anterior to Kraatz's by two years, I have 
adopted it. 

7. Homalota planifrons. 

Subdepressa, subnitida, nigro-fusca, antennis elytris- 
que fuscis, pedibus testaceis ; subtiliter hand confertim 
punctata ; antennis apicem versus paullo incrassatis, ar- 
ticulis penultimis subtransversis, capite subtriangulari ; 
thorace subquadrato, postice subangustato ; elytris hoc 
paullo longioribus ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 sub- 
tiliter, hand crebre punctatis, segmento quinto parcius 
punctato. Long. 1| lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento sexto supra medio tuberculo 
acuto, 7° apice denticulis quatuor, instructo. 

H. planifrons, Wat. Proc. Ent. Soc. Lend. 1863, p. 
150. [H. platycephala, errore) . 

About the size and appearance of H. gregaria, but 
more shining and more sparingly punctured. Antennas 
of moderate stoutness, but little thickened towards the 
apex; joints 1-3 of about equal length, 4 shorter than 5, 
only about half as long as 3, 5-10 differing little in length, 
the first of them a little longer, the last of them a little 
shorter than broad, eleventh joint ovate, half as long 
again as the tenth. Head a little narrower than the 
thorax, sub triangular, narrowed in front, with a distinct 
channel on the upper sidej sparingly and finely punc- 
tured. Thorax narrower than the elytra, about as long 
as broad, a little narrowed behind, pretty densely and 
finely punctured, with a distinct channel or impression 
along the middle. Elytra paler in colour than the head 
and thorax ; a little longer than the latter, finely and 
somewhat sparingly punctured. Abdomen with segments 
2-4 finely but not densely punctured ; fifth segment 
rather more sparingly punctured than the fourth, sixth 
nearly smooth. Legs testaceous. 

The male has the sixth segment of the abdomen fur- 
nished on the upper side, in the middle, with a distinct 
acute tubercle, and the posterior margin of the seventh 



British Species of Homalota. 103 

segment with four teeth ; two placed close together in 
the middle, and one at the outside of the segment on 
each side. 

This species resembles H. Eichoffi, in the shape of the 
head, but is less depressed, and more robust than that 
species ; the antennse are not so slender, and are more 
thickened towards the apex, and the punctuation is more 
sparing. From H. gregaria, which it resembles in size 
and appearance, H. planifrons may be distinguished by 
its head narrowed in front, its more sparingly punc- 
tured upper surface, and the male characters. It also 
resembles H. elongatula somewhat, but has a difi'erently 
shaped head, the thorax narrowed behind, and different 
male characters. 

Found in the neighboui'hood of London, but apparently 
very rare. I have seen only five specimens of it, and of 
these but one is a male. 

Group II. Small, delicate species, with all the segments 
of the abdomen punctured ; antennce not at all thickened 
towards the apex. (Species 8 — 12). 

The five species of this group are all found under 
stones on the banks of rivers, and nowhere else ; they 
form a well-defined and natural group, with the exception 
that in H. suhtilissima the structure of the antennae is 
somewhat different from that of the other species. 

8. Homalota eximia. 

Depressa, nigro-fusca, elytris fuscis, ore, antennis, 
pedibus, anoque testaceis, dense subtilissime punctata ; 
antennis gracillimis, apicem versus hand incrassatis; 
capite thoraceque canaliculatis, hoc subquadrato, basin 
versus paulo angustato ; elytris thorace longioribus ; ab- 
domine supra crebre Eequaliter punctate. Long. 1 lin. 

Mas ; antennis paulo longioribus, abdomine segmento 
7° ventrali longe producto. 

Fem. ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice medio 
leviter emarginato. 

H. fragilicornis, Wat. Cat. (Kr. ? ?) . 

About the size and build of H. fragilis, Kr. Antennae 
slender, elongate, entirely yellow, not at all thickened 



104 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

towards tlie apex^ each joint with the length very dis- 
tinctly greater than the breadth ; joint three a little 
shorter than two ; four about half as long as two ; fi^e 
half as long again as four ; five to eleven differing but 
little in length and breadth, the eleventh being only a 
little longer than the tenth. Palpi and mouth yellow. 
Head scarcely narrower than the thorax, slightly nar- 
rowed in front, with a distinct channel, closely and very 
finely punctured. Thorax a little narrower than the 
elytra, its length almost as great as its width, gently 
narrowed behind, closely and finely punctured, with a 
distinct longitudinal channel. Elytra fuscous, paler to- 
wards the apex, about one-third longer than the thorax, 
closely and very finely punctured. Abdomen blackish, 
with the extremity yellowish, its punctuation not so fine 
and dense as that of the thorax and elytra, but the seg- 
ments above are finely and pretty closely punctured, the 
punctuation on the sixth segment being a little more 
sparing than on the others. Legs testaceous, with the 
tarsi comparatively short and stout. 

In the male, the joints of the antennae are a little 
longer than in the female ; and the ventral plate of the 
seventh segment of the abdomen is very much produced, 
it is also very broad, and not narrowed towards the apex, 
which is truncate, with the apical angles rounded. 

This species is allied to H. fragilis, but is lighter in 
colour, with longer joints to the antennge, the head a 
little broader behind the eyes, &c. It is the fragilicornis 
of Mr. Waterhouse's catalogue, but I cannot make up 
my mind that it agrees sufficiently with Kraatz's descrip- 
tion of that species. 

On the banks of the Scotch rivers, but very rare. 
Found at Peebles, the Nith at Thornhill and Dumfries, 
the Almond near Edinburgh. 

9 . Horn a lota fragilis . 

Depressa, nigra, confertim subtilissime punctata, an- 
tennis elytrisque fuscis, pedibus testaceis; antennis 
apicem versus hand incrassatis, capite fere quadrate, 
foveolato; thorace subquadrato, elytris paulo angustiore, 
leviter canaliculate ; elytris hoc tertia parte longioribus ; 
abdomine supra segmentis 5 anterioribus crebre subtiliter 
punctatis, sexto sparsius punctate. Long. 1 lin. 



British Species of Ilomalota. 105 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali paulo elongate, 
apice rotundato. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice medio 
leviter emarginato. 

H.fragilis, Kr. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xv. 125 ; Ins. Deutsch. 
ii. 223 ; Wat. Cat. 

Var. — Thorace medio late impresso. 

Black, with the elytra pitchy-black, and the legs tes- 
taceous ; antenna pitchy, slender, not thickened towards 
the apex, the length of each joint greater than its 
breadth ; second and third joints of about equal length ; 
four to ten differing but little from one another in length, 
eleventh about a third longer than the tenth. The head 
is a little narrower than the thorax, nearly square, with 
a distinct channel, or fovea ; thickly and finely punc- 
tured. Thorax somewhat narrower than the elytra, its 
length nearly as great as its breadth, a little narrowed 
behind, thickly and very finely punctured, with a channel 
along the middle, beginning from an obscure impression 
behind. The elytra are slightly paler in colour than the 
head and thorax, fully one-third longer than the latter, 
densely and very finely punctured. The abdomen is 
black, its punctuation not so fine or dense as that of the 
fore parts ; segments two to five are thickly and finely 
punctured ; sixth segment more sparingly punctured 
than the fifth. 

In the male, the under plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment is a little more produced than the upper plate, 
and has its posterior margin rounded. In the female, 
the seventh under plate is gently eixiarginate in the 
middle. 

This species is very abundant on the banks of the 
rivei's and streams everywhere in Scotland. 

A variety occurs in which the thorax has a broad long- 
itudinal impression along the middle ; some examples are 
also darker in colour tha.n the type, and have the legs 
nearly black. 

10. Ilomalota longula. 

Depressa, nigra, confertissime subtilissimeque punc- 
tata, antennis tenuibus, apicem versus haud incrassatis, 
fuscis, pedibus piceo-testaceis ; capite quadrate, obsolete 
impresso; thorace subquadrato, canaliculate, basin versus 



106 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

vix angustato; elytris thorace tertia parte longioribus; 
abdomine supra toto confertissime subtilissimeque punc- 
tate. Long'. 1 lin, 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali paululum pro- 
ducto apice rotundato. 

Fern.; segmento 7° ventrali apice rotundato. 

H. longula, Heer, Faun. Col. Helv. 334. Hydrosmecta 
longula, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 13. 

Size and form of H. fragilis. Antennae pitchy^ slender, 
not thickened towards the apex, each joint longer than 
broad, joint two longer than three, four shorter than 
three, five to ten differing but little in length, eleventh 
rather longer than the tenth. Head a little narrower 
than the thorax; nearly square, not narrowed in front j 
thickly and very finely punctured, with a more or less 
obsolete impression on the middle. Thorax a little nar- 
rower than the elytra, its length about equal to its breadth, 
scarcely narrowed behind ; with a not very distinct long- 
itudinal channel ; closely and very finely punctured. The 
elytra are fully one third longer than the thorax, and are 
also very densely and very finely punctured. The whole 
of the upper surface of the abdomen is very densely and 
finely punctured. 

The male is not easy to distinguish from the female, 
the only difference being that the ventral plate of the 
seventh segment of the abdomen is a little narrowed, and 
more produced than in the female. 

Rare. I have found it on the banks of a tributary of 
the Nith, near Dumfries, and also on the banks of the 
Bowmont at Yetholm ; a few specimens were also formerly 
taken by Mr. Wollaston at Slapton Ley. 

This species is very like H. fragilis, but is easily dis- 
tinguished by its much more densely and finely punctured 
abdomen, and its darker colour. 

Ohs. — This species accords sufficiently well with Heer's 
description of H. longula. Kraatz's thinohioides is gen- 
erally supposed to be synonymous with H. longula, Heer, 
but I cannot find that Kraatz's description agrees accu- 
rately with my specimens ; moreover two examples of 
H. thinohioides sent by Ki^aatz to the British Museum, 
are specifically distinct from the present species. Mr. 
WoUaston's H. thinohioides from Madeira, is also a dif- 
ferent species from the present one, having its head nar- 



British Species of Homalota. 107 

rowed in front, and paler legs, &c. I cannot say, how- 
ever, that the insect from Madeira agrees with the 
specimens of thinohioides from Kraatz in the British 
Museum, not having had an opportunity of comparing 
them. 



11. Homalota delicatula. 

Linearis, depressa, fusca, elytris dilutioribus, antennis 
pedibusque testaceis, supra dense subtilissime punctata; 
antennis elongatis, apicem versus haud incrassatis ; abdo- 
mine supra dense subtilissime aequaliter punctato. Long, 
flin. 

Very much of the size and appearance of H. subtilis- 
sima, but really allied to S. longida, of which, however, 
it is only one-half the size. Fuscous, with the elytra 
paler, the antennee and legs testaceous. Antennae nearly 
as long as the head, thorax, and elytra ; not thickened 
towards the apex, the length of each joint greater than 
the breadth, joint two longer than three, four shorter than 
three, five to ten differing little in length, the eleventh 
oblong, about one-third longer than the tenth. Head 
subquadrate, scarcely narrower than the thorax, very 
little narrowed in front, densely but very finely punctured. 
Thorax scarcely narrower than the elytra, its length 
about equal to its breadth, a little narrowed behind, 
densely and very obsoletely punctured. Elytra paler 
than the head and thorax, one-third longer than the latter, 
very densely and finely punctured. Abdomen with all the 
segments above equally densely and very finely punc- 
tured. Legs pale testaceous. 

I have not been able clearly to distinguish the male 
from the female ; probably the differences are the same 
as in H. Jongida. In some examples^ the head and thorax 
are channelled, in others not. 

Extremely rare. Found by me on the banks of the 
Nith, at Thornhill, and by Mr. Crotch, at Eannoch. 

Ohs. — This species can only be confounded with H. 
suhtilissima or H. longula; from the former, its long an- 
tennge and densely punctured abdomen readily distin- 
guish it. It is only half the size of H. longida, is of a 
much paler colour, and the punctuation of the abdomen 
is not quite so dense and fine. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART II. (mAy) . K 



108 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

12. Homalota suhtilissima. 

Linearis, subdepressa, fusca, thorace elytrisque dilu- 
tioribus, antennis pedibus anoque testaceis ; antennis 
apicem versus baud incrassatis ; tborace subquadrato, 
canaHculato ; elytris hoc longioribus ; abdomine supra 
sequaliter subtiliter sat confertim punctate. Long. 
|lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali paululum pro- 
ducto. 

H. suhtilissima, Kr. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xv. 12G ; Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 230. 

Var. — Thorace hand vel vix canaHculato. 

A very small species, of delicate formation and colour- 
ing. Antennae testaceous, moderately stout, but not 
thickened towards the apex ; joints one and two rather 
stout, and of moderate length ; three not much more 
than half as long as two, much narrowed at the base ; 
four shorter than three, subquadrate ; five a little longer 
and stouter than four ; five to nine differing little from 
one another in length and breadth, each one distinctly 
narrowed towards the base, the length of each very 
nearly as great as the breadth ; ten rather longer than 
nine, the eleventh joint half as long again as the tenth. 
Head subquadrate, with a distinct impression above, very 
finely and pretty densely punctured. Thorax rather 
wider than the head, and a little narrower than the elytra ; 
its length about equal to its breadth, a little narrowed 
behind, with a longitudinal channel in the middle, ex- 
tremely finely and pretty closely punctured. Elytra 
lighter in colour than the head and thorax, and not so 
shining ; fully one-third longer than the thorax, densely 
and very finely punctured, the punctuation denser than 
on the rest of the upper surface. Abdomen with all the 
segments on the upper side finely and tolerably closely 
punctured, the punctuation of the terminal segments 
being rather more sparing than that of the basal ones, 
its apex testaceous. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the seventh abdominal segment underneath 
is rather more produced than in the female, and its hind 
margin is rather more rounded. 

Common on the banks of the Scotch rivers ; it is found 
in company with Thinohius linearis, which it resembles 
greatly in colour and appearance. 



British Species of Homalota. 109 

Obs. — This species has very much the structure of H. 
elongatula and its allies; but its very small size^ and its 
facieSj associate it rather with the foregoing species. My 
specimens agree entirely with examples of H. subtiUs- 
sima, sent by Kraatz to the British Museum. 

Group III. Species of moderate size, witJi all the seg- 
inents of the abdomen punctured, and the antennce slightly 
thickened toivards the apex. (Species 13 — 19) . 

The species forming this group have much the habits 
of the members of the genus Tachyusa, and are to be 
found running about in company with them in muddy 
places, in marshes, on the banks of rivers, and on the 
coast. The species differ a good deal in appearance. 
JB". plumhea has been described as an Aleoehara ; it has 
much the colour and appearance of Aleocliara grisea, and 
its allies, in company with which it is found. H. fallax 
approaches very closely to Oxypoda. 

13. Homalota littorea. 

Nigra, antennis elytris anoque fuscis, pedibus fusco- 
testaceis; antennis apicem versus leviter incrassatis; 
capite subrotundato, thorace evidenter angustiore ; 
thorace longitudine latitudine breviore ; elytris hoc tertia 
parte longioribus, cum capite thoraceque subtiliter con- 
fertim punctatis ; abdomine supra dense sequaliter minus 
subtiliter punctate. Long. Ij lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali evidenter pro- 
ducto, angusto, apice rotundato. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° ventrali latiore, apice medio vix 
evidenter emarginato. 

H. Jluviatilis, Wat. Cat. (Kr. ? ?) . 

A rather shining and but little depressed species. 
Antennae pitchy, mth the basal joint a little paler ; longer 
than the head and thorax, moderately stout, a little 
thickened towards the apex ; first and second joints mo- 
derately long and stout ; third a little shorter than the 
second, narrowed towards the base ; fourth shorter than 
third ; four to ten differing but little from one another 
in length, the first of them distinctly longer than broad, 
the last of them about as long as broad ; eleventh joint 

k2 



110 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

ovate, nearly twice as long as the tenth. Head much 
smaller than the thorax, not much more than half the 
width of the elytra, obsoletely and not very closely punc- 
tured. Thorax distinctly narrower than the elytra, a 
little shorter than broad, a little narrowed behind, with 
an indistinct fovea in the middle of the base ; densely 
and very finely punctured, and with extremely delicate 
pubescence. Elytra lighter in colour than the head and 
thorax, about one-fourth longer than the latter ; their 
breadth rather greater than their length, densely and 
finely punctured, and delicately pubescent. The abdomen 
is black, and rather shining, with the apex lighter in 
colour ; all the segments are thickly and equally punc- 
tured, the punctuation and pubescence being much 
coarser than on the front parts of the body. The legs 
are dirty yellow. 

In the male, the under plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment is considerably produced, and narrower than in 
the female. In the female, the hind margin of the same 
plate, as well as being broader than in the male, is in the 
middle very gently emarginate. 

Rare. I have found it in muddy places, on the sea 
shore, at Deal and Brighton, and it has been taken in 
other localities ; always on the sea shore. 

H. littorea is best compared with H. luteipes, than 
which it is rather smaller ; the antennge are shorter, the 
thorax is much shorter and broader, and the punctua- 
tion of the abdomen is a little coarser and more sparing. 

Ohs. — The above is the insect referred to as possibly 
H. iiuviatilis, Kr. (in Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1858, p. 16.) 
by *Mr. Waterhouse ; but it conforms neither with Kraatz's 
description, nor with specimens of H. fl.uviatilis, sent by 
Kraatz to the British Museum. Moreover, I have seen 
a specimen which has been sent to Dr. Kraatz, and re- 
turned by him marked "H. nov. spec, ex affinitate H. 
elongatula." 

14. Homalota imbecilla. 

Depressa, nigro-fusca, antennis ore ano pedibusque 
testaceis, elytris ferrugineis ; antennis elongatis, apicem 
versus vix incrassatis ; thorace transversim subquadrato ; 
elytris hoc paulo longioribus; abdomine supra toto con- 
fertim evidenter punctato. Long. 1^ lin. 



British Species of liomalota. Ill 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali producto, apice 
I'otundato. 

Fern.; segmento 7° ventrali apice medio emarginato. 
H. imbecilla, Wat. Proc. Bnt. Soc. Lond. 1858, p. 16. 

A moderate-sized, depressed, rather brightly coloured 
species. The antennae are much longer than the head and 
thorax, moderately stout, scarcely at all thickened to- 
wards the apex, the length of each joint greater than its 
breadth ; first joint rather stout ; two and three more 
slender than it, of about equal length ; four shorter than 
three, five rather longer than four; five to ten differing 
but little from one another in length and breadth, the 
length of each distinctly greater than its breadth; 
eleventh joint oblong-ovate, elongate, quite as long as 
the two preceding joints together. Head nearly black, 
suborbiculate, a little narrowed in front, narrower than 
the thorax, finely but not densely punctured. Thorax 
pitchy-black, narrower than the elytra, a little broader 
than long, slightly narrowed behind, finely and rather 
densely punctured, and with an obsolete impression be- 
hind. Elytra a little longer than the thorax, their length 
scarcely equal to their breadth, thickly and not altogether 
finely punctured. Abdomen with distinct and not very 
fine pubescence, all the segments pretty densely and 
finely punctured, the sixth segment, however, rather 
more sparingly than the anterior ones, the seventh seg- 
ment, and hind part of the sixth, reddish-yellow. Legs 
yellow. 

In the male, the under plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is considerably produced, and its hind 
margin gently rounded, while in the female it is broadly 
and distinctly emarginate. 

Found rarely, under sea-weed, in various parts of the 
south of England, Brighton, Lymington, Chatham, 

Obs. — This species occurs in various parts of France, 
and is generally called meridionalis, Muls., which is, 
however (according to Kraatz) a darker coloured species 
with shorter penultimate joints to the antennse, &c. M. 
Brisout de Barneville has forwarded me a specimen taken 
at Hyeres, with the remark, that it is stated by Kraatz 
to be " pas meridionalis, Muls.'^ 

15. Homalota luteipes. 

Nigra, antennis elongatis piceis, elytris ferrugineis, 
pedibus testaceis ; capite angusto ; thorace subquadrato. 



112 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

postice hand angustato; elytris hoc paulo longioribus; 
abdomine supra eequaliter dense subtiliter punctate. 
Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali pavilulum pro- 
ducto ; capite evidenter feveolato. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° ventrali apice medio anguste sed 
distincte exciso. 

H. luteipes, Er. Kiif. Brand, i. 320; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 88 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 224 ; Wat. Cat. Dilacra 
luteipes, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 32. 

Somewhat like a small H. elongatula, but not so de- 
pressed, and narrower in front. Antennae pitchy, 
elongate, rather slender, slightly thickened towards the 
apex ; joints two and three of about equal length, 
slender ; four much shorter than three, five longer than 
four; five to ten differing but little in length, and each 
very slightly broader than the preceding one, none of 
the joints transverse ; eleventh joint rather long, ovate, 
half as long again as the tenth. Head narrower than the 
thorax, not much more than half the breadth of the 
elytra, with a fovea in the middle, indistinct in the 
female, distinct in the male, finely and pretty densely 
punctured. Thorax narrower than the elytra, sub- 
quadrate, its length about equal to its breadth, not nar- 
rowed behind, even a little narrowed towards the front, 
closely and finely punctured, not channelled, with a very 
small and indistinct fovea in front of the scutellum. 
Elytra ferruginous, darker towards the base ; a little 
longer than the thorax, closely and finely punctured. 
All the segments of the abdomen above are very closely 
and finely punctured, the sixth not at all more sparingly 
than the others. The legs are bright yellow. 

In the male the antennee are a little more slender than 
in the female ; the fovea on the head is more distinct, 
and the seventh segment of the abdomen underneath is 
a little produced, with its apex rounded; while in the 
female the hind margin of this segment is, in the middle, 
narrowly but distinctly emarginate. 
Rare. Horning and Hammersmith. 
Obs. — The dense punctuation of the abdomen, together 
with the structure of the head and thorax, easily distin- 
guish this from all other species. Thomson remarks that 
it bears a little resemblance to Oxypoda longiuscula. 
Specimens sent by Kraatz to the British Museum agree 
entirely with our English ones. 



British Species of Homalota. 113 

16. Homalota labilis. 

N'igra, nitida^ antennis piceisj pedibus testaceis^ femor- 
ibus infuscatis ; antennis apicem versus paulo incrassatis -, 
thorace sub quadrate, cum capite elytrisque subtiliter 
sat confertim punctate ; abdomine supra sequaliter con- 
fertim subtiliter punctate. Long. 1^-1^ lin. 

Mas ; capite impresso, abdomine segment© 7° ventrali 
evidenter producto, angusto, apice rotundato-ovali. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° ventrali apice medio obsolete, vix 
evidenter, emarginato. 

H. labilis, Er. Kiif. Brand, i. 699 ; Gen. et Spec. Staph. 
88 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 226 ; Wat. Cat. Gnypeta labilis, 
Th. Sk. Col. iii. 7. 

Var. — Hobustior, pedibus nigris, genubus tarsisque 
testaceis. 

H. ccerulea, Wat. Cat. 

A black and very shining species. Antennse of moder- 
ate length and thickness, a little thickened towards the 
apex ; pitchy, sometimes paler at the base ; second and 
third joints rather long, third nearly as long as the second ; 
five to ten differing but little in length ; the first of them 
a little longer than, the last of them scarcely so long as, 
broad; eleventh about half as long again as the tenth. 
Head but little narrower than the thorax, extremely 
finely, but pretty densely punctured. Thoi-ax consider- 
ably narrower than the elytra ; a little narrowed behind, 
its length about equal to its breadth, with an impression 
in front of the scutellum ; extremely finely and tolerably 
densely punctured. Elytra about a fourth part longer 
than the thorax; very finely and pretty densely punc- 
tured. Abdomen with all the segments above densely 
and finely punctured ; the sixth not more sparingly than 
the others ; both the punctuation and pubescence are 
more distinct than those of the fore parts. The legs are 
yellowish, with the thighs (and the tibiee more or less) 
infuscate. 

In the male the head has a distinct impression on the 
upper surface, and the seventh abdominal segment under- 
neath is narrow, and distinctly produced. 

Common on the muddy banks of rivers and ponds. 
It runs with great rapidity in the warm sunshine of spi'ing 
days. 



114 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Ohs. — The variety with black legs is also generally 
larger, broader, and more robust. The species also varies 
a good deal in the thickness of the antennae. 

17. Homalota carbonaria. 

Cseruleo-nigra, subnitida, tarsis nigro-testaceis, con- 
fertim subtilius punctata, fronte impressa ; abdomine 
supra undique sequaliter confertissime punctate. Long, 
li lin. 

Mas; abdomine segment© 7° ventrali paulo angustiore 
et magis producto. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice rotundato- 
truncato. 

Tachyusa carbonaria, Sahl. Ins. Fenn. i. 351. T. cceru- 
lea, Sahl. /. c. H. ripicola, Kies. Stet. Ent. Zeit. v. 317; 
Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 227. 

This species is so closely allied to H. labilis, that it is 
sufficient to point out the characters which distinguish it 
from that common species. H. carbonaria is rather larger, 
of a distinct blue colour, with the legs and antennae en- 
tirely blue-black, except that the tarsi, and a small spot 
at the knees, are dusky testaceous ; the head has a distinct 
impression in both sexes, and the upper surface is not so 
shining as in H. labilis. 

Yery rare. I have found it in company with Tachyusa 
chalybea (which it resembles in colour) on the banks of 
the Nith, and it occurs also, I believe, on the banks of 
the Trent. 

Obs. — This species is generally represented in British 
collections by dark coloured robust varieties of H. labilis. 

18. Homalota plumbea. 

Plumbeo-nigra, sub-opaca, confertissime subtilissime- 
que punctata, vmdique densius griseo-pubescens, antennis 
piceis, pedibus fusco-testaceis ; antennis apicem versus 
vix incrassatis ; thorace subquadrato, coleopteris multo 
angustiore; abdomine ^qualiter confertissime subtilis- 
simque punctate. Long. 1| lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° supra et infra apice 
rotundato. 

Fe7n. ; abdomine segmento 7° supra obsolete, infra late 
sed evidenter, emarginato. 



British Species of Homalota. 115 

B. plumbea, "Wat. Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1858, p. 15. 

Black ; but the whole body covered with a short dense 
pubescence^ giving it a gray appearance. Antennae rather 
slender and moderately long, but little thickened towards 
the apex ; pitchy ; joint three considerably shorter than 
two, four shorter than three, four to ten each differing 
but little in length and breadth, the first of them a little 
longer than broad, the last scarcely so long as broad ; 
eleventh joint rather stout, about twice as long as the 
tenth. Head small, narrower than the thorax, only about 
half the width of the elytra ; narrowed behind the eyes ; 
very closely and finely punctured ; covered with a short, 
fine, and dense pubescence. Thorax subquadrate, nearly 
as long as broad ; much narrower than the elytra ; a little 
narrowed behind, with a broad shallow impression in the 
middle before the base; densely and finely punctured, 
and pubescent. The elytra are broad, rather broader 
than long ; nearly one-third longer than the thorax ; like 
it very densely punctured and pubescent. The abdomen 
is not quite so dull as the fore parts; all the segments 
very densely and finely punctured, and covered (except 
at the extreme base of each segment, which is rather 
shining) with a depressed pubescence. The legs are tes- 
taceous, more or less infuscate; the tarsi rather short 
and stout. 

The sexes are easy to distinguish, but I am not quite 
certain which is the male ; in that which I suppose to be 
the male, both the upper and lower plates of the seventh 
segment of the abdomen have the hind margin gently 
rounded ; while in the other sex, the hind margin of the 
same segment is obsoletely emarginate above, and more 
evidently so on the underside. The antennse are a little 
longer in this sex, so that it may perhaps prove to be 
the male. 

Local : in chalky places on the coast, under seaweed ; 
when found, generally in numbers. Brighton, Seaford, 
Weymouth. 

Ohs. — This is a remarkable species, not readily to be 
confounded with any other; the dense pubescence with 
which it is covered, giving it a peculiar grayish appear- 
ance ; the thorax, much narrower than the elytra, is also 
remarkable. 



116 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

19. Homalota fallase. » 

Linearis, opaca, omnium subtilissime confertissimeque 
punctata, pube brevissima densius vestita, nigra, elytris 
ferrugineis, antennis fusco-testaceis, pedibus testaceis ; 
an tennis apicem versus vix incrassatis ; capite thoraceque 
elytris vix angustioribus ; thorace subquadrato ; elytris 
hoc paulo longioribus; abdomine opaco, undique subtilis- 
sime confertissimeque punctate. Long. lj-l| lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali angustiore, et 
magis producto. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice, supra et 
infra, rotundato. 

H.fallax, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 227. 

A remarkable species ; its punctuation and pubescence 
being rather those of an Oxypoda than a Homalota. An- 
tennae moderately stout, scarcely thickened towards the 
apex ; third joint a little shorter than the second ; four 
to ten differing but little from one another in length, 
but each one slightly broader than the preceding ; the first 
of them distinctly, the last of them scarcely, longer than 
broad; eleventh joint not quite twice as long as the 
tenth. Head but little narrower than the thorax, a little 
broader behind the eyes, extremely densely and finely 
punctured. Thorax scarcely narrower than the elytra, sub- 
quadrate ; a little broader than long, scarcely narrowed 
behind, with a shallow impression in the middle in front 
of the base, from which proceeds a very indistinct channel ; 
extremely densely and finely punctured. Elytra but 
little longer than the thorax, lighter in colour than it 
and the head, brownish, darker towards the base, their 
length scarcely so great as their width, very densely and 
finely punctured. The abdomen is very dull ; all the 
segments extremely densely and finely punctured, and 
entirely covered with a very short dense pubescence ; 
the posterior margins of the segments and the anus 
brownish. Legs reddish-testaceous, the posterior tarsi 
long and slender, their basal joint being nearly twice as 
long as the second. 

In the male, the under plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is much narrower, and is more produced 
than in the female. 

The only locality I know for this remarkable species 
is Hammersmith Marshes, near London ; where it was 
formerly not uncommon among dead leaves in winter 
and spring. 



Briiish Species of Homalota. 117 

Ohs. I. — The punctuation and pubescence of this species 
are entirely those of an Oxypoda, to which genus it ap- 
proaches, moreover, in the structure of its posterior 
tarsi. 

Ohs. II. — Kraatz says that H. fallax is found exclu- 
sively on the coast ; this would raise a suspicion that 
his species is not the same as the one I have described 
above. I have never seen a foreign example of H. fallax, 
Kr., but can find no discrepancy between Kraatz's de- 
scription and my numerous specimens from Hammer- 
smith. I am not aware that the species has ever been 
found on the coast in this country. 



Group lY. Male ivithout tubercle or heel on the sixth 
segment ; abdomen ivith the sixth segment nearly impunc- 
tate, the others pretty closely punctured, the fifth oftefi more 
sparingly than the fourth. (Species 20 — 27). 

A natural group, the species of which live among moss 
and leaves, in damp, and sometimes in muddy places. 
H. elongatula is often found in great numbers, running 
on the banks of rivers and ponds. 

20. Homalota luridipennis. 

Lata, sat depressa, nigro-fusca, antennarum basi ely- 
tris pedibus anoque testaceis, abdominis segmentorum 
marginibus ferrugineis, confertim subtiliter punctata ; 
thorace transversira subquadrato; abdomine supra seg- 
mentis 2-4 confertim subtiliter punctatis, 5° sparsim 
punctate, 6° fere Igevigato. Long. 2 lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice medio levi- 
ter emarginato, ventrali recurvo, valde triangulariter 
producto, apice ipso emarginato-truncato. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° dorsali apice medio obsoletissime 
emarginato, ventrali apice rotundato. 

Bolitochara luridipennis, Man. Precis, p. 77 ; H. luri- 
dipennis, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 221 ; Atheta producta, 
(Muls.), Th. Sk. Col. iii. m. 

A large, broad, rather dull, and depressed species. 
Antennee moderately long and stout, a little thickened 
towards the apex, fuscous, with the base lighter ; joints 



118 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

two and three of about equal length, four to ten differ- 
ing little from one another in length, but each one a 
little stouter than its predecessor, the first of them 
longer than broad, the last of them scarcely so long 
as broad ; eleventh joint half as long again as the 
tenth. Palpi testaceous. Head broad, rounded, a little 
narrower than the thorax, closely and finely punctured, 
the vertex flattened in the male. Thorax a little narrower 
than the elytra, about one-third broader than long, 
scarcely at all narrowed behind ; its disc flat, with an in- 
distinct impression in the middle in front of the base, 
closely and finely punctured. The elytra are yellowish, 
about one-third longer than the thorax, their length not 
quite so great as their breadth, their punctuation dense 
and fine. The margins of the segments of the abdomen 
are brownish, and the extremity is lighter in colour ; 
segments two to four are pretty thickly and finely punc- 
tured ; fifth segment sparingly punctured ; sixth nearly 
impunctate. The legs are yellow, rather robust. 

In the male, the upper plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment has the hind margin emarginate in the middle, 
while the under plate is very much produced, and turned 
upwards ; the sides of the produced part are not evenly 
rounded, but suddenly narrowed in the middle ; the ex- 
treme apex is narrow, and emarginate. 

In the female, the upper plate of the seventh segment 
is obsoletely emarginate at the apex, while the under 
plate is not produced, and the posterior margin is gently 
rounded. 

Generally distributed, and not uncommon in damp 
places, on the banks of rivers, &c., in both England and 
Scotland. 

Ohs. — This species is allied to H. elongatula, but is 
readily distinguished by its broader, more robust form, 
more transverse thorax, and the extraordinary structure 
of the seventh segment of the abdomen in the male. 



21. Homalota londinensis . 

Linearis, nigra, antennarum basi elytris pedibus 
anoque rufo-testaceis, confertim subtiliter punctata ; an- 
tennis sat tenuibus, articulo penultimo leviter transverso ; 
capite medio canalicula brevi; thorace subquadrato. 



Bn'twh Species of Ilomalota. 119 

longitudine latitudine haud breviore ; abdomine seg- 
mentis 2-4 crebre subtiliter punctatis, 5° parce punctato, 
6° fere laevigato. Long. 2 lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali producto, apicem 
versus angustato, apice ipso emarginato-truncato. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° supra et infra apice ro- 
tunda to. 

Var. — -Rufo-testacea, capite abdomineque cingulo ante 
apicem fuscis. 

Very like a large brightly-coloured H. elongatula, but 
still larger than the largest of that species. Antennae 
moderately long and slender, but little thickened towards 
the apex, pitchy, with the basal joints reddish-testaceous ; 
joints two and three of about equal length, four to ten 
each one a little shorter and broader than its predecessor, 
the first of them longer than broad, the last of them not 
quite so long as broad; eleventh joint moderately long, 
not quite so long as the tenth. Palpi, and parts of the 
mouth, reddish-yellow. Head narrower than the thorax, 
suborbiculate, with a distinct short channel on the vertex 
finely but not closely punctured. Thorax a little nar- 
rower than the elytra, about as long as broad, not 
narrowed behind, with a longitudinal channel in the 
middle ; closely and finely punctured ; scarcely black in 
colour, generally more or less distinctly reddish-brown. 
Elytra about a third longer than the thorax, their length 
slightly greater than their width, of a reddish or brown- 
ish-red colour, closely and finely punctured. Abdomen 
black, with the extremity, as well as the hind margins of 
the segments, more or less distinctly reddish-yellow ; 
segments two to four closely and finely punctured, fifth 
more sparingly, sixth nearly smooth. Legs reddish- 
yellow. 

In the male, the under plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is produced, and narrowed towards the 
apex, but scarcely bent upwards ; the apex itself is trun- 
cate, and a little emarginate ; the hind margin of the 
upper plate is not at all emarginate. In the female, the 
upper and under plates of the seventh segment both have 
the hind margin gently rounded. 

This species varies considerably in colour. 

Not uncommon in marshy places in the neighbourhood 
of London. It occurs elsewhere, but, apparently, more 



120 Dr. Sharp^s Revision of the 

rarely. I have a specimen from as far north as Inver- 
ness-shire, and have also seen the species from Germany. 
H. londinensis may readily enough be mistaken for 
any of three other species, luridipennis, elongatula, and 
terminalis. From luridipennis it is distinguished by its 
narrow form, bright colour, not transverse thorax, and 
less marked male characters. From elongatula its larger 
size, brighter colour, rather more transverse penultimate 
joints of the antennae, and the male chai'acters (approach- 
ing luridipennis) distinguish it. It has much the colour of 
terminalis (a species not yet found in Britain) , but has 
slender antennge, which are also darker in colour ; it is 
larger, and has dijfferent male characters. 



22. Homahta liygrotopora. 

Latior, fusco-nigra, antennis piceis, basi piceo-testa- 
ceis, elytris fuscis, pedibus obscure testaceis, confertim 
subtiliter punctata ; thorace transversim subquadrato ; ab- 
domine supra segmentis 2-4 sat crebre subtiliter punctatis, 
5° sparsim punctate, 6° fere laevigato. Long. If lin. 

Mas J abdomine segmento 7° ventrali evidenter pro- 
ducto, apicem versus angustato, apice i]3so rotundato- 
acuminato. 

H. liygrotopora, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 220; Wat. Cat. 
H. opacula, Th. Sk. Col. ix. 272 (forte). 

Like H. elongatula, but larger, broader, of a more ob- 
scure colour. The antennas are moderately slender, 
scarcely thickened towards the apex ; pitchy black, ob- 
scurely paler at the base ; joints two and three moderately 
long, two a little longer than three, four to ten differing 
but little in length, the first of them longer than broad, 
the last of them about as long as broad; eleventh joint 
about half as long again as the tenth. Palpi pitchy- 
yellow. Head rather broad, narrower than the thorax, 
the disc flat, finely, not very thickly punctured, dull. 
Thorax narrower than the elytra, about one-third broader 
than long, scarcely narrowed behind, with an indistinct 
impression in the middle in front of the scutellum ; 
very finely and pretty densely punctured. The elytra 
are of an obscure pitchy-brown colour; about one- 
third longer than tlae thorax, their length not quite so 



BriUsh Species of Homalota. 121 

great as their breadth. Abdomen black, shining ; seg- 
ments two to four pretty finely and thickly punctured, 
fifth segment more sparingly punctured, sixth nearly 
impunctate ; the extreme apex obscurel}^ pitchy. Legs 
pitchy-testaceous . 

In the male the under plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment is much produced, narrowed towards the apex ; 
the apex is not pointed, but formed by the meeting of 
two gentle curves. 

This species is generally distributed in England and 
Scotland. It is fond of very wet places, in marshes, and 
on the banks of streams and rivers. 

Ohs. — Thomson^s H. hygrohia is said to be this species 
{vide Kr. Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1860, p. 99), but his descrip- 
tion does not bear this out; moreover, Thomson in his 
9th vol., when going over the synonymy of the genus, 
does not quote Kraatz's hygrotopora as a synonym of his 
hygrohia. On the other hand the description by Thom- 
son (Joe. cit.) of S. opacula seems to agree very well with 
this species. I think it not improbable that H. hygrohia, 
Th., will prove to be a var. of H. elongatida. 

23. Homalota elongatula. 

Linearis, nigra, subnitida, elytris antennisque fuscis, 
harum basi pedibusque testaceis, confertim subtiliter 
punctata; thorace subquadrato; abdomine supra seg- 
mentis 2-4 sat crebre punctatis, 5° sparsius punctate, 
6° fere lasvigato. Long.l^ lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali evidenter pro- 
ducto, apicem versus sat angusto. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° dorsali apice medio obsolete emar- 
ginato. 

Aleochara elongatula, Grav. Micr. Bruns. 79; H. elon- 
gatula, 'Ev. {ex parte) Gen. et Spec. Staph. 89; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 216; Atheta elongatula, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 67. 

A moderate-sized, rather narrow and elongate species, 
varjning somewhat in colour and size. The antennas are 
rather long, scarcely thickened towards the apex; joints 
two and three rather long and slender, three not quite 
so long as two, four to ten diff'ering little from one another, 
the first of them longer than broad, the last of them about as 
long as broad ; eleventh joint not quite twice the length of 



122 Dr. Sharp^s Revision of the 

the tenth. The palpi are yellowish^ with the last joint 
more or less infuscate. The head is narrower than the 
thorax, suborbiculate, the disc moderately convex, very 
finely and not very closely punctured. The thorax is 
but little narrower than the elytra, subquadrate, the 
length being about equal to the breadth, scarcely nar- 
rowed behind, with or without a central longitudinal 
channel, finely and closely punctured. The elytra vary 
in colour, being sometimes reddish-brown, sometimes 
pitchy-black ; they are about one-third longer than the 
thorax; subquadrate, their length being about equal to 
their breadth ; closely and finely punctured. The abdo- 
men is black and shining, more or less distinctly yellow 
at the apex; segments two to four pretty closely and 
finely punctured, fifth segment more sparingly punc- 
tured, sixth nearly smooth. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the under plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is narrow, and projects considerably be- 
yond the upper plate ; its hind margin is gently rounded. 

In the female, the upper plate of the seventh segment 
is slightly emarginate in the middle, while the under plaLe 
is broader than the same part in the male, and does not 
project beyond the upper plate. 

Extremely common all over the kingdom, in moss, and 
wet places, on the banks of rivers, &c. 

24. Homalota volans. 

Linearis, antennis sat tenuibus, articulis penultimis 
quadratis, crebre subtiliter punctata; thorace transver- 
sim subquadrato ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 sat crebre 
subtiliter punctatis, 5° sparsius punctate, 6° fere laevi- 
gato. Long, li-l^ lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali vix producto, 
apice rotundato. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° dorsali apice rotundato. 

H. volans, Scriba, Stet. Ent. Zeit. 1859, p. 413. 

This species, distinguished from U. elongatula by Herr 
Scriba, is extremely variable, and most difl&cult to cha- 
racterize. Some of its varieties approach extremely 
closely to H. elongahda, but it is, I think, a really dis- 
tinct species. Compared with H. elongatula, it has less 
developed antennae, these being a little more slender, 



British Species of Homalota. 123 

and a little shorter than in elongatula; the second joint 
is rather longer in proportion to the third, and each joint 
is generally rather more narrowed towai"ds the base. 
Volans is generally smaller than elongatula, and the spe- 
cimens of equal size with elongatula are broader in pro- 
portion (though the smallest variety of volans is, com- 
paratively, narrower than elongatula) . The thorax of H. 
volans is shorter than that of H. elongatula, and the male 
and female characters offer constant distinctive charac- 
ters. The male of H. elongatula has the ventral portion 
of the seventh segment narrow, and produced consider- 
ably beyond the upper plate, while in volans the same 
part is broader, shorter, and more evenly rounded, and 
projects but little beyond the upper plate. 

In the female of H. elongatula, the upper plate has the 
apex in the middle a little emarginate, while in volans 
the outline of the hind margin is not interrupted. The 
setae towards the apex of the abdomen are in each sex of 
E. volans more numerous than in elongatula. 

The type of S. volans is If-l^ lin. long; the antennae 
are moderately long and slender, of an obscure ferrugi- 
nous colour. The thorax is about a fourth broader 
than long, a little narrower than the elytra; these are 
about a third longer than the thorax. The legs reddish- 
yellow. 

Var. a. — Smaller than the type, more especially nar- 
rower and more parallel, the thorax rather longer, and a 
little more narrowed behind ; the antennae and legs of a 
dusky yellow. 

Var. /3. — Rather larger and more robust than the type, 
the colour of the legs, antennae, and elytra, brighter. 

Var. y. — Like /8, but still brighter in colour, with a 
more transverse thorax, this part appearing therefore 
more narrowed behind. 

Var. B. — Broader and more depressed than the type ; 
black, with the antennae pitchy and slender; the head 
small in proportion to the thorax, and the thorax more 
transverse, being fully one-third broader than long (? H. 
melanocera, Th.) . 

Though the extreme forms of these varieties might be 
considered distinct species, yet they are connected with 
the type by intermediate specimens in the most unmis- 
takeable manner. They occur more or less as races ; that 

TKANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART II. (mAy) . L 



124 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

is to say, that in a given spot the greater portion of the 
specimens found may be referred to one or other of 
the varieties. The type and var. /8 are the commonest, 
more especially in the south ; var. a is rare, I have found 
single specimens of it at different times near Thornhillj 
var. 7 is rare, but generally distributed; of var. S, the 
extreme forms are to be found only among the Scotch 
hills, in shady and wet places, but I have from Wimble- 
don Common numerous specimens intermediate between 
it and the type. 

The varieties might be increased to an indefinite extent, 
by taking into consideration the channelling of the thorax, 
the colour of the extremity of the abdomen, and of the 
elytra, &c. 

Ohs. — I am strongly inclined to think that several of 
the species of Homalota described by Thomson as allied 
to H. elongatula will prove to be forms of S. volans. 
Indeed, a specimen of Atheta halophila which Mr. Crotch 
has received from Herr Thomson is certainly not specifi- 
cally distinct from H. volans. 

25. Homalota clavipes. 

Linearis, nigra, sat nitida, subtiliter sat confertim punc- 
tata, antennis pedibus anoque fusco-testaceis ; thorace 
subquadrato, elytris hujus longitudinis ; abdomine supra 
segmentis 2-4 confertim subtiliter, 5-6 sat sparsim punc- 
tatis. Long. If lin. 

Mas ; segmento 7° ventrali distincte producto. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° ventrali haud producto, apice 
medio obtuse angulato. 

Var. — Capite medio canalicula brevi. 

Resembles a large dark coloured elongatula. Antennae 
pitchy-testaceous, with the base a little paler, moderately 
long, a little thickened towards the apex ; joint two 
rather longer than three ; joints four to ten varying but 
little in length, but each one a little broader than the 
one before it, the fourth joint longer than broad, the 
tenth about as long as broad ; the eleventh not quite 
twice the length of the tenth. Palpi pitchy-testaceous. 
Head narrower than the thorax, pretty densely and finely 
punctured, sometimes with a distinctly impressed short 
channel on the disc, sometimes with an indistinct fovea, 
and sometimes convex. The thorax is very nearly as 



British Species of Homalota. 125 

broad as the elytra, its length about equal to it breadth, 
scarcely visibly narrowed behind, finely but not densely 
punctured, with an indistinct impression in front of the 
scutellum, from which proceeds a short channel, varying 
in distinctness, and sometimes absent. Elytra pitchy- 
black, not longer than, or scarcely so long as, the thorax, 
finely and pretty densely punctured. Segments two to 
four of the abdomen are finely, evenly, and densely punc- 
tured ; the punctuation of the fifth and sixth segments 
is more sparing, but distinct ; the extremity of the abdo- 
men is obscurely paler. The legs are pitchy- testaceous. 

In the male, the ventral plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is narrower than in the female, and pro- 
jects considerably beyond the upper plate ; its hind mar- 
gin is flattened, and sometimes appears emarginate in 
the middle. 

This species can only be confounded with H. elonga- 
tula, but it is a little larger, darker, and more shining ; 
the elytra are shorter, and the punctuation of the abdo- 
men is throughout denser and more even than in H. 
elongatula. 

Found hitherto only on the higher mountains of Scot- 
land, Ben Lomond, Mamsoul, &c. 

26. Homalota tibialis. 

Linearis, nigra, sat nitida, pedibus piceis ; thorace sub- 
quadrato, elytris hoc fere brevioribus ; abdomine supra 
segmentis 2-4 parce punctatis, 5-6 fere Igevigatis. Long. 
H lin. 

Mas J abdomine segmento 7° ventrali producto, apicem 
versus angustato. 

Fern. J abdomine segmento 7° ventrali margine pos- 
teriore medio subtiliter emarginato. 

H. iihialis, Heer, Faun. Col. Helv. 335 ; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 325 ; Wat. Cat. 

This species is readily distinguished by its deep black 
colour, its rather narrow elongate form, and its short 
elytra, only the length of the thorax. The antennae are 
pitchy, or pitchy-black, with the basal joint obscurely 
paler ; they are a little thickened towards the apex ; 
joints two and three of about equal length ; four and five 
each about as long as broad, the fourth smaller than the 

L 2 



126" Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

fifth ; the following joints differ but Kttle in length, each 
is a little broader than its predecessor ; the penultimate 
joints each a little broader than long ; the eleventh joint 
is rather stout, about half as long again as the tenth. 
The head is a little narrower than the thorax j the disc 
flattened, and somewhat depressed in the male ; in the 
female convex and with a small fovea, sparingly and 
indistinctly punctured. The thorax is about as broad 
as the elytra, about a fourth broader than long ; the sides 
nearly straight, very slightly narrowed behind, very finely 
and not closely punctured, moderately shiuing, with an 
indistinct impression in front of the scutellum. The 
elytra are about as long as the thorax, black or pitchy- 
black, rather sparingly punctured, but more distinctly 
than the thorax, pubescence fine and scanty. The abdo- 
men is black and shining, segments two to four sparingly 
punctured, fifth still more sparingly punctured, sixth 
nearly impunctate. Legs pitchy, or pitchy-yellow, tarsi 
rather stout. 

In the male, the under plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is considerably produced and narrowed 
towards the apex ; iu the female, the apex of this plate 
is broad, not produced, a little emarginate in the middle, 
and furnished with short parallel black cilia. 

Common on the hills of Scotland, Wales, and the 
north of England. 

Obs. — It is remarkable that no one of the three species 
restricted in this country to the hills (viz., tibialis, ere- 
mita, and clavipes,) appears to have yet been found in 
Sweden. 



27. Homalota gregaria. 

Linearis, vix nitida, dense subtiliter punctata, fusco- 
nigra, antennis pedibusque fusco-testaceis ; antennis 
sat validis, apicem versus vix incrassatis; thorace sub- 
quadrato ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-5 crebre subtiliter 
punctatis, 6° fere laevigato. Long. 1^-1^ lin. 

Va7-. — Minor, elytris antennis pedibusque testaceis. 

H. gregaria, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 87 ; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 215 ; Wat. Cat. Tachyusa immunita, Er. 
Gen. et Spec. Staph. 916 ; Aloconota immunita, Th. Sk. 
Col. iii. 10. 



British Species of Homalota. 127 

Somewhat like a small H. elongatula, but with a pecu- 
liar dullish appearance, and at once to be distinguished 
from that species by the punctuation of the abdomen, 
and the structure of the posterior tarsi. The antennae 
are rather stout for a species of this section, pitchy- 
testaceous, a little thickened towards the apex; joints 
two and three rather long, and of nearly equal length ; 
from the fourth to the tenth each one is just a little shorter 
and broader than the preceding one, the tenth scarcely 
so long as broad, the eleventh rather stout and about 
twice the length of the tenth. The palpi are pitchy-testa- 
ceous. The head is narrower than the thorax, dull ; the 
punctuation so fine as to be scarcely visible. The thorax 
is evidently narrower than the elytra, but little narrowed 
behind, the length about equal to the breadth, very 
finely and closely punctured, with a more or less distinct 
broad shallow impression in the middle in front of the 
base. The elytra are scarcely a fourth longer than the 
thorax, closely and finely punctured. The abdomen has 
segments two to five above, closely, finely, and evenly 
punctured, the punctuation of the fifth segment being a 
little more sparing than that of the fourth ; the sixth 
segment is nearly impunctate. The legs are yellow, 
more or less pitchy ; the posterior tarsi long and slender, 
the basal joint nearly twice as long as the second. 

The male is with difiiculty distinguished from the 
female by the upper and under plates of the seventh ab- 
dominal segment being narrower than in the other sex. 
The impression at the base of the thorax is often more 
evident in the male than in the female. 

A very abundant species all over the country, and one 
which occurs in very difierent spots. 

Ohs. — Out of some hundreds of specimens, I find only 
one that can be considered a variety ; it is much smaller, 
and generally paler in colour than ordinary H. gregaria. 

Group V. Ahdomen with the hasal segments sparingly 
punctured, the apical ones nearly impunctate. 

(Species 28—35) . 

Of this group H. vestita and silvicola are somewhat 
discordant members ; the male characters of these two 
are different from the rest. H. silvicola indeed exhibits 
a considerable resemblance to the merdaria group. H. 
vestita is confined to the coast; the other species are 
found among moss, dead leaves, &c. 



128 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

28. Homalota vestita. 

Nigra, elytris ferrugineis, antennarum basi plus mi- 
nusve pedibusque testaceis, corpore antice pube flaves- 
cente sat dense evidentius vestito ; capite et thorace sat 
fortiter distincte punctatis, hoc basin versus evidenter 
angustato ; abdomine supra basi parce punctato. Long. 
If lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali vix producto,, 
apice rotundato. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° ventrali haud producto, apice 
medio late haud profunde emarginato. 

Pcederus vestitus, Grav. Mon. 140 ; H. vestita, Er. Gen. 
et Spec. Staph. 84 j Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 208; Wat. Cafc. 
Thinohcena quisqtiiliarum, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 59. 

This species is distinguished from its allies by the 
punctuation of its head, thorax, and elytra, which is 
more distinct and sparing than usual. The pubescence 
with which it is clothed is yellowish, and like the 
punctuation, is more conspicuous, though less dense, than 
in the neighbouring species. 

The antennae are moderately stout, but little thickened 
towards the apex, varying in colour, but with the basal 
joints yellow, and rather paler in colour than the apical 
ones ; joints two and three of nearly equal length ; four 
to ten differing but little in length, the first of them 
longer than broad, the last not quite so long as broad; 
eleventh joint half as long again as the tenth. The 
head is narrower than the thorax, black and shining, 
distinctly but not closely punctured, the punctures not 
covering the central part. The thorax is narrower than 
the elytra, its length about equal to its breadth, distinctly 
narrowed behind, with a central longitudinal channel 
varying in distinctness, rather coarsely, but not close- 
ly punctured. Elytra obscurely brown, or yellowish- 
brown, a little longer than the thorax, and moderately 
closely and coarsely punctured. The abdomen is black 
and shining, with the apex obscurely paler, the basal 
segments are sparingly punctured, the fifth even more 
sparingly than the fourth, sixth nearly impunctate. The 
legs are of a yellowish colour, the posterior tarsi rather 
long and moderately stout, with the claws more deve- 
loped than usual. 



British Species of Ilomalota. 129 

The male has the under plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen projecting a little beyond the upper 
plate, and its apex is rounded ; while in the female, the 
under plate does not project beyond the upper, and its 
hind margin is emarginate in the middle. 

Abundant under sea-weed on the coasts of England 
and Scotland. 

Ohs, — Thomson has reversed the sexes of this species. 

29. Homalota nitidula. 

Nigra, nitidula, elytris vel piceis vel brunneis, pedibus 
piceo-testaceis ; subtiliter sat confertim punctata ; thorace 
subquadrato, postice haud angustato ; abdomine supra 
segmentis 2-4 parcius punctatis, 5 et 6 fere Isevigatis. 
Long. l|-2 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° supra parce subtiliter 
granulato, margine apicali truncate et obsolete crenu- 
lato. 

Fe7n. ; abdomine segmento 7° supra et infra margine 
apicali rotundato. 

H. nitidula, Kj*. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 211 ; Wat. Cat. ; Atheta 
nitidula, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 64. 

Var. — Angustior, antennis tenuioribus, thorace paulo 
longiore, elytris thoracis longitudinis. Hah. in montibus 
Scotiae. 

This species varies a good deal in the colour of the 
legs, antennae, and elytra. The antennas are generally 
black, more or less pale at the base, moderately stout, 
but little thickened towards the apex ; joints two and 
three of about equal length ; four to ten scarcely differ- 
ing in length, but each a little broader than the preced- 
ing one, the fourth longer than broad, the tenth not so 
long as broad ; eleventh joint moderately long and 
rounded, about twice the length of the tenth. Head 
black and shining, smaller than the thorax, sparingly 
and finely punctured. The thorax is but little narrower 
than the elytra, scarcely a third broader than long, not 
narrowed behind, finely and rather sparingly punctured, 
with an obsolete impression in front of the scutellum, 
but not channelled. The elytra are a little longer than 
the thorax, but more closely and distinctly punctured. 
The abdomen is shining black, with the basal segments 
sparingly but distinctly punctured, the apical ones almost 
impunctate. The legs pitchy-yellow. 



130 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

In the male^ the seventh segment of the abdomen is, 
on the upper side, sparingly sprinkled with small granu- 
lations, its apical margin is truncate and obsoletely 
crenulate. 

In the female, the upper and under plates of the 
seventh segment have the hind margin gently rounded. 

The type of this species (that described above) occurs 
very rarely in the South of England, sometimes in the 
nests of Formica fuliginosa. 

In the north of Scotland, on Mamsoul, I have captured 
a series of about two dozen specimens of a Homalota, 
which may, perhaps, prove a distinct species from that 
described above, though I think them only a variety. 
They are lighter in colour, and not quite so shining, and 
are narrower, especially towards the front ; the antennae 
are a little thinner, the thorax is longer and narrower, 
so that its length is about equal to its breadth, and the 
elytra are but little, if at all, longer than the thorax. The 
male characters are the same as in our Southern speci- 
mens. I have not seen a sufficiently large series of the 
Southern form to be able to judge to what extent it 
varies ; but should these Scotch specimens prove a dis- 
tinct species, the name nitidmscula may be applied to 
it. Two or three examples taken on the hills about 
Thornhill appear to be somewhat intermediate. 

Ohs. I. — A German specimen of H. nitidula, sent by 
Kraatz to the British Museum, agrees entirely with our 
Southern examples. 

Ohs. II. — H. nitidula is only likely to be confounded 
with H. graminicola, but is readily distinguished from it 
by its stouter antennae, and the much finer punctuation 
of its elytra. 

30. Homalota ohlongiiiscula. 

Nigra, nitidula, elytris vel ferrugineis vel fuscis, pedi- 
bus fusco-testaceis, subtiliter sat confertim punctata ; 
antennis sat validis, apicem versus incrassatis ; thorace 
transversim subquadrato; abdomine supra basi parcius 
punctate, apice Isevigato. Long. 1^-1 1 lin. 

Mas; antennis articulo tertio incrassato, capite utrinque 
fortius punctate ; abdomine segment© 7° dorsali obsole- 
tissime crenulato, ventrali subproducto. 

H. ohloruja, Wat. Cat. 



British Species of Ilomalota. 131 

Var. — Thorace medio ante basin obsolete bi-impresso. 
Very like H. vicina, and but little smaller; the an- 
tennas are black, stout, and distinctly thickened towards 
the apex ; second and third joints rather stout, of about 
equal length (the third joint thicker in the male than in 
the female) ; joints four to ten differ but little in length, 
the first of them is a little longer than broad, the last of 
them not so long as broad ; the eleventh joint rather 
long", twice the length of the tenth. The head is much 
smaller than the thorax, black and shining, distinctly but 
not densely punctured; the disc more flattened in the 
male, and the punctuation much more distinct. The 
thorax is but little narrower than the elytra, not, or 
scarcely at all, narrowed behind, its breadth about one- 
third greater than its length, finely and not very densely 
punctured, not channelled. The elytra are generally of 
an obscure brownish colour, sometimes pitchy, not much 
longer than the thorax, finely and pretty densely punc- 
tured. The abdomen is black and shining, the basal 
segments sparingly and finely punctured, the apical ones 
almost impunctate. The legs are testaceous, more or 
less dusky, the femora not darker than the tibiae. 

The male difiers in several points from the female. 
The antennge have the third joint stouter than in the 
female, and the other joints slightly shorter ; the punc- 
tuation of the head is much more distinct ; the seventh 
segment of the abdomen, on the upper side, has the 
hind margin obsoletely crenulate ; and the ventral plate 
is more produced than in the female, though but little 
narrower. 

Not common, but pretty generally distributed in Eng- 
land and Scotland. 

H. ohlongiuscula sometimes greatly resembles H. vicina, 
but is readily distinguished, amongst other characters, 
by its rather stouter antennae, shorter elytra, and the 
thighs not darker than the tibiee. From H. nitidula its 
smaller size and comparatively stouter antennae distin- 
guish it. 

Ohs. — H. ohlongiuscula is very closely allied to H. 
ohlonga, Kr. It is smaller, has a shorter thorax, which 
is without any broad shallow impression at the base, and 
it has less developed and darker coloured antennae. 
Judging from Thomson^s description, Sk. Col. ix. 266, 
Liogl'uta microptera should be one or the other of these 
two species ; or, at any rate, is very closely allied. 



132 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

31. Homalota silvicola. 

Nigra, nitidulaj antennis validis, piceo-testaceis, basi 
dilutiore, articulo ultimo magno, conico; thorace sub- 
quadrato ; elytris thorace paulo longioribus, Isete brunneis, 
evidentius punctatis ; abdomine supra basi distincte minus 
crebre punctato, apice fere laevigato ; pedibus testaceis. 
Long. l|-2i lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali producto, angus- 
tato, apice rotundato. 

Fem. ; segmento 7° ventrali haud producto, apice lato, 
vix rotundato. 

R. silvicola, Fuss, Berl. Ent. Zeit. xii. 1868, p. 353. 
H. hypnoTuni, Sharp, Trans. Bnt. Soc. Lond. 3rd ser. v. 
450 ; Liogluta hyj^norum, Th. Sk. Col. ix. 265 (forte). 

N.B. — -Species antennarum prothoracisque structura 
variabilis. 

A large fine species, with remarkable antennae ; these 
are stout and thickened towards the apex, bright reddish- 
testaceous at the base, and more or less infuscate towards 
the apex; the first joint stout, two and three moderate- 
ly long, the latter a little the longer ; in difi'erent speci- 
mens the intermediate joints of the antennae differ con- 
siderably in length, the fourth is sometimes a little 
longer than broad, sometimes even broader than long; 
after the fourth, the joints differ but little from another 
in length, but each one is a little broader than its pre- 
decessor, more so in some specimens than others ; the 
intermediate joints are more or less ti'ans verse, the tenth 
always broader than long, sometimes strongly transverse, 
the eleventh is stout and remarkably long, about as 
long as the three preceding joints ; it is of a more or 
less dusky testaceous colour, and generally lighter in 
colour than the preceding joints. The head is rather 
small, much smaller than the thorax; black and shining, 
finely and sparingly punctured. The thorax is somewhat 
narrower than the elytra, variable in length, sometimes 
nearly as long as broad, sometimes one-third broader than 
long ; very little narrowed behind, pretty finely and not 
densely punctured; with an impression in front of the 
scutellum, from which proceeds a short, more or less 
distinct channel. The elytra are a little longer than the 
thorax, of a bright brownish colour, indistinctly darker 
about the scutellum and at the apical margins ; thickly 



British Species of ITomalota. 133 

and rather strongly punctured ; shining, but with a well 
marked pubescence. The abdomen ia black and shining, 
with the segments two to four distinctly but not densely 
punctured ; fifth segment very sparingly punctured, sixth 
almost impunctate. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the ventral plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is narrower and more produced than in 
the female, its apex forming as it were the half of an oval. 

Rare. Found at Shirley Common near London, and in 
moss in different parts of Scotland; Dumfries, Strath 
Cannich. 

The remarkable terminal joint of the antennae of this 
species, should prevent its being confounded with any 
other of this section. 

Ohs. I. — I am indebted to Herr Scriba for an opportu- 
nity of examining Herr Fuss's type of H. silvicola ; it is 
undoubtedly a female of the present species, with longer 
thorax and longer antennae than the average of specimens, 
the latter are also less thickened towards the apex than 
usual in this species. 

06s, II. — H. silvicola must be closely allied to H. mi- 
cans, Muls. {hijiinoriim, Kies.) to which species indeed I 
formerly referred a very large and fine female specimen, 
found by me in Inverness-shire. I have never had an 
opportunity of examining an authentic example of H. mi- 
cans or liyiynorum, all the specimens I have seen named as 
that species being varieties of the present insect. Thom- 
son's description of Lioghita hypnormn seems to me also 
clearly to point to the species I have described above. 



32. Homalota vicina. 

Nigra, nitida, elytris fuscis disco testaceis, pedibus 
fusco-testaceis, femoribus obscurioribus, subtiliter punc- 
tata; thorace transversim subquadrato ; abdomine supra 
parce subtiliter punctate, segmento 2° dorsali medio 
tuberculo parvo. Long. If lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 2° tuberculo evidentiore, 
7° dorsali subtiliter granulate, margine apicali medio 
obscure acuminate. 

Fe7ti. ; abdomine segmento 2° tuberculo minore, 7° 
ventrali medio late obsolete emarginato. 



134 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Aleochara vicina, Steph. HI. Brit. Ent. v. 116; H. vi- 
cina, Wat. Cat. H. umbonata, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 
82; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 209; Liogluta umbonata, Th. 
Sk. Col. iii. 56. 

This species is remarkable by the small tubercle at the 
base of the second segment of the abdomen. The an- 
tennae are black, rather stout, a little thickened towards 
the apex; joints two and three rather long, of about equal 
length, four to ten differing but little in length, the first 
of them longer than broad, the last of them scarcely so 
long as broad ; eleventh about twice as long as the tenth. 
Head black and shining, much narrower than the thorax, 
a little narrowed behind the eyes, which are rather large 
and prominent, with an indistinct impression behind the 
insertion of the antennte, so that the middle part of the 
head in front appears raised ; sides sparingly and finely 
punctured, the middle black, shining and impunctate. 
Thorax a little narrower than the elytra, not narrowed 
behind ; about a third broader than long, finely but rather 
sparingly punctured, with an impression in front of the 
base in the middle. The elytra are a third longer than 
the thorax, of a blackish colour at the base and edges, 
the middle of a lurid testaceous, finely and pretty closely 
punctured. The abdomen is black and shining, the basal 
segments very sparingly punctured, the apical ones im- 
punctate ; the second segment has in the middle a small 
tubercle, very indistinct in the female. The legs are 
pitchy testaceous, the thighs always darker than the tibiee. 

The male has the abdominal tubercle on the second 
segment larger than in the female. The dorsal plate of 
the seventh segment is sprinkled with small tubercles, 
and its hind margin projects a Httle in the middle. 

In the female, the under plate of the seventh segment 
is broader and shorter than in the male, and has its hind 
margin broadly but obsoletely emarginate. 

Abundant all over the country. 

This species is distinguished by its dark black colour, 
and the lighter disc of the elytra ; in this respect JBT. trian- 
gulum somewhat resembles it, but that species is not so 
shining, and is without any tubercle on the second seg- 
ment of the abdomen. 

Ohs. — As Stephen^s description of Aleochara vicina is 
pretty clearly recognizable as this species, and is anterior 
to Erichson's tmihonata, I have adopted his name. 



British Species of Homalota. 135 

33. Homalota crassicornis. 

Nigro-picea, nitidula, antennis fusco-testaceis, basi di- 
lutiore, elytris testaceo-brunneis^ pedibus testaceis ; tho- 
race transversim subquadrato; elytris thorace paulo long- 
ioribus, alutaceis ; abdomine supra antice parcius punc- 
tato, apice Isevigato. Long. If lin. 

Mas; thorace medio late bi-impresso, abdomine seg- 
mento 7° dorsali confertim granulato^ utrinque apicem 
versus granulo dentiformi majore, margine apicali medio 
obtuse acuminato. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° supra et infra late ro- 
tundato. 

Aleochara crassicornis, Gyll. Ins. Suec. iv. 486; Lio- 
gluta crassicornis, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 56. H. granigera, 
Kies. Stet. Ent. Zeit. xi. 218; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 207. 

A shining and brightly coloured species, narrow (espe- 
cially in front) in comparison with its length. The an- 
tennae are rather long, not stout, thickened towards the 
apex; joints two and three long and slender, three longer 
than two, four to ten differing but little in length, but 
each one a little broader than its predecessor, the fourth 
and following joints longer than broad, but the tenth 
scarcely so long as broad ; eleventh about as long as the 
two preceding joints. Head considerably narrower than 
the thorax ; shining, nearly black, rather sparingly punc- 
tured, the punctures rather large but very shallow. 
The thorax is a little narrower than the elytra; pitchy- 
black, and rather shining; nearly a third broader than 
long, not narrowed behind, its punctuation rather sparing 
and shallow, but distinct; in the male with a broad im- 
pression on the disc. The elytra are a Httle longer than 
the thorax, of a testaceous brown colour, obscurely darker 
about the base and towards the margins, alutaceous. The 
abdomen is pitchy-black, with the posterior edges of the 
segments more or less pale, shining, the basal segments 
very sparingly punctured; fifth and sixth segments nearly 
impunctate. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the thorax has a broad impression on the 
disc, formed by two longitudinal impressions nearly united. 
The seventh segment of the abdomen is thickly sprinkled 
with very distinct granulations, one of these on each side 
at the apex being larger and thickened at the front; its 



136 Dr. Sharp's Bemsion of the 

hind margin is thickened and a little produced in tho 
middle^ Avhich forms, therefore, an obtuse angle. The 
head also has sometimes a broad impression. 

Of this species, I have seen only three British speci- 
mens; they were taken by me in Inverness-shire. They 
agree specifically with specimens of H. gramgcra, sent by 
Ejt-aatz to the British Museum. 

Obs. — This species is closely allied to Il.pagana, but is 
smaller and narrower, especially in front, it is darker in 
colour and more shining; the hind margin of the seventh 
segment is of a different shape in the male, and the large 
granulation on each side at the apex is thickened at its 
forward end — a slight, but apparently very constant, 
character. 

34. Homalota pagana. 

Picea, antice subnitida, antennis fuscis, basi pedibusque 
testaceis, elytris testaceo-brunneis ; thorace subquadrato, 
elytris hoc paulo longioribus ; abdomine supra basi parce 
punctate, apice Igevigato. Long. 2-2j lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali confertim granu- 
lato, apicem versus utrinque granule dentiformi, apice 
ipso late rotundato, fere truncate. 

Fern.; segmento 7° supra et infra apice late rotundato. 

H. pagana, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 83 ; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 206; Wat. Cat. Liogluta arvicola, Th. Sk. 
Col. iii. 55. 

A large and peculiarly coloured species. The antennae 
are long, and moderately stout, but little thickened to- 
wards the apex ; pitchy in colour, with the base testaceous ; 
basal joint stout, two and three rather long, thi'ee longer 
than two, four to ten diifering but little in length, the 
length of each greater than its breadth; the eleventh 
about as long as the two preceding. Head nearly black, 
rather broad, but considerably narrower than the thorax ; 
its punctuation distinct, but not close. Thorax of a pitchy- 
yellow colour, a little broader than long, a little narrower 
than the elytra, slightly narrowed behind, distinctly and 
pretty closely punctured. The elytra are a little longer 
than the thorax, and lighter in colour than it, their sculp- 
ture close and fine, alutaceous (the German expression 
for this is " lederartig," like leather). The abdomen is 



British Species of Homalota. 137 

shining, pitchy; the fourth, fifth and sixth segments 
darker than the base and apex, the basal segments very 
sparingly punctured, the apical ones impunctate. The 
legs are yellow. 

In the male, the third joint of the antennee is a little 
stouter than in the female, and the antennge are altogether 
a little longer and stouter ; the seventh segment of the 
abdomen is sprinkled above with distinct granulations, 
one of these on each side at the apex being longer and 
more distinct than the others ; the hind margin is thick- 
ened, and nearly truncate. 

Not common, but it occurs in various parts of England 
and Scotland. London; the Cheviots; Strath Cannich. 

Ohs. — In this species the second, third, and fourth joints 
of the antennse are furnished on the inside with numerous 
fine white hairs ; this character is common, in a greater 
or less degree, to the males of several species of the genus, 
but is more easily seen in H. pagana than in others. 

35. Homalota graminicola. 

Nigra, nitidula, antennis piceis, pedibus piceo-testa- 
ceis ; thorace transversim subquadrato, basi impresso ; 
elytris evidenter punctatis ; abdomine supra basi parcius 
punctate, segmentis 5 et 6 fere leevigatis. Long. 1§ lin. 

Mas; capite impresso, thorace basi late foveolato, 
elytris confertim fortiter granulatis, abdomine supra seg- 
mento 6° granulis sparsim, 7° confertim asperate, hoc 
apice truncate et subtiliter crenulato ; 7° ventrali pro- 
ducto, apicem versus angustato, apice ipso excise. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° ventrali apice late rotundato. 

Aleochara graminicola, Grav. Mon. 176 ; H. gramini- 
cola, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 81 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 
212; Wat. Cat.; Atheta graminicola, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 62. 

Var. — Elytris castaneis, antennis pedibusque rufo-tes- 
taceis. 

A black shining species, with the sculpture of the 
elytra coarse and distinct. Antennse slender, rather long, 
but little thickened towards the apex, pitchy; joints two 
and three moderately long, three a little longer than two ; 
four to ten differing but little in length, the length of 
each greater than its breadth ; eleventh joint about 



138 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

twice as long as the tenth. Head black and shining-, spar- 
ingly and indistinctly punctured, much narrower than the 
thorax. Thorax narrower than the elytra, not (or scarcely) 
narrowed behind, its breadth about one and a half times 
its length, finely and pretty closely punctured, with an 
impression in front of the base in the middle. The elytra 
are about a third longer than the thorax, coarsely sculp- 
tured, the sculpture consisting of small granulations, 
shining in the female, duller in the male. The abdomen 
is black and shining, segments two to four sparingly 
punctured, five and six nearly impunctate ; the apical 
segment in the male distinctly, in the female sparingly 
and obscurely, granulate. Legs pitchy testaceous, the 
femora rather darker than the tibiae. 

In the male, the head has a distinct impression in the 
middle of the upper surface, the impression at the base 
of the thorax is larger, the granulations of the elytra are 
much coarser, and more numerous, so as to make the 
elytra dull. The sixth segment of the abdomen is spar- 
ingly sprinkled, on the upper side, towards the apex, 
with granulations; the seventh segment is distinctly 
granulate, the granulations more numerous and distinct 
than on the sixth segment, its apex is truncate, and 
finely crenulate. The under plate of the seventh segment 
is considerably produced, narrowed towards the apex, 
the apex itself being a little emarginate. In the female, 
both the upper and under plates of the seventh segment 
have the hind margins broad, and rounded. 

Very abundant all over the kingdom, in damp places. 

Ohs. — A variety occurs in which the elytra are of a 
brownish colour, and the antennee and legs are also of a 
lighter colour than usual ; it is, perhaps, Thomson's 
tenuicornis. This colour-variation is to different extents, 
its extreme form appears very rare. 

Section B. 

Group VI. Head strongly punctured. 

(Species 36—38) . 

The three species of this group are closely allied ; they 
occur only on the coast, and are easily distinguished 
from others of the genus. H. vestita (of Group V.) , oc- 
curring also on the coastj has a similarly punctured 
head. 



British Species of Ilomalota. 139 

36. Hoonalota Halohrectha. 

Fusco-nigra, pube flavescenti distincte vestita, sat 
nitida, antennis, ore, pedibus, anoque rufo-testaceis ; 
capite distincte punctulato ; tliorace subquadrato, basin 
versus ang'ustato ; elytris thorace longioribus, confertim 
distincte punctatis ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 parce 
punctatis, 5 et 6 fere laevigatis. Long. 1^-1^ lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice obtuse acu- 
minato, ventrali apice rotundato. 

Fern,. ; segmento 7° ventrali apice latiore, medio fere 
emarginato. 

H. atricilJa, Scriba, Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1866, p. 290 {nee 
Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph.) . H. algce, var.. Hardy, Cat, 
Col. North. & Dur. p. 116. H. maritima, Wat. Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Lond. 1863, p. 138. Halohrectha flavipes, Th. 
Sk. Col. iii. 50. 

Var. — Minor, elytris thorace paulo longioribu.s, thorace 
lateribus antice magis rotundatis. 

Of an obscure blackish or pitchy colour, with the 
elytra browner, the legs, extremity of abdomen, antennae, 
and mouth, yellowish; the anterior parts with a distinct, 
moderately dense, depressed, fine, but rather rigid, yel- 
lowish pubescence. The antennas are about as long as 
the head and thorax, gently thickened towards the apex, 
with a moderately distinct exserted pubescence, reddish- 
yellow, a little infuscate towards the apex ; joints two 
and three long and slender, three not quite so long as 
two ; four to ten, each one a little shorter and broader 
than its predecessor, the first of them is longer than 
broad, the last of them (eight to ten) broader than long. 
The head is scarcely narrower than the thorax, suborbi- 
culate, with the upper surface convex, blackish, with the 
palpi and parts of the mouth yellow, distinctly and rather 
coarsely, but shallowly and moderately densely punc- 
tured, the punctures being real depressions ; with a fine 
yellowish pubescence. The thorax is considerably nar- 
rower than the elytra, its width rather greater than its 
length, the sides rounded in front, then slightly but dis- 
tinctly narrowed behind, moderately closely punctured, 
and with a yellowish pubescence, the punctuation finer 
than that of the head. The elytra are a third or fourth 
longer than the thorax, of a brownish or pitchy-black 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART II. (mAY) . M 



140 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

colour, pretty closely and distinctly but shallowly punc- 
tured, and with a distinct yellowish pubescence. The 
abdomen is black and shining, with the extremity yellow- 
ish : segments two to four sparingly punctured, five and 
six almost impunctate. Legs yellowish. 

In the male, the apex of the dorsal plate of the seventh 
segment is not altogether rounded, but a little flattened on 
each side, so that it is indistinctly and obtusely pointed 
in the middle. The ventral plate of the same segment 
is narrower, and its apex more rounded than in the 
female ; but these characters are not easy to perceive. 

Common under sea- weed on the coasts of England and 
Scotland. 

Obs. I. — Scotch specimens of this species are smaller 
than the Southern ones, and have their elytra rather 
shorter, the sides of the thorax more dilated and rounded 
in front, so that it is more narrowed behind ; having 
regard, however, to the great general resemblance in 
other respects, these cannot be considered as a distinct 
species. It was from such specimens, I should think, that 
Thomson^s description oi H. flavipes was made. 

Ohs. II. — This species is said, by Herr Scriba, on the 
authority of the type in the Museum at Turin, to be S. 
atricilla, Er. (Gen. et Spec. Staph. 101) . It is quite 
certain, however, I think, that Erichson's description 
is in no way applicable to, or characteristic of, this 
species ; and I do not believe it was made from speci- 
mens of it. I have, therefore, not adopted his name ; 
there may have been some mistake about the type, there 
can be none as to the description. I have not adopted 
Mr. Waterhouse's name of II. ma7'itima,as, according to 
Harold's Catalogue, there is a prior luaritima. (I have 
not, however, had any opportunity of verifying Harold's 
quotation.) Hardy's name, H. algce, has also been pro- 
posed for this species, but it cannot be used, as his de- 
scription refers to H. inincticeps, of which he considered 
this a variety. As there is already a well known Homa- 
lota flavipes, I am obliged to find a new name for the 
species. 

37. Homalota ptmcticeps. 

Subdepressa, subopaca, nigra, antennis pedibusque 
piceis, pube flavescenti evidenter vestita ; capite confer- 



British Species of Honialota. 141 

tim distincte punctate ; thorace sub quadrate, basin 
versus angustato, elytris hoc fere sesqui longioribus ; 
abdomine supra seg-mentis 2-4 parce subtiliter punctatis, 
5 et 6 fere lasvigatis. Long 1^^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice angusto, 
truncate. 

E. puncticeps, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. FOrh. 1852, p. 133 ; 
Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 232 ; Wat. Cat.; Halohrectha punc- 
ticeps, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 49. S. algce (ex parte) Hardy, Cat. 
Col. North. & Dur. p. 116. H. anthracina, Fairm, Faune 
Franc. 424. 

Allied to H. Halohrectha, but readily distinguished by- 
its darker colour, more depressed form, longer elytra, 
and rather finer but more distinct punctuation, and the 
different male characters. The antennas are about as 
long as the head and thorax, thickened towards the apex, 
pretty distinctly furnished with exsei'ted hairs^ blackish, 
with the base pitchy ; joints two and three long and 
slender, three not so long as two ; four to ten each a 
little broader than its predecessor, from the seventh to 
the tenth transverse; eleventh joint not quite so long as 
the two preceding. The head is but little narrower than 
the thorax, distinctly, deeply, and pretty closely punc- 
tured, with a fine yellowish- gray pubescence. The thorax 
is considerably narrower than the elytra, its length nearly 
equal to its breadth, the sides rounded in front, a little 
narrowed behind, its punctuation fine and moderately 
close, not so distinct as that of the head and elytra, with 
scarcely any impression in front of the scutellum. The 
elytra are black, nearly one-half longer than the thorax, 
closely, distinctly, and regularly punctured, and with a 
fine yellowish distinct pubescence. The abdomen is 
black and shining, obscurely paler at the apex, segments 
two to four finely and sparingly punctured, five and six 
almost impunctate. Legs ]3itchy, or pitchy-yellow. 

In the male, the apex of the dorsal plate of the seventh 
segment of the abdomen is truncate; the truncate part 
is narrow, aud not quite straight, for it has an indistinct 
projection in the middle; the ventral plate of the same 
segment is considerably narrower at the apex than it is 
in the female. 

Pretty common under sea-weed on the coasts of Eng- 
land and Scotland. 

M 2 



142 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Obs. — Hardy's name of H. algce should, perhaps, be 
used for this species, as it is the oldest. He, however, 
considered this and H. Halobrectha as one species in his 
description. 

38. Homalota iirinceps. 

Nigra, pube flavescenti vestita, antennis elytrisque 
fuscis, antennarum basi pedibus anoque rufis ; antennis 
articulis 8-10 subtransversis ; capite evidenter punctate; 
thorace subquadrato, basin versus angustato ; abdomine 
supra segmentis 2-4 parce punctatis, 5 et 6 Itevigatis. 
Long. If lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice angusto, 
truncato. 

Much larger than the largest examples of H. Halohrec- 
tha, or puncticeps, and in colour somewhat intermediate 
between the two; allied to H. puncticeps by the male 
characters, and the elytra comparatively longer than in 
Halobrectha ; to IT. Halobrectha by its punctuation, which 
is more sparing and shallow, bu^t rather coarser than in 
puncticeps. The antennae have the penultimate joints 
not so broad in proportion to their length as in ptmcticeps 
and Halobrectha. The apex of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is truncate and narrow, the 
truncate part is, however, not quite straight, but ob- 
scurely produced in the middle. 

I have seen four specimens of this fine species, all, I 
believe, taken in the Isle of Wight. They are none of 
them in good condition, so that I have not given a de- 
tailed description of minor points, but I have no doubt 
they will prove a good and distinct species. These speci- 
mens agree entirely among themselves, except that one 
of them is rather darker than the others. 

Group VII. Head finely punctured, or nearly impunc- 
tate. (Species 39 — 54) . 

This group is an entirely artificial one, containing a 
number of very discrepant species. Its subdivision into 
five or six others would, however, scarcely simplify 
matters. H. occulta and its allies are found in fungi and 
vegetable refuse ; mquata and linearis are bark or wood 
species ; incana and nigell-a are confined to large marshes. 



British Species of Homalota. 143 

where they occur amongst reeds ; debilis and angustula 
are damp moss species ; and the very peculiar H. ccesula 
occurs only in very dry, sandy places. H. subglabra 
might, perhaps, be quite as correctly placed near H. 

palustris. 

39. Homalota occulta. 

Linearis, subdepressa, antice subopaca, sculptura sub- 
tiliore, nigra, elytris fuscis, pedibus fusco-testaceis ; an- 
tennis apicem versus vix incrassatis ; thorace transversim 
subquadrato, basin versus vix angustato; elytris aluta- 
ceis ; abdomine nitidulo, basi parce punctate, apice fere 
Isevigato. Long. 1|-1| lin. 

Mas; antennis articulo 3° crassiore, abdomine seg- 
mento 7° dorsali, lateribus et apice, reflexo-marginato, 
apice late obsolete emarginato. 

li. occulta, Er. Kiif. Brand, i. 317 ; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 83; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 233; Bessohia occulta, 
Th. Sk. Col. iii. 43. 

Antennae entirely black, moderately stout, but scarcely 
thickened towards the apex ; first joint stout and rather 
long, two and three of about equal length ; four to ten 
differing but little in length, seven to ten not quite so 
long as broad ; eleventh joint about half as long again as 
the tenth. Head smaller than the thorax, dull, its sculp- 
ture very indistinct, with a shallow impression on the 
disc, more evident in the male than in the female. The 
thorax is a little narrower than the elytra, about a third 
broader than long, slightly narrowed behind, its sculpture 
fine, not very dense, with a not very distinct impression 
in the front of the base in the middle. Elytra about one- 
third longer than the thorax, of a peculiar dull pitchy- 
testaceous colour, alutaceous, punctuation or sculpture 
being scarcely visible. Abdomen black and shining, 
segments two to four sparingly punctured, five and six 
almost impunctate. Legs pitchy-testaceous. 

In the male, the third joint of the antennse is much 
stouter than in the female, and the impression on the 
middle of the head is more evident. The dorsal plate of 
the seventh abdominal segment has the sides very dis- 
tinctly raised, the apical margin also raised, but not so 
distinctly as the sides, the apex itself is broadly, but 
very indistinctly, emarginate. 



3.44 Dr.' Sharp's Ilev'ision of the 

In tlie female, botli the upper and under plates of the 
seventh segment are simple, and with the hind margin 
broadly rounded. 

I have seen only two specimens, S and $ , that I can 
certainly refer to this species ; most of the specimens 
representing it in our collections belong to the next 
species ; a male specimen of H. occulta, sent by Kraatz 
to the British Museum, agrees altogether with these two. 

40. Howalota fungivora. 

Linearis, subdepressa, nigra, elytris obscure fuscis, 
pedibvis fusco-testaceis ; sculptura subtiliore ; antennis 
apicem versus paulo incrassatis ; thorace transversim 
subquadi-ato, basin versvis subangustato 5 abdomine supra 
basi parce punctate, apice fere IfBvigato. Long. Ij-H 
lin. 

Mas; antennis articulo 3° incrassato, capite late im- 
presso, abdomine segment© 7° dorsali lateribus eviden- 
ter elevatis, apice rotundato truncate, minus evidenter 
incrassato. 

Btssohia fungivora, Th. Sk. Col. ix. 260. 

This species is extremely closely allied to H. occulta, 
and is, perhaps, not really distinct from it. H.fiingivora is 
smaller, has joints four to six of the antennae narrower in 
proportion to the following ones, so that the antennse 
appear more thickened towards the extremity than in 
H. occulta ; the impression on the front of the head is 
broader and larger, the thorax appears a little less trans- 
verse, and more narrowed behind, and the posterior 
margin of the seventh segment in the male is not broadly 
emarginate, but is nearly straight, and shows sometimes, 
in the middle, traces of a very minute notch; its upper 
surface also generally bears a broad, indistinct, longitu- 
dinal channel. These characters, however, all appear to 
vary somewhat, and, as I have said above, H. fungivora 
may ultimately prove to be a variety of H. occulta. I 
have not, however, seen a sufficient series of the larger 
species to enable me to express a positive opinion. 

H. fungivora is pretty generally distributed over the 
country, but is not common ; it is found in fungi, especially 
when growing on the stumps of trees, in autumn. 

Obs. — Mr. Crotch has submitted to me a specimen of 
H. fungivora forwarded to him by Herr Thomson ; this 
agrees altogether with my British specimens. 



British Species of Homalota. 145 

41. Homalota ■picipes. 

Nigra, antice alutacea, antennis elytrisque nigro-piceis, 
pedibus fusco-testaceis ; antennis sat crassis, apicem ver- 
sus vix in crassatis; thorace transversim subquadrato, basin 
versus baud angustato, postice foveolato; elytris hoc ter- 
tia parte longioribus ; abdoraine basi parce punctato, apice 
fere levigate. Long. 1| lin. 

Mas; antennis articulo 3° incrassato, abdomine seg- 
mento 7° dorsali, apice medio, late, fere triangulariter, 
emarginato, margine posteriore subtiliter incrassato, ven- 
trali, paulo producto, apice rotundato. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali, apice medio tri- 
angulariter exciso, ventrali, apice obtuse acuminato. 

H.picipes, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1856, p. 99; Athe- 
ta picvpes, Sk. Col. iii. 81. H.fiisco-femorata, Wat. Cat. 

Flat, but not very depressed, shorter, broader, and 
comparatively rather more robust, than H. fungivora. 
The antenna3 are short and stout, about the length of the 
head and thorax, scarcely thickened towards the apex; 
pitchy-black, obscurely paler at the base ; first joint stout, 
second and third short, of about equal length, fourth a 
little more slender than the fifth, its length about equal 
to its breadth, five to ten differing but little in length and 
breadth, each one distinctly transverse; eleventh joint 
nearly as long as the two preceding. Head rather broad 
and short, narrower than the thorax, dullish; flat above, 
broadly impressed in the male, very obscurely in the 
female. Thorax but little narrower than the elytra^ fully 
one-third broader than long, not narrowed 'behind, with 
an impression or short channel in the middle in front of 
the base, in the male with a broad impression, its sculp- 
ture alutaceous, fine and pretty dense. The elytra are 
quadrate, about a fourth longer than the thorax, aluta- 
ceous, the sculpture pretty dense and distinct. The ab- 
domen is black and shining, sometimes brownish at the 
apex ; the basal segments sparingly punctured, the fifth 
and sixth almost impunctate. The legs are pitchy-tes- 
taceous. 

In the male, the third joint of the antennge is thickened, 
the head and thorax are distinctly impressed ; the upper 
plate of the seventh abdominal segment has its posterior 
margin a little thickened, and emarginate in the middle. 



146 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

the lobe formed by each side of the eniargination gently 
rounded ; the under plate of the same segment is more 
produced than in the female, and its posterior margin is 
gently rounded. 

In the female, the upper plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen has the apex with a distinct triangular 
notch in the middle ; the posterior margin of the under 
plate is not rounded, but a little acuminate in the middle. 

I have found this species only in Scotland ; Edinburgh, 
Rannoch, Strath Cannich. 

Ohs. — This species has the structure of the antennas 
very much like that of H. fungicola and its allies, but it 
is certainly in its place here, in the neighbourhood of 
fvngivora and excellens. Two specimens ( $ and ? ) of 
H. picipes sent by Kraatz to the British Museum agree 
entirely with my specimens. 

42. Homalofa excellens. 

Nigra, elytris nigro-fuscis, pedibus fuscis; thorace 
transversim subquadrato ; abdomine basi parce punctate, 
apice Isevigato. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice medio tri- 
angulariter excise, margine posteriore subtiliter incrassato, 
ante apicem tuberculis 6, lineam curvatam transversam 
formantibus, instructo. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice medio levi- 
ter emarginato. 

H. excellens, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 235 ; Wat. Cat. 

Antennae rather short, black, distinctly but not greatly 
thickened towards the apex, second and third joints rather 
short, the third not quite so long as the second, four to 
ten each distinctly broader than its predecessor, seven to 
ten distinctly transverse; eleventh joint about half as 
long again as the tenth. Head considerably narrower 
than the thorax, black, rather dull, its punctuation indis- 
tinct, with an impression in the middle, more distinct in 
the male than in the female. Thorax narrower than the 
elytra, fully one-third broader than long, a little narrow- 
ed behind, the disc flattened, sometimes with a large im- 
pression, sometimes with a fovea in front of the base in 
the middle, from which proceeds a channel; its sculpture 
and pubescence moderately fine and not dense. The ab- 



British Species of Homalota. 147 

domen is shining black; the basal segments sparingly 
punctured, the apical ones still more so, nearly impunc- 
tate. Legs pitchy-testaceous; tibige and tarsi a little 
paler than the femora. 

In the male, the seventh dorsal segment of the abdo- 
men is furnished, befoi'e the apex, with a curved trans- 
verse row of irregular tubercles, six in number, three on 
each side; the outside one starts from the external apical 
angle of the segment, joins a second more elevated one, 
while more in the middle is a third smaller and more in- 
distinct one ; the posterior margin of the same segment 
has in the middle a triangular notch, neither very wide 
nor very deep, and the hind margin is a little thickened. 

In the female, the apical margin of the dorsal plate of 
the seventh segment is a little emarginate in the middle, 
but not deeply so. 

This species is rare, but I have found it in several 
localities in Scotland. Rannoch, Arran, Strath Cannich, 
Thornhill. 

Ohs. — Compared with H. fungivora, H. excellens is found 
to be comparatively broader and less elongate, rather 
more shining, of a darker, blacker colour, with shorter, 
broader elytra, &c. It is more closely allied to H. mon- 
ticola, and is distinguished from that species by its darker 
coloured elytra, less shining surface, and less delicate punc- 
tuation and pubescence. The males of the two species 
are to be distinguished at once by the remarkable abdom- 
inal characters, but the distinction of the females is by 
no means easy. A specimen of H. excellens sent by 
Kraatz to the British Museum agrees with my specimens. 



43. Homalota monticola. 

Nitidula, subtiliter punctata, nigra, elytris fuscis, pedi- 
bus fusco-testaceis ; thorace transversim convexiusculo, 
latitudine fere dimidio breviore; abdomine basi parce 
punctate, apice laevigato. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas J capite medio thoraceque ante basin distincte 
impressis ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali pliculis 4 in- 
structo, apice profunde triangulariter excise, et cum 
lateribus reflexo-marginato. 

Fem.; segmento 7° dorsali medio leviter emarginato. 



148 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

E. monticola, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forli. 1852, p. 143; 
Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 234; Wat. Cat.; Bessohia monticola, 
Th. Sk. Col. iii. 43. 

Antennae black, rather short and stout, thickened to- 
wards the apex, joints two and three of nearly equal 
length, four to ten each one broader than the preceding, 
from the fifth onwards distinctly transverse ; eleventh 
joint pointed, rather short, half as long again as the tenth. 
The head is rather broad, narrower than the thorax, mo- 
derately shining, finely and sparingly punctured ; in the 
male with a broad impression, in the female with a chan- 
nel. Thorax narrower than the elytra, transversely con- 
vex, more than a third broader than long ; the sides 
gently rounded, scarcely narrowed behind, finely and not 
densely punctured ; in the male with a broad impression 
in front of the base in the middle, in the female with an 
indistinct one ; sometimes also with an obsolete longitu- 
dinal channel. The elytra are one-third longer than the 
thorax, of a brownish colour, moderately shining, their 
sculpture and pubescence fine. The abdomen is shining 
black, at the base very sparingly punctured, at the apex 
impunctate. The legs are pitchy-yellow. 

In the male, the head and thorax are more impressed 
than in the female, the seventh dorsal segment of the ab- 
domen has the apex in the middle deeply triangularly 
emarginate, the sides have a very distinct raised margin, 
the apical margin is also raised, but less distinctly than 
the sides, and is furnished with four raised longitudinal 
folds ; of these, the two inner are parallel to one an- 
other, the two outer converging towards the apex. 

In the female, the posterior margin of the seventh dor- 
sal segment is a little emarginate in the middle. 

Rare. I have found it at Croydon, on Purley Downs, 
and near Thornhill in Dumfries-shire. 

The male appears to be quite as common as the female, 
and the remarkable structure of the seventh segment of 
its abdomen should prevent its being mistaken for any 
other species. 

Ohs. — Two specimens ( ^ and $ ) of If. monticola sent 
by Kraatz to the British Museum agree with my spe- 
cimens. 



British Species of HoDialota. 149 

44. Honialota suhglahra. 

Nitidula, laigraj elytris pedibusque piceo-testaceisj sub- 
tiliter baud confertim punctata, subtiliter pubescens; 
antennis apicem versus leviter incrassatis, articulis 7-10 
transversis ; thorace transversim subquadrato ; abdomine 
basi parce obsolete punctato, apice la^vigato. Long. 
14- lin. 

Mas ; structura abdominali femina vix distinguitur. 

Rather broader than H. palustris, more robustly built, 
and more shining. The antennas are black, stout in pro- 
portion to the size of the insect, but little longer than 
the head and thorax, distinctly but not greatly thickened 
towards the apex ; the basal three joints rather slender 
and elongate, the second longer than the third ; from the 
fourth to the tenth, each joint is distinctly broader than 
its predecessor, seven to ten transverse; eleventh joint 
gently pointed, moderately long, about twice the length 
of the tenth. Head black and shining, narrower than 
the thorax, a little narrower behind the eyes, which are 
rather prominent, finely pubescent, and almost impunc- 
tate. The thorax is narrower than the elytra, fully one- 
third broader than long, the anterior angles gently 
rounded, the sides nearly straight, not narrowed behind, 
its punctuation extremely fine and not dense, without 
channel or fovea. Elytra dusky-testaceous, darker to- 
wards the base and angles, half as long again as the 
thorax, shining, the sculpture finely alutaceous. The 
abdomen is black and shining, the basal segments spar- 
ingly and not distinctly punctured, the apical ones 
impunctate. The legs are of a pitchy-testaceous colour. 

The male is scarcely to be distinguished from the 
female, except by the fact that the upper and under 
plates of the seventh segment of the abdomen are nar- 
rower than in the female . 

This species is rare, and found only among the Scotch 
mountains. Rannoch, Strath Cannich, Arran, Thorn- 
hill. 

Ohs. — A specimen of this species, sent by Mr. Crotch 
to Herr Thomson, was returned by him with a label 
attached, marked " mnhonatce affinis.^^ I think, however, 
it is better placed near monticola, from which it is distin- 
guished by its much smaller size, finer punctuation, and 
absence of marked male characters. 



150 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

45. Homalota incana. 

Sat depressa, subopaca, nigra, antennis basi testaceis, 
apice pedibusque fuscis, harum genubus tarsisque dilu- 
tioribus, confertim fortiter punctata ; thorace transversim 
subquadratOj elytris angustiore ; abdomine crebre fortiter 
punctato, apice granulate. Long, 1^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 5° supra subtiliter, 6° at 
7° fortiter granulatis, hujus apice extreme laevigato. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmentis 5 et 6 obsolete vix evi- 
denter granulatis. 

JT. incana, Er. Kiif. Brand, i. 329; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 109; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 236; Wat. Cat.; Ali- 
anta incana, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 44. 

A peculiar, dull species. The antennae are testaceous 
at the base, more or less darkened towards the apex, 
short, about the length of the head and thorax, thickened 
towai'ds the apex; first joint longer than the second or 
third, three a little shorter and narrower than two ; four 
about as long as broad ; from this to the tenth, each 
joint is broader than the foregoing one, seven to ten dis- 
tinctly transverse ; the eleventh joint about twice as long 
as the tenth. Head a little narrower than the thorax, 
dull, sometimes with an impression in the middle ; its 
punctuation pretty close, but indistinct. Thorax con- 
siderably narrower than the elytra, nearly a third broader 
than long, a little narrowed behind, dull, its punctuation 
indistinct, sometimes with an impression or channel in 
the middle in front of the scutellum. The elytra are 
nearly one-half longer than the thorax, the sculpture 
dense and distinct, consisting of small numerous granu- 
lations. The basal segments of the abdomen are closely 
and distinctly punctured, from the fourth segment to 
the seventh the sculpture consists of distinct fine granu- 
lations, the fourth less distinctly granulate than the 
following ones. The legs are pitchy, the tarsi and knees 
indistinctly paler than the other parts ; the posterior 
tarsi are stout, and rather short. 

In the male, the fourth to sixth segments of the abdo- 
men are moderately shining, the extreme apex of the 
seventh segment is quite smooth and shining, in front 
of this shining space is a row of four large indistinct 



British Species of Homalota. 151 

tubercles, and tlie space in front of these is thickly- 
studded with granulations ; the granulations of the fifth 
and sixth segments are also very distinct ; sometimes 
also the posterior margin of the seventh segment has a 
very small notch in the middle. 

In the female, the apical segments of the abdomen are 
not more shining than the basal ones, the granulations 
on the fifth and sixth segments are indistinct ; the 
extreme edge of the seventh segment is less shining than 
in the male, and the four elevations in front of this 
space are smaller, and more separated from one another ; 
the outside one on each side being a sort of raised 
line connected with the outer angle. 

This peculiar species is found in large marshes, and 
lives in the axils of the leaves of water plants, but is to 
be found also amongst moss and rubbish at the edges of 
pools. Hammersmith Marshes and the Fen districts. 

46. Homalota nigella. 

Linearis, angusta, antice opaca; thorace subquadrato, 
basin versus angustato, dorso late longitudinaliter im- 
presso; elytris hoc paulo latioribus et longioribus ; ab- 
domine segmentis 2-4 crebre distincte punctatis, 5° 
magis sparsim punctate. Long. Ij lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 6° supra sat distincte 
granulate, 7° apice denticulis 4 instructo. 

H. nigella, Er. Kiif. Brand, i. 323 ; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 92; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 237; Wat. Cat. H. 
immersa, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1852, p. 139. Dinarcea 
punctiventris , Th. Sk. Col. ii. 292. 

Allied both to the preceding and following species, 
but smaller than either. The head and thorax dull, the 
elytra and abdomen more shining. The antennae are 
thickened towards the apex, about as long as the head and 
thorax, testaceous at the base, infuscate towards the 
apex ; the first joint nearly as long as the second and 
third, three a little shorter and more slender than two ; 
four to ten each a little broader than its predecessor, 
six to ten distinctly transverse ; eleventh not quite twice 
as long as the tenth. The head is but little narrower 
than the thorax, dull, flat, broadly and indistinctly im- 
pressed in the male, the sculpture dense, but indistinct. 



152 Dr. Sharp's lievision of the 

Thorax but little narrower than the elytra, its length but 
little less than its breadth, narrowed behind, but not 
greatly so ; dull, with a broad central longitudinal im- 
pression, sculpture indistinct. The elytra are not a third 
longer than the thorax, rather more shining than it, 
sculpture dense and distinct, consisting of minute granu- 
lations. The abdomen is moderately shining, segments 
two to four are closely and distinctly punctured, fifth 
segment more sparingly punctured, sixth nearly impunc- 
tate, but with granulations in the male. The thighs are 
pitchy, the tibiae and tarsi pitchy-testaceous; posterior 
tarsi short and stout. 

In the male, the sixth segment is sprinkled above with 
granulations, not very conspicuously, however ; the 
seventh segment has the hind margin furnished with four 
small projecting tubercles, the middle ones more dis- 
tinct than the lateral. 

In the female, the sixth and seventh segments are 
simple above. 

Found in marshy places, in company with H. inccma ; 
Horning, Hammersmith, &c. 

47. Homalota cequata. 

Antice opaca, nigra, antennis fuscis, basi pedibusque 
testaceis, elytris brunneis ; thorace subquadrato, late 
longitudinaliter impresso ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 crebre 
punctatis, 5° magis sparsim punctate, 6° fere Isevigato. 
Long. 1| lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 5° dorsali medio granulis 
elevatis duobus, 6° granulis octo, 7° apice denticulis 4 
instructo. 

H. cequata, Br. Kiif. Bi'and. i. 323 ; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 92; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 238; Wat. Cat.; Di- 
narcea cequata, Th. Sk. Col. ii. 290. 

Antennae rather stout, about as long as the head and 
thorax, testaceous at the base, pitchy towards the apex ; 
first joint stout, moderately long, three a little longer 
than two ; four to ten each a little broader than its pre- 
decessor, five to ten each broader than long ; eleventh 
joint quite twice as long as the tenth. Palpi yellow. 
Head but little narrower than the thorax, flat, quite dull, 
the front depressed in the male, sculpture indistinct. 



British Species of Homalota. 153 

Thorax a little narrower than the elytra^ nearly as long 
as broad, somewhat narrowed behind, quite dull, with 
a broad central longitudinal impression in the middle, 
with a fine channel, sometimes very indistinct ; sculpture 
indistinct. The elytra are brownish, a little longer than 
the thorax, and not quite so dull as it, punctuation fine 
and dense. The abdomen is black, shining towards the 
apex, the posterior edges of the segments obscurely 
brown ; segments two to four closely and distinctly 
punctured, fifth more sparingly punctured, sixth almost 
impunctate. Legs yellow, posterior tarsi moderately 
long. 

In the male, the front of the head has a distinct broad 
impression, and the longitudinal impression on the thorax 
is more distinct than in the female ; the fifth segment of 
the abdomen has, on the upper side, two small raised 
granulations ; the sixth segment has two transverse 
rows of short raised longitudinal lines, four in each 
row; those in the hind row closer to one another than 
those in the front row. The sixth segment has the pos- 
terior margin furnished with four small sharp projecting 
teeth, the outside ones being indistinct. 

Not common ; found in the bark of oak stumps in 
England. 

Ohs. — This species cannot easily be mistaken for any 
other, if the very dull head and thorax, the brownish 
elytra, and the yellow legs, be noted. 

48. Homalota angustula. 

Linearis, sat depressa, dense subtiliter punctata, capite 
abdomineque nigris, antennarum basi pedibusque testa- 
ceis ; thorace subquadrato, canaliculate; elytris Isete rufo- 
testaceis, thorace vix longioribus ; abdomine segmentis 
2-5 dense subtiliter punctatis, 6° parcius punctate. Long. 
li-l§ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 6° supra granulis elevatis 
asperate, 7° ante apicem granulis elevatis 4, apice ipso 
medio denticulis duobus subprominulis, utrinque denti- 
culis duobus obsoletis. 

Aleochara angustula, Gyll. Ins. Suec. ii. 393; H. an- 
gustula, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 91; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. 
ii. 238; Wat. Cat.; Dinareea angustula, Th. Sk. Col. ii. 
290. 



154 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

A rather flat, parallel species, with very bright colour- 
ed elytra. Antennge moderately long and stout, gently 
thickened towards the apex, the two or three basal joints 
reddish-yellow, the rest pitchy; joints two and three 
moderately long and stout, of about equal length, four 
and five nearly equal to one another, each longer than 
broad, six about as long as broad, seven to ten a little 
transverse; eleventh joint about twice as long as the 
tenth. Palpi obscurely testaceous. Head a little nar- 
rower than the thorax, dull ; the upper surface not con- 
vex, deeply impressed in the male, its sculpture fine, close 
and indistinct. Thorax variable in colour, black, reddish 
or yellow; scarcely narrower than the elytra, but little 
broader than long, very little narrowed behind, very fine- 
ly and densely punctured, with a distinct central longitu- 
dinal channel. The elytra are but little longer than the 
thorax, reddish-yellow, slightly obscured about the scu- 
telium, very thickly and finely punctured. The abdomen 
is black, and, with the exception of the sixth segment, 
dull, segments two to five are densely and finely punc- 
tured, sixth segment rather sparingly punctured. Legs 
yellow. 

In the male, the sixth segment of the abdomen has on 
the upper surface ten or twelve small elevations, irregu- 
larly placed ; the seventh segment is furnished before the 
apex with a row of four short raised lines, and the hind 
margin itself has in the middle two other lines projecting 
a little beyond the margin, and on each side of these are 
one or two similar, but much smaller, and more indistinct 
lines. 

Found in damp places both in England and Scotland, 
but not common. 

Ohs. — The brightly coloured elytra and legs, together 
with the flat parallel form, and the close and fine punc- 
tuation of this species, should prevent its being confound- 
ed with any other of the genus. 

49. Homalota linearis. 

Subnitida, nigra, antennis basi testaceis, apicem versus 
infuscatis, elytris brunneis, pedibus anoque testaceis ; ca- 
pite canaliculato ; thorace subquadrato, canaliculate; ely- 
tris hoc paulo longioribus, evidenter, sat crebre, punc- 
tatis ; abdomine basi vix crebre punctato, apice fere laevi- 
gato. Long. 1^ lin. 



British Species of Homalota. 15^ 

Mas; fronte antice late impressa. 

Aleochara linearis, Grav. Micr. 69 ; H. linearis, Er. Gen. 
et Spec. Staph. 91 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 240; Wat. Cat,; 
Dinarcea linearis, Th. Sk. Col. ii. 291. 

A good deal like H. cequata, but much more shining, 
with more sparingly punctured abdomen^ &c. Antennae 
moderately stoutj a little thickened towards the apex, 
furnished distinctly with projecting hairs, the basal three 
joints yellow, the others dirty yellow; first joint stout, 
two and three of nearly equal length, fourth joint not so 
broad as the fifth, six to ten each broader than long ; 
eleventh about half as long again as the tenth. Head a 
little narrower than the thorax, not very shining, flat 
above, with a longitudinal impression on the middle; in 
the male, with a broad shallow impression between the 
eyes; rather sparingly and not distinctly punctured. 
Thorax but little narrower than the elytra, about one- 
fourth broader than long, slightly narrowed behind, 
moderately shining, pretty densely and finely punctate, 
with a broad and distinct longitudinal channel. Elytra 
a little longer than the thorax, brown, punctuation more 
evident than on the head and thorax. Abdomen with 
segments two to four rather sparingly and finely punc- 
tured, five and six almost impunctate and shining, apex 
obscurely testaceous. Legs yellow. 

It is not easy to distinguish the male from the female 
by the structure of the abdomen ; but, in the former sex, 
the front of the head is broadly impressed. 

Generally distributed in England and Scotland : found 
under bark of dead trees, and in moss in woods. 

50. Homalota pilicornis. 

Subdepressa, nitidula, antennis verticillato-pilosis, ni- 
gra, antennarum basi pedibus anoque rufo-testaceis, ely- 
tris brunneis; thorace transversim subquadrato; abdo- 
mine segmentis 2-4 subtiliter hand crebre punctatis, 
5° parce punctate, 6° fere laevigato. Long. 1| lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali margine posteriore 
incrassato, obsoletissime crenulato ; ventrali apice ro- 
tundato. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice late obsolete 
emarginato, angulis externis acutis ; ventrali apice medio 
emarginato. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PAKT II. (MAY) N 



156 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

E.pilicornis,Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1852, p. 142; 
Atlieta inlicornis, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 82. H. jnlosa, Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 241 ; Wat. Cat. 

A species not much resembling the preceding ones; 
somewhat like a broad flat H. elongatula, but readily dis- 
tinguished by the antennge being furnished with long pro- 
jecting hairs, more distinctly than is usual m the genus. 
The antennfe are moderately stout, gently thickened to- 
wards the apex, the basal three joints rather elongate, 
lighter in colour than the following ones; joint three 
longer than two, four to ten each a little broader than its 
predecessor, four to six about as long as broad, seven to 
ten transverse ; eleventh joint about half as long again as 
the tenth. Head rather broad and short, narrower than the 
thorax, somewhat narrowed behind, rather shining, finely 
and sparingly punctured, sometimes with an impression 
or channel on the disc. Thorax a little narrower than 
the elytra, rather flat, more than one-third broader than 
long, a little narrowed behind, finely and not densely 
punctured. The elytra are rather longer than the thorax, 
brownish, not densely but distinctly punctured, and fine- 
ly alutaceous. The abdomen is black and shining, red- 
dish-yellow at the extremity, segments two to four finely 
and not densely punctured, fifth segment more sparingly 
punctured, sixth almost impunctate ; the sides and apex 
distinctly furnished with long exserted hairs. Legs clear 
yellow. 

In the male, the dorsal plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment has the apex truncate, but with the posterior 
margin not quite straight; this margin is distinctly 
thickened, and indistinctly crenulate. The under plate 
of the seventh segment has the hind margin gently 
rounded. 

In the female, the seventh segment above has the 
posterior margin broadly but shallowly emarginate, and 
terminates on each side in a small sharp projection ; on 
the under side the same segment has the posterior mar- 
gin emarginate, and furnished densely with short parallel 
cilia. 

Rare. Rannoch ; and Hampstead, near London. 

Obs. — This species is, I think, best placed here; though, 
in some respects, it is allied to H. xantJioptera. 



British Species of Homalota. 157 

51. Homalota dehilis. 

Linearis^ subdepressa, nigro-fusca, antennis ore pedi- 
bus anoque testaceis, elytris fusco-testaceis; thorace sub- 
quadrato, basin versus leviter angustato ; abdomine supra 
segmentis 2-4 subtiliter sat crebre punctatis^ 5° parce 
punctato, 6° fere laevigato. Long 1^ lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali producto^ apicem 
versus haud angustato. 

H. dehilis, Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 321 ; Gen. et Spec. Staph. 
94; Kr. Ins. Deutscli. ii. 243 ; Wat. Cat. ; Atheta dehilis, 
Th. Sk. Col. iii. 72. 

Allied to H. elongatula, but smaller and more slender, 
with broader head, and stouter antennae ; brighter 
coloured, and with the thorax more narrowed behind, &c. 
Antennas yellow, rather longer than the head and thorax, 
a little thickened towards the apex ; joints one to three 
moderately long, three scarcely so long as two, four to 
ten each a little stouter than the preceding one, four and 
five rather slender, six about as long as broad, seven to 
ten each broader than long; eleventh joint rounded. 
Mandibles and palpi yellow. Head rather short and 
broad, but little narrower than the thorax, finely and in- 
distinctly punctured. The thorax is scarcely narrower 
than the elytra, gently but distinctly narrowed behind, 
about one-fourth broader than long, finely and closely 
punctured, with an indistinct longitudinal channel. Ely- 
tra a third longer than the thorax, of a brownish or 
yellowish colour, finely and pretty densely punctured. 
The abdomen is black, with the extremity yellow ; seg- 
ments two to four finely and moderately closely punc- 
tured, fifth segment sparingly punctured, sixth almost 
impunctate. Legs clear yellow. 

In the male, the ventral plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is produced considerably beyond the 
upper plate ; its sides are parallel, so that it is not nar- 
rowed towards the apex, which is truncate, with the 
angles rounded. 

In marshy places in England and Scotland, but not 
common. 

52. Homalota fallaciosa. 

Nigro-fusca, antennis ore anoque obscure testaceis, 
pedibus testaceis, elytris fuscis ; capite thorace angustiore, 

n2 



158 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

suborbiculatOj medio canalicula brevi impresso; tliorace 
transversim subquadrato^ basin versus vix angustato ; ely- 
tris thorace paulo longioribus ; abdomine supra segmentis 
2-4 subtiliter sat crebre punctatis, 5° parce punctato, 
6° fere Ifevigato. Long. 1^ lin. 

31as ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali producto_, apicem 
versus angustato^ apice rotundato. 

Allied to H. dehilis, but less depressed, more robust, 
jieither so shining nor so brightly coloured, witli nar- 
rower more orbiculate head, shorter elytra, different ab- 
dominal structure in the male, &c. Antennas a little longer 
than the head and thorax, obscure testaceous, the basal 
joints testaceous; a little thickened towards the apex; 
joints one to three moderately long, three not so long as 
two, four to ten each slightly broader than its predecessor, 
four to six about as long as broad, seven to ten scarcely 
so long as broad; eleventh joint short, scarcely half as 
long again as the tenth. Mandibles and palpi obscure 
yellow. Head considerably narrower than the thorax, 
a little narrowed in front, with a distinct short channel 
on the disc, finely and indistinctly punctured. Thorax a 
little narrower than the elytra, quite one-third broader 
than long, transversely convex, but little narrowed be- 
hind, with a scarcely visible impression in front of the 
base in the middle, finely and closely punctured. Elytra 
scarcely one-fourth longer than the thorax, broader than 
long, thickly and finely punctured, brownish or pitchy- 
brown. Abdomen black, with the apex yellowish, seg- 
ments two to four moderately closely and finely punc- 
tured, fifth segment sparingly punctured, sixth nearly 
impunctate. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the channel on the head is more distinct, 
the ventral plate of the seventh abdominal segment is 
distinctly produced beyond the dorsal plate, and it is 
narrowed towards the hind margin, which is rounded. 

Rare. I have found it only in Scotland; Rannoch, 
and Thornhill, 

Ohs. — This species resembles some of the varieties of 
H. volans, but is readily distinguished by its shorter and 
stouter antennae, with transverse penultimate joints. It 
also somewhat resembles H. Auhei, Bris., and is distin- 
guished by its shorter antennte, less punctured abdomen, 
&c. Its place is certainly next H. dehilis. 



British Species of Homalota. 159 

53. Homalota deformis. 

Linearis, depressa, confertim subtiliter punctata, 
picea, tliorace elytrisqne fusco-testaceis, antennis ano 
pedibusque testaceis ; thorace transversim subquadrato, 
basin versus angustato ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 
subtiliter baud confertim punctatis, 5° parcius punctato, 
6° fere Igevigato. Long. 1 lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° apice rotundato. 
Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° apice medio obsolete 
emarginato. 

H. deformis, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 244. 

An immature looking species, like H. dehilis, but much 
smaller and paler. Antennee pale testaceous, stout for 
the size of the insect, thickened towards the apex ; joint 
three not so long as two, seven to ten distinctly trans- 
verse. Head a little narrower than the thorax, finely 
and indistinctly punctured ; thorax nearly as broad as 
the elytra, about one-third broader than long, a little 
narrowed behind, thickly and finely punctured, with a 
shallow, broad, longitudinal channel down the middle. 
Elytra about a fourth longer than the thorax, thickly and 
finely punctured. Abdomen with segments two to four 
finely and not densely punctured, fifth segment sparingly 
punctured, sixth nearly impunctate. Legs pale yellow. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is gently rounded, while in 
the female it is widely but indistinctly emarginate in the 
middle. 

. Rare : in the collections of Mr. Waterhouse, Dr. Power, 
and Mr. Crotch. 

Ol)S. — The small size and stout antennae, parallel and 
depressed form, and the apparently immature colouring, 
should prevent this species being mistaken for any other 
of the genus. 

54. Homalota ccesida. 

Nigro-fusca, nitidula, elytris antennisque fuscis, pedi- 
bus testaceis, subtiliter punctata; thorace subquadrato; 
elytris hoc brevioribus; abdomine supra basi obsolete 
punctato, apice leevigato. Long. |- lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali producto, apice 
fere truncate. 



160 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

H. ccesula, Er, Gen. et Spec. Staph. 97 ; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 328 ; Wat. Cat. Sipalia hrachyptera, Th. 
Sk. Col. iii. 105. 

The small size and short elytra of this species distin- 
guish it from all others. It is pitchy-black, with the 
elytra a little paler. The antennaa are pitchy or obscurely 
testaceous, a little thickened towards the apex ; joint 
three shorter than two, six to ten transverse ; eleventh 
joint rather large, nearly twice as long as the tenth. 
Head shining, almost impunctate, but little narrower 
than the thorax, narrowed towards the front. Thorax 
almost wider than the elytra, about a fourth broader than 
long, scarcely narrowed behind, very finely and rather 
sparingly punctured. Elytra shorter than the thorax, 
and rather more distinctly punctured. Abdomen shining, 
a little narrowed at the base, segments two to four spar- 
ingly and very obsoletely punctured, sixth and seventh 
impunctate. Legs yellowish. 

In the male, the ventral plate of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is very distinctly prodviced, its apex 
truncate, with the angles rounded ; in this sex also there 
is sometimes to be seen an indistinct, broad, longitudinal 
impression on the thorax. 

Very local. At the roots of grass in sandy places. 
Deal, Thetford. 

Section C. 

Group VIII. Co7ivex, or but little depressed species. 

(Species 55 — 59) . 

The species of this group are all peculiar, and by no 
means closely allied. H. circellaris is found everywhere, 
among moss, &c. The other species are all so rare that 
I can give no sufficient information as to their habits. 

55. Homalota circellaris. 

Rufescens, abdomine piceo, antennis pedibusque tes- 
taceis ; capite ovato, thorace subquadrato, elytris hoc 
brevioribus ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 subtiliter 
crebre punctatis, 5 et 6 fere Isevigatis. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas ; elytris basi utrinque prope suturam tuberculatis ; 
abdomine segmento 6° supra, medio ante apicem, tuber- 



British Species of Homalota. 161 

culo elongate elevato, segmento 7° apice medio obsolete 
bi tuber culato. 

Aleochara circellaris, Grav. Mon. 155; S. cir cellar is, 
Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 98 ; Ejr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 326 ; 
Wat. Cat. ; Geostiha circellaris, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 104. 

A very abundant and "well-known species. Reddish- 
yellow, or reddish-brown, with the abdomen darker. 
Antennge yellow, stout, thickened towards the apex; first 
joint not much longer, but stouter than the second, three 
nearly as long as two, four to ten each distinctly stouter 
than its predecessor, four and five each about as long as 
broad, six to ten transverse, the tenth strongly so ; 
eleventh joint about as long as the two preceding*. Head 
rather long and narrow, ovate, a little narrowed towards 
the front, narrower than the thorax, almost impunctate. 
Thorax but little narrower than the elytra, its length 
almost greater than its breadth, very slightly narrowed 
behind, the base not truncate, but a little produced in 
front of the scutellum, very finely and closely punctured, 
Avith a slight impression in front of the scuteUum. Elytra 
shorter than the thorax, closely and rather strongly 
punctured. Abdomen pitchy, the base and apex paler, 
segments two to four finely and moderately thickly punc- 
tured, five and six almost impunctate. Legs yellow. 

In the male, each elytron is furnished at the base, near 
the suture, with a distinct elevation. The upper surface 
of the sixth segment of the abdomen is provided, before 
the apex in the middle, with a raised linear tubercle, and 
the hind margin of the seventh segment is indistinctly 
bituberculate in the middle. 

Very abundant everywhere. 

Ohs. — The narrow form, reddish colour stout antennee, 
and short elytra, are characters of themselves sufiicient 
to distinguish this anomalous^ but vulgar species, from 
all others. 



56. Homalota elegantula. 

Subdepressa, nitidula, piceo-rufa, capita abdomineque 
cingulo piceis, elytris pedibus anoque rufo-testaceis ; 
antennis articulis fortiter transversis ; capite thoraceque 
parce fortiter punctatis, hoc canaliculato ; elytris aluta- 
ceis; abdomine fex'e Isevigato. Long. 1| lin. 



162 Dr. Sharp's lievistoii of the 

Mas; latet. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali^ apice medio, 
late obsolete emarginato. 

E. elegantula, Brisout, Cat. Grenier^ Mat. p. 24. 

A remarkable and very distinct species ; flat, and mo- 
derately broad, of a reddish-yellow colour, with the head 
and abdomen more or less pitchy. Antennae reddish- 
yellow, stout, much thickened towards the apex; first 
joint rather long and stout, second considerably longer 
than the third, four to ten short and broad, each one 
broader than long, the tenth twice as broad as long ; 
eleventh joint about as long as the two preceding to- 
gether; they are furnished throughout their length with 
rather long projecting hairs. Head rather elongate, with 
the sides parallel, narrower than the thorax, pitchy, with 
the mandibles and palpi reddish-yellow, distinctly and 
strongly, but not closely punctured, with a channel or 
impression on the middle of the upper side. Thorax 
reddish-yellow, more or less suffused with a darker colour, 
about as long as broad, slightly narrowed behind, rather 
coarsely and moderately densely pu,nctured, akitaceous 
between the punctures, with a distinct central longitudi- 
nal channel. Elytra reddish-yellow, fully one-third long- 
er than the thorax, alutaceous, but scarcely pvmctured, 
with a moderately long and rather sparing pubescence. 
Abdomen almost impunctate, but with the segments 
sparingly furnished with distinct hairs ; reddish-yellow, 
more or less pitchy in the middle. Legs yellow. 

I am unable to distinguish satisfactorily the male of 
this species : but in one specimen, which I have no 
doubt is a female, the ventral plate of the seventh seg- 
ment of the abdomen has the hind margin a little emar- 
ginato in the middle. 

I have seen but three or four specimens of this remark- 
able species ; they were taken by Mr. Crotch at Monk's 
Wood. 

Ohs. — These specimens agree well with Brisout's de- 
scription of E. elegantula ; moreover, an example sent 
by Mr. Crotch to M. Brisout, was returned with a label, 
" elegantula, mihi," attached. Its peculiar colour, broad 
antennfe, strongly punctured head and thorax, and 
impunctate abdomen, should distinguish it from all 
others. Its nearest ally is the following species. 



British Sjy-'cies of Ilomalota. 163 

57. Homalota rufo-testacca. 

Rufo-testacea, capite abdomineque cingulo piceis ; 
capite thorace elytrisque alutaceisj obsolete vix evidenter 
punctatis; abdomine nitidulo, laevigato. Long. 1^ lin. 

H. rufo-testacea, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 245. H. atrica- 
pilla, Muls. Opusc. i. 21 {nee Boliem.); Aleuonota atrica- 
Ijilla, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 53. 

A brightly coloured, rather narrow species, with stout 
antennas. These are entirely yellow, thickened towards 
the apex; second joint distinctly longer than the third, 
four to ten each strongly transverse, and each broader 
than its predecessor; eleventh joint nearly as long as the 
two preceding ones. Head pitchy, with the mandibles 
and palpi yellow, narrow in proportion to its length, nar- 
rower than the thorax, its sides nearly parallel, obsoletely 
punctured. The thorax is narrower than the elytra, about 
as broad as long, slightly narrowed behind, rather dull, 
alutaceous, very obsoletely punctured, and with a fine and 
not very distinct longitudinal channel. The elytra are 
about a third longer than the thorax, alutaceous. The 
abdomen is reddish-yellow, the fifth segment and base of 
the sixth pitchy, shining and impunctate. Legs yellow. 

I am unable to give any characters for the male of this 
species ; I have, indeed, seen but one British specimen, 
which was taken at Mickleham, by Mr. Champion. Its 
narrower and less depressed form, and indistinctly punc- 
tured head and thorax, readily distinguish it from H. 
elegantula. 

58. Homalota sple)idens. 

Linearis, sat convexa, nitidula, fere impunctata, picea, 
capite nigro, elytris brunneo-testaceis, antennis ano pe- 
dibusque testaceis; thorace subquadrato, elytris hoc pau- 
lo longioribus. Long. Ij lin. 

H. splendens, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 246, 

A narrow, shining, delicately pubescent, and almost 
impunctate species, with stout entirely yellow antennae. 
These are thickened towai'ds the apex, third joint nearly 
as long as the second, four a little broader than three, 
transverse and very short, four to ten each broader 



164 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

than its predecessor, and distinctly transverse, penulti- 
mate joints strongly transverse; eleventh joint large, as 
long as the two preceding. Mandibles and palpi yellow. 
Head black and shining, narrower than the thorax, rather 
long in proportion to its width, moderately convex above, 
without impression, impunctate, but with a slight pubes- 
cence. Thorax quadrate, not quite so long as broad, the 
sides nearly straight, scarcely perceptibly narrowed be- 
hind, of a pitchy colour, almost impunctate, and with a 
delicate pubescence. Elytra about a fourth longer than 
the thorax, yellowish or brownish in colour, not entirely 
impunctate, but with the sculpture scarcely visible, pubes- 
cence sparing. Abdomen pitchy in the middle, paler at 
the apex, and with the fifth and sixth segments rather 
darker than the preceding ones, shining and impunctate. 

The three specimens of this species I have seen, are, 
I think, all females ; they have the posterior margins of 
the upper and under plates of the seventh abdominal seg- 
ment gently rounded. 

Very rare. I have captured a specimen in the chalk- 
pit at Charlton, in May, and it is also in Mr. Crotch's 
collection. These specimens accord with an example of 
H. splendens sent by Kraatz to the British Museum. 

59. Homalota cegra. 

Nitidula, subtilissime pubescens, vix visibiliter punc- 
tata, picea, capite abdomineque nigro-piceis, pedibus 
piceo-testaceis ; thorace transversim subquadrato, elytris 
hoc longioribus. Long, vix 1 lin. 

n. cegra, Heer, Faun. Col. Helv. 595 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. 
ii. 249 ; Wat. Cat. 

A small, dark-coloured, shining, almost impunctate 
species, with delicate but distinct pubescence. Antennae 
pitchy in colour, moderately stout, a little thickened to- 
wards the apex; joint three not so long as two, four 
about as long as broad, five to ten transverse, the first of 
them slightly so, the last of them distinctly; eleventh 
joint rather short and broad, not quite so long as the two 
preceding together. Head black, with the mandibles and 
palpi pitchy, a little narrower than the thorax, shining, 
impunctate, and with a delicate pubescence. Thorax a 
little narrower than the elytra, one-third broader than 



British Species of Horaalota. 165 

loBg, but slightly narrowed behind, impunctate, and with 
a delicate pubescence. The elytra are about a third long- 
er than the thorax, very obsoletely punctured. Abdo- 
men pitchy-black, shining, almost impunctate, but with a 
distinct pubescence. Legs dirty yellow. 

In the male, the upper and under plates of the seventh 
segment of the abdomen are narrower than in the female, 
and the under one is a little more produced. 

This species is rare, but I have found single specimens 
in several localities. Brighton, Cambridge, Edinburgh, 
London. 

Obs. — This species is readily distinguished from H. 
splendens by its smaller size, darker colour, slenderer an- 
tennae, &c. ; on account of its almost impunctate surface 
it is readily distinguished from most others of the genus, 
H. atomaria resembles it in this respect, but, to say no- 
thing of other characters, is easily separated by its smaller 
size. H. luctuosa, Muls., is extremely closely allied to H. 
cegra, but I have not as yet seen a British example of it. 

Group IX. Very flat species. 

(Species 60 — 63). 

The three species with whose habits I am acquainted 
are all found under bark. H. cribriceps is a most remark- 
able insect, about which I can give no information ; its 
colour is different from that of the other species, and 
gives it some resemblance to H. boletobia. 

60. Homalota immersa. 

Depressa, nigra, antennarum basi tibiisque testaceis, 
femoribus piceis; capite transverse, postice truncate; 
thorace subquadrato, basin versus angustato ; abdomine 
supra parce obsolete punctate. Long, -i lin. 

H. immersa, Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 324; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 96; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 252; Wat. Cat. Dado- 
bia planicollis, Th. Sk. Col. ii. 287. 

A very depressed species, readily known by the pecu- 
liar shape of its head. Antennae pitchy, with the first and 
second joints yellow, but little thickened towards the 
apex; joint one longer than two, three shorter and more 
slender than two, scarcely half as long as the first, four to 



166 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

ten differing but little in length and breadth^ the first 
three or four of them each about as long as broad^ the 
remainder slightly transverse; eleventh joint oblong, 
rather long, twice as long as the tenth. Head broad, 
about as broad as the thorax, straight behind, the poster- 
ior angles nearly right angles, flat, and dullish above, 
punctuation indistinct and sparing. Thorax as long as 
broad, narrower than the elytra, evidently narrowed be- 
hind, flat above, sometimes even with the disc depressed, 
rather dull, obsoletely and sparingly punctured. Elytra 
a third longer than the thorax, longer than broad, indis- 
tinctly and not densely punctured, the punctuation more 
evident than on the head and thorax. Abdomen black, 
a little narrowed at the base, punctuation sparing, and 
scarcely visible. Thighs pitchy ; tibiee and tarsi testaceous. 

I am unable satisfactorily to distinguish tlie males from 
the females of this species. 

Rather common in the North under the bark of fir trees ; 
more rare in the South. 

Ohs. — A specimen of H. imTnersa sent by Kraatz to the 
British Museum is undoubtedly identical specifically with 
our British ones; according to descriptions, however, 
our specimens appear to be darker than Continental ones. 



61. Homalota crihr 



iceps. 



Lata, subdepressa, nitidula, nigro-picea, antennarum 
basi pedibusque testaceis, elytris luteis, angulis apicis 
infuscatis ; capite postice crebre fortiter punctate ; tho- 
race transverse, lateribus rotundatis, basin versus angus- 
tato, crebre fortiter punctate, medio que late impresso ; 
abdomine supra basi sat crebre, apice parce, punctate. 
Long. 1^ lin. 

A most remarkable species, to be compared with no 
other ; allied by the form of its head to H. plana ; broad, 
flat, and shining, pitchy-black, with the base of the an- 
tennae, the legs, and the elytra, except the apical angles, 
yellow. The antennjB are yellow at the base, infuscate 
outwards, rather short, stout, thickened towards the 
apex ; third joint quite as long as the second, fourth 
nearly quadrate, much narrower than the fifth, fifth to 
tenth strongly transverse ; eleventh joint stovit, as long' 
as the two preceding. Head nearly black, shining, nar- 



British Species of Homalota. 167 

rowed behind the eyes, which are very hirge and promi- 
nent, very coarsely and closely punctured, but with a 
smooth impunctate space in the front. Thorax nearly as 
broad as the elytra, more than half as broad again as long, 
pitchy-black, almost without pubescence, the sides much 
rounded and considerably narrowed behind, the posterior 
angles a little prominent, tho base not truncate, but pro- 
duced in front of the scutellum, coarsely and closely 
punctured, especially on the disc, where there is also a 
broad distinct impression. Elytra pale testaceous, pitchy 
at the external angles, one-third longer than the thorax, 
indistinctly punctured. The abdomen is pitchy, paler 
at the extremity, with very scanty pubescence ; the basal 
segments moderately closely, the apical ones sparingly 
punctured. Legs yellow. Tarsi formed as in H. ijlcma, 
but rather longer. 

A single specimen (a female, I believe) of this very 
remarkable species has been submitted to me by Mr. 
Waterhouse, without any indication of locality. I could 
well believe it to be an exotic species. From the struc- 
ture of its antennae it might be placed in the neighbour- 
hood of H. suhterranea, but as it is allied to none of the 
species of that group, and as the shape and punctu.ation 
of its head show a distinct affinity with H. plana, I have 
preferred placing it next that species. 

62. Homalota plana. 

Depressa, subopaca, nigra, elytris fuscis, antennis 
femoribusqu.e piceis, tibiis testaceis ; capite confertim 
distincte hand profunde punctate ; thorace transversim 
subquadrato, basin versus leviter angustato ; abdomiue 
supra segmentis 2-4 subtiliter haud crebre punctatis, 
5 et 6 fere Isevigatis. Long. Ij lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segraento 6° medio ante apicem 
tuberculo parvo, 7° lineis elevatis duabus instructo. 

Aleochara plana, Gyll. Ins. Suec. ii. 402. H. pilana, 
Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 93 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 250 ; 
Th. Sk. Col. ii. 285 ; Wat. Cat. 

A flat, broad, and dull species. Antennae not quite 
so long as the head and thorax, rather stout, pitchy ; first 
joint about as long as the second and third together, three 
nearly as long as two, four small, about as long as 



168 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

broad, five considerably broader than four, five to ten 
transverse ; eleventh joint rather short. Head large, but 
little narrower than the thorax, a little rounded behind 
the eyes, which are large and rather prominent, dull, 
closely and distinctly though not deeply punctured. 
Thorax a little narrower than the elyti-a, about a fourth 
broader than long, a little narrowed in front, and slightly 
more so towards the base, with an indistinct longitudinal 
channel along the middle, dull, obsoletely but closely 
punctured. Elytra of a lurid brownish colour, fully one- 
third longer than the thorax, densely but extremely finely 
punctured. Abdomen black (sometimes with the ex- 
tremity pale), segments two and three finely and not 
densely punctured, four rather more sparingly punctured, 
five and six almost impunctate. Thighs pitchy, tibias and 
tarsi testaceous. 

In the male, the sixth segment of the abdomen is fur- 
nished, on the upper side in the middle, before the pos- 
terior margin, with a small raised tubercle ; the seventh 
segment has two raised longitudinal lines on its surface, 
the space between which is rather depressed, especially 
just before the hind margin, and the lines project a little 
beyond the margin in the form of two small indistinct 
teeth. 

Rather common in England, under the bark of dead 
elm trees. 

Ohs. — This species may be distinguished from all 
others by its distinctly and thickly punctured head, 
taken in conjunction with its flat broad form, and dull 
appearance. 

In Thomson's arrangement, the genus Homalota is re- 
duced to this one sjaecies. 

63. Homalota cuspid ata. 

Augusta, parallela, depressa, picea, pedibus testaceis ; 
thorace subquadrato ; abdomine segmento 7° apice in 
utroque sexu acute mucronato. Long. | lin. 

Mas ; abdomine supra segmentis 3-5 utrinque tubercu- 
lo armatis. 

H. cuspidata, Er. Gen, et Spec. Staph. 96; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 253; Wat. Cat.; Thectura cusjjidata, Th. 
Sk. Col. ii. 286. 



British Species of Homalota. 169 

A smallj narrow^ flat, and parallel species, distinguish- 
ed from all others by the long sharp spine, projecting 
backwards from the middle of the extremity of the upper 
plate of the seventh abdominal segment. Antennee short, 
thickened towards the apex, joints four to ten each dis- 
tinctly transverse. Head about as broad as the thorax, 
quadrate, flat, with the sides parallel, closely and dis- 
tinctly punctured. Thorax a little narrower than the 
elytra, about one-fourth broader than long ; its sides 
nearly straight, finely and pretty densely punctured, with 
an indistinct longitudinal channel. Elytra about half as 
long again as the thorax, finely and pretty densely punc- 
tured. Abdomen with the basal segments finely and not 
densely punctured, the apical segments impunctate, the 
sixth with an ill-defined broad transverse impression, 
the apex of the seventh furnished in the middle with a 
long spine projecting backwards, and on each side with a 
smaller, easily overlooked, sharp spine. Legs yellow, 
the tarsi short. 

In the male, the third, fourth, and fifth segments of 
the abdomen have each on the upper side a pair of tuber- 
cles, and the spines at the extremity of the seventh seg- 
ment are larger and more distinct than in the female. 

Not uncommon in England, under the bark of decay- 
ing oak trees. 



Section D. 

Group X. The sixth segment of the abdomen ])uncturecl 
sparingly, or not at all j antennce moderately long, not stout. 

(Species 64—67) . 

The short thorax of the species of this group prevents 
their being arranged with H. elongatida, while the struc- 
ture of their antennae (thinner, and with a well developed 
fourth joint) separates them from JJ. y^wf/ico/a. The four 
species are all found amongst moss, and are apparently 
gregarious. 

64. Homalota eremita. 

Piceo-nigra, antennis pedibusque obscure testaceis, 
subtiliter sat crebre punctata ; antennis sat elongatis. 



170 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

apicem versus vis incrassatis; thorace transverso, basi 
impresso, plus minusve distincte canaliculato ; elytris tho- 
racis longitudinis ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 evidenter 
sat crebre punctatis, 5° parcius punctate. Long, l^-lf 
lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali producto^ apicem 
versus angustato. 

H. eremita, Rye, Ent. Month. Mag. iii. 123 (1866) . 
Var. — Capite canaliculato. 

An anomalous species, very difficult to place satisfac- 
torily ; allied as it is at the same time to such different 
species as elongatida, fungi, and gemina ; it is also a 
variable species in size, colour, and the channelling of 
the head and thorax. Pitchy-black, with the elytra 
slightly paler, the antennae and legs obscurely testa- 
ceous. Antennse moderately long, very little thickened 
towards the apex ; first joint rather stout, two and three 
moderately long, three longer than two, but not quite so 
long as the first joint, four to ten differing but little from 
one another, four slender and longer than broad, ten 
about as long as broad; eleventh joint rather long, nearly 
as long as the two pi'eceding. Head rather broad and 
short, but considerably narrower than the thorax, a little 
broader behind the eyes, which are small and not pro- 
minent, finely and indistinctly punctured. Thorax as 
broad as, or even broader than, the elytra, about half as 
broad again as long, the sides a little rounded in front, 
scarcely narrowed behind, in the middle in front of the 
base with an impression, which is generally continued 
forwards as a longitudinal channel, very finely but not 
very densely punctured. Elytra about as long as the 
thorax, finely and pretty densely punctured, the punc- 
tuation more distinct than on the thorax. Abdomen 
black, shining towards the apex, and furnished there 
with numerous and pretty distinct hairs, segments two 
to four finely but distinctly and not closely punctured, 
fifth segment sparingly punctured, sixth almost impunc- 
tate. Legs dirty testaceous, thighs darker than the 
tibise, posterior tarsi rather long and slender. 

In the male, the head and thorax are generally more 
distinctly channelled than in the female; the third joint 
of the antenna3 is a little stouter; and the under plate of 
the seventh abdominal segment is considerably pro- 
duced, and narrowed towards the apex. 



British Species of Homalota. 171 

Common in moss in the hilly districts of Scotland. 

Ohs. — As H. Auhei is in some respects intermediate be- 
tween eremita and gemina, I have associated the three 
species together in the present position, as being, per- 
haps, the one least open to objection for them. The 
transverse and broad thorax separates H. eremita from 
the elongatula group; the stouter and more developed 
antennae, the flatter and more parallel form, from H. fungi. 

65. Homalota Auhei. 

Nigro-fusca, antennarum basi pedibusque sordide tes- 
taceis; capite canaliculate, thorace multo minore; hoc 
transverse, canaliculate ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-5 
confertim subtiliter punctatis, 6° parce punctate. Long, 
li lin. 

H. Auhei, Brisout, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1860, p. 389. 

A good deal like H. gemina, but twice the size, and with 
the thorax channelled, and the fifth segment of the ab- 
domen punctured. Also much like some of the varieties 
of H. volans, but with shorter and broader thorax, and 
more closely punctured abdomen. Antennae longer than 
the head and thorax, slightly thickened towards the apex, 
of a pitchy colour, with the two or three basal joints paler ; 
two and three of nearly equal length, four to ten differ- 
ing but little in length, four rather slender, longer than 
broad, five to nine also each longer than broad, ten about 
as long as broad ; eleventh joint half as long again as the 
tenth. Head much smaller than the thorax, round, a 
little wider behind the eyes, finely and indistinctly punc- 
tured, with a distinct longitudinal channel, sometimes 
short and sometimes longer (the male probably); man- 
dibles and palpi pitchy. The thorax is but little narrow- 
er than the elytra, nearly half as broad again as long, the 
sides gently rounded, almost more narrowed in front than 
behind, at the base in the middle with an obscure im- 
pression, from which proceeds a central longitudinal 
channel, fine and not very distinct; closely and finely 
punctured. Elytra about one-third or fourth longer than 
the thorax, closely and finely punctured. Abdomen with 
segments two three and four finely and densely punc- 
tured, fifth segment rather more sparingly punctured, 
sixth very sparingly punctured. Legs dirty testaceous. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — -PAKT II. (mAY). 



172 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

I am not able to point out satisfactory abdominal 
characters to separate the male from the female, but the 
male appears to have the front of the head flattened, and 
the longitudinal channel extending quite to the back. 

Eare. I have found the species at Horning in Norfolk, 
and there are specimens in Mr. Crotch's collection, pro- 
bably from the same locality. It has also been found by 
Mr. Hislop in Scotland. 

Ohs. — I am much indebted to M. Ch. Brisout de Barne- 
ville for an opportunity of examining his types of H. Au- 
hei; they agree with my British examples : and I consider 
the species is best placed near H. gemina, to which it is 
more allied in structure than to any other of the genus. 

QQ. Homalota gemina. 

Nigro-fusca, antennis piceis, basi pedibusque fusco- 
testaceis; antennis sat elongatis, apicem versus vix in- 
crassatis ; capite thorace evidenter angustiore; hoc trans- 
verso, basi indistincte impresso ; elytris thorace longiori- 
bus ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 subtiliter sat crebre 
punctatis, 5 et 6 parce punctatis. Long. 1 lin. 

Mas; capite evidenter canaliculato, abdomine segmento 
7° ventrali producto. 

H. gemina, Er. Kiif. Brand, i. 330 ; Gen. et Spec. Staph. 
112; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 255; Wat. Cat. 

Antennae fusco-testaceous, with the basal joint lighter; 
moderately long and stout, but little thickened towards 
the apex; joints two and three of about equal length, 
four to ten differing but little in length, and each one 
only slightly broader than its predecessor, four longer 
than broad, ten not quite so long- as broad ; eleventh 
joint rather long, oblong-ovate, nearly as long as the two 
preceding joints together. Head considerably smaller 
than the thorax, round, slightly broader behind the eyes, 
finely and indistinctly punctured ; in the male, with a fine 
channel in the middle, reaching nearly to the back part, 
in the female with a very short and indistinct channel. 
Thorax transverse, nearly half as broad again as long, but 
little narrower than the elytra ; the sides gently rounded, 
the base as wide as the apex, thickly and very finely 
punctured, and in front of the scutellum with an obsolete 
double impression. Elytra about a third longer than the 



British Species of Homalota, 173 

thorax, punctured closely and finely, but more distinctly 
than the thorax. Abdomen with segments two to four 
finely but distinctly and moderately closely punctured, 
five and six very sparingly punctured, apex indistinctly 
paler. Legs fusco-testaceous. 

In the male, the channel on the head is longer and 
more distinct than in the female, and the abdomen has 
the seventh segment underneath more produced and 
narrower than in the female. 

This species appears to be not common ; I have found 
it only at Hammersmith Marshes, and in a marshy place 
near Thornhill. 

Ohs. — Compared with typical H. analis, H. gemina is 
larger and darker coloured, with longer and stouter an- 
tennae, differently shaped head, and more sparingly punc- 
tured abdomen. Two specimens of H. gemina sent by 
Kraatz to the British Museum agree with my British ones. 



67. Homalota curtipennis. 

Nigro-fusca, antennis elytrisque fuscis, illarum basi 
pedibusque obscure testaceis ; capite thorace evidenter 
angustiore, antice angustato ; thorace transverse, basi 
plus minusve impresso ; elytris hoc nonnihil longioribus ; 
abdomine segmentis 2-4 sat crebre punctatis, 5° par- 
cius punctate, 6° fere laevigato. Long. 1 lin. 

Mas ; fronte plana, capite subtiliter canaliculate, ab- 
domine segmento 7° ventrali paulo elongato. 

Fern. ; fronte convexiuscula. 

Atheta hreviceps, Th. Sk. Col. ix. 273 (forte) . 

Allied to H. gemina, but with shorter antennse and 
elytra. The antennae are quite as long as the head and 
thorax, obscure testaceous, paler at the base, moderately 
stout, distinctly thickened towards the apex ; joint three 
not quite so long as two, four to ten differing but little 
in length, but each a little broader than its predecessor, 
four to six each about as long as broad, seven to ten 
broader than long; eleventh joint moderately long, nearly 
twice as long as its predecessor. Head distinctly nar- 
rower than the thorax, considerably broader behind the 
eyes, and narrow in front, finely and indistinctly punc- 
tured, flat above and indistinctly channelled in the male, 

o 2 



174 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

in the female convex. Thorax about as broad as the 
elytra, transverse, half as broad again as long, the sides 
but little rounded, the base about as wide as the apex, 
closely and very finely punctured ; sometimes in the 
middle before the base with a broad shallow impression, 
sometimes not impressed. The elytra are scarcely longer 
than the thorax, generally a little lighter in colour than 
it, finely and densely punctured. Abdomen black, a 
little paler at the apex, segments two to four finely but 
distinctly and moderately densely punctured, fifth seg- 
ment sparingly punctured, sixth almost impunctate. 
Legs dirty testaceous. 

In the male, the upper surface of the head is flatter 
than in the female, and channelled; the abdomen has 
the seventh segment underneath a little longer and 
narrower. 

I have found this species only in Scotland. At Ran- 
noch, on the Pentlands, and near Thornhill. I have not 
seen any other specimens, except some taken by Mr. 
Crotch, at Rannoch. 

Ohs. — H. curtipennis can be confounded only with H. 
gemina, but its shorter and stouter antennae, and shorter 
elytra readily distinguish it. Thomson's H. hreviceps 
may prove identical with it, though I cannot satisfy 
myself of this from description. 

Group XI. The sixth segment of the abdomen closely 
punctured; antenncs not very stout. (Species 68 — 73). 

The following species constitute a natural group, with 
the exception of H. vilis, which, although always asso- 
ciated with H. analis, would, perhaps, be better placed 
in Group III. The species are found amongst moss, and 
in damp places. 

68. Homalota vilis. 

Linearis, nigro-fusca, antennis elytrisque fuscis, pedi- 
bus testaceis ; thorace leviter transverse ; abdomine supra 
to to confertim subtiliter punctate. Long, vix 1 lin. 

Mas; capite medio impresso, abdomine segmento 7° 
ventrali paulo elongate. 

H. vilis, Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 325; Gen. et Spec. Staph. 
97 ; Kr. Ins. Dentsch. ii. 257 ; Wat. Cat. 



British 8;pecies of Somalota. 175 

Much smaller tlian H. gemina, and with, the abdomen 
throughout thickly and finely punctured. Rather narrow 
and elongate. The antennee are longer than the head and 
thorax, obscurely testaceous, with the first joint a little 
paler, but slightly thickened towards the apex; third joint 
not so long as the second, four to ten differ but little either 
in length or breadth, the tenth about as long as broad; 
eleventh joint oblong-ovate, nearly as long as the two 
preceding. Head a little narrower than the thorax, 
not narrowed towards the front, very finely and indis- 
tinctly punctured; in the male with an indistinct impres- 
sion. The thorax is nearly as broad as the elytra, about 
one-third broader than long, nearly straight at the sides, 
very finely and closely punctured. The elytra are a 
little paler ia colour than the head and thorax, about 
one-third longer than the latter, closely and finely punc- 
tured. The abdomen is throughout closely and very 
finely punctured, paler towards the apex. The legs are 
yellowish. 

In the male, the head is obscurely impressed, and the 
seventh abdominal segment a little produced under- 
neath. 

I have seen only two British specimens of this species ; 
one in Mr. Waterhouse's collection, and one in my own. 
I captured this specimen in a marshy place near 
Eltham. 

Ohs. — H. vilis can readily be distinguished from H. 
analis by its longer antennee, less thickened towards the 
apex ; by its head not broader behind the eyes, as well 
as by a different facies. With other species it is not 
very likely to be confounded. Specimens of H. vilis 
sent by Kraatz to the British Museum agree with my 
example mentioned above. 

69. Somalota analis. 

Nigra, thorace elytrisque piceis, antennis ano pedi- 
busque testaceis ; capite subtriangulari ; thorace basi 
foveolato ; abdomine supra confertim subtiliter punctate, 
segmento 7° apice medio in utroque sexu triangulariter 
emarginato. Long. 1 lin. 

Yar. — Major, colore obscuriore, antennis longioribus, 
thorace magis transverse. 

Var. — Thorace elytrisque rufis. 



176 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Aleochara analis, Grav. Micr. 76 ; H. analis, Er. Gen. 
et Spec. Staph. 114; Kr. Ins. Deutsh. ii. 256; Wat. 
Cat.; An hi scha analis, Th. Sk. Col. ii. 293. 

A very abundant and variable species, with thickly 
punctured abdomen, and peculiarly shaped head. The 
antenna are rather short, a little thickened towards the 
apex ; joint three shorter and more slender than two, 
four much shorter than three, about as broad as long', 
from this to the tenth the joints differ but little in length, 
but each one is a little broader than its predecessor, from 
the sixth onwards each broader than long; eleventh 
joint -rather large, a little broader than the tenth. The 
head is a little narrower than the thorax, considerably 
widened behind the eyes, so as to make it somewhat 
triangular, the upper surface moderately convex, very 
finely and indistinctly punctured. The thorax is but 
little narrower than the elytra, one-third broader than 
long, the sides but little rounded, and scarcely narrowed 
behind, very finely punctured, and with a fovea in front 
of the scutellum, sometimes with an indistinct central 
longitudinal channel. The elytra are a little longer than 
the thorax, finely and closely punctured. Abdomen more 
or less pale towards the apex, closely and finely punc- 
tured throughout, and the seventh segment has the 
posterior margin triangularly eraarginate in the middle. 
Legs yellowish. 

Varies much in colour ; sometimes the thorax and ely- 
tra are bright reddish-brown, while at other times the 
general colour is blackish, with the legs and antennae 
pitchy. 

A large dark variety occurs, which is often confounded 
in collections with H. soror; this, besides its colour and 
size, differs from ordinary H. analis, by having the joints 
of the antennge longer, the thorax broader, flatter, and 
more transverse, the elytra longer, and not narrowed at 
the shoulders, and the emargination of the seventh ab- 
dominal segment larger. It may possibly prove to be a 
distinct species, but all the characters mentioned above 
vary, and after the examination of several hundreds of 
specimens, I find myself unable to draw any satisfactory 
line of separation. This large form appears to be com- 
moner in the North than in the South. 

It is extremely difficult to separate the sexes of IT. a^ialis. 
Kraatz says that a larger triangular notch of the seventh 



British Species of Ilomalota. 177 

segment of the abdomen is indicative of the male ; this 
notch certainly varies in size in different individuals, but 
I am unable to satisfy myself that the difference is 
sexual. 

H. analis is extremely abundant in all sorts of situa- 
tions all over the country. 

70. Ilomalota cavifrons. 

Nigra, thorace elytrisque piceis, antennis ano pedi- 
busque testaceis; capite subtriangulari ; thorace basi 
foveolato; elytris thoracis longitudinis ; abdomine supra 
confertim subtiliter punctate, segmento 7° apice medio 
in utroque sexu triangulariter emarginato. Long, vix 
1 lin. 

Mas; capite medio late impresso, abdomine segmento 
7° ventrali elongate. 

This species so greatly resembles the small forms of 
H. analis, that it will be sufficient to point out the cha- 
racters distinguishing it from that species. These are 
almost entirely sexual. The upper surface of the head 
of the male of this species is broadly and very distinctly 
impressed, whereas it is convex in all specimens of H. 
analis; also in this sex of H. cavifrons, the ventral plate 
of the seventh abdominal segment is considerably pro- 
duced (as in H. soror) , and the hind margin is furnished 
in the middle with a bunch of five or six distinct black 
hairs. In the female of H. cavifrons, the notch of the 
seventh segment is broader and deeper than in specimens 
of H. analis of the same size ; and in both sexes the 
elytra are shorter, being only of the length of the 
thorax. 

I have found this species only in the hilly districts of 
Scotland, in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, and near 
Thornhiil. 

71. Homalota simillima. 

Picea, antennis ano pedibusque testaceis ; capite sub- 
triangulari; thorace basi obsolete foveolato; elytris hoc 
paulo longioribus; abdomine supra undique confertim 
subtiliter punctato, segmento 7° apice medio in utroque 
sexu emarginato. Long, vix 1 lin. 



178 Dr. Sharp's Bevislon of the 

Mas; capite impresso, abdomine segmento 7° ven- 
trali elong-ato. 

Very like E. analis, and equal in size to the small in- 
dividuals of it, but of more parallel and flatter form, 
more unicolorous, and even more finely and densely 
punctured, so as to be less shining; the thorax is 
flatter and more transverse, and less distinctly foveolate 
at the base. 

The male is readily distinguished from the female; 
it has the upper surface of the head deeply impressed, 
and its abdomen has the seventh ventral segment dis- 
tinctly produced, and the apex furnished in the middle 
with five or six distinct black hairs. 

Also closely allied to H. cavifrons, and possessing 
similar sexual characters, but more unicolorous, more 
parallel in form, more densely and finely punctured, 
with flatter and more transverse thorax, and with the 
elytra longer than the thorax, and not narrowed at the 
shoulders. 

I have found this species only on the banks of the 
Nith, and its tributary Cairn Water, under stones, in 
company with Scopcens Erichsoni. 



72. HomaJota soror. 

Nigra, antennis fuscis, pedibus fusco-testaceis ; capite 
subtriangulari ; thorace basi foveolato; abdomine supra 
undique dense subtiliter punctate. Long. 1 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice medio pro- 
funde exciso, ventrali elongate. 

H. soror, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 257; Wat. Cat. 

Extremely like the large dark form of H. analis, and 
distinguished from such only by its more densely and 
distinctly punctured abdomen (especially notable towards 
the apex), and its difl'erent sexual characters; the male 
has the head more or less distinctly channelled; the 
seventh segment of the abdomen has a much deeper and 
more distinct notch than has H. analis; this notch, too, 
is of a difierent shape, and commences on each side much 
nearer the outside angle of the plate ; the ventral plate 
of the same segment is distinctly produced, and its hind 



British Species of llomalota. 179 

margin furnished in the middle with five or six distinct 
black hairs. 

Apparently very local, and found hitherto only in the 
neighhourhood of London, Hammersmith, Barnes, &c. 

Olis. — Kraatz says the abdomen is much more finely 
punctured than in S. analis. I find, however, the con- 
trary to be the case. It is possible that Kraatz may 
have included the following very closely allied species 
with H. soror; this, at least, would account for the dis- 
crepancy in question. 



73. Homalota decijjiens. 

Nigra, thorace elytrisque piceis, antennis ano pedibus- 
que testaceis ; capite subtriangulari ; thorace basi foveo- 
lato; abdomine supra undique dense subtiliter punctate. 
Long. 1 lin. 

Very closely allied to H. soror, and difiering from it 
only by the more finely punctured abdomen, with difier- 
ently formed seventh segment, and by having the legs, 
antennae, and extremity of the abdomen of a clearer yel- 
low colour. It is also, on the average, slightly smaller 
than H. soror. 

The male of this species is only to be distinguished 
from the female by the under plate of the seventh seg- 
ment of the abdomen being slightly narrower and more 
elongate than in the female. In neither sex has the 
posterior margin of the upper plate of this segment any 
triangular notch ; the posterior margin is not, however, 
completely rounded, but is slightly and indistinctly emar- 
ginate. 

Not common, though I have found it in several locali- 
ties in the South. Chatham, Weymouth, Southend, 
Hammersmith, Charlton. I have also seen it in Mr. 
Crotch's collection. 

Obs. — This species is closely allied to H. analis, and is 
probably confounded with it. It has, however, rather 
longer elytra, more densely punctured abdomen, which 
is on this account less shining, and the seventh segment 
is without the characteristic notch always found in H. 
analis. 



180 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

Group XII. The sixth segment of the abdomen not punc- 
tured; antennce stout or very stout. (Species 74 — 78). 

The very small species forming this group are found 
amongst moss and leaves, with the exception of H. paral- 
lela, which is quite confined to the nests of Formica rufa; 
this species has thinner antennae than the otherSj and a 
difi'erent facies. 



74. Homalota exilis. 

Parallela, fusca, antennis pedibus anoque testaceis, 
obsolete punctata, tenuissime pubescens ; antennis eras- 
sis ; thorace leviter transverse ; elytris hoc paulo longior- 
ibus; abdomine confertim obsoletissime (apicem versus 
vix visibiliter) punctate. Long. ^ lin. 

H. exilis, Er. Kilf. Brand, i. 333; Gen. et Spec. Staph. 
115; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 260; Wat. Cat.; Aleuonota 
exilis, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 54. 

Var. — Minor, angustior, colore obscuriore, antennis 
paulo brevioribus. 

A remarkable little species, of a pale colour, with short 
thick antennas, and extremely fine, scarcely visible punc- 
tuation and pubescence. Antennae testaceous, not quite 
so long as the head and thorax, stout, thickened towards 
the apex ; third joint triangular, not nearly so long as the 
second, fourth joint small, broader than long, from this 
to the tenth the antennee are considerably thickened, 
with each joint very transverse ; the penultimate joint 
more than twice as broad as long ; eleventh joint broad, 
double the length of the tenth. Head large, scarcely 
narrower than the thorax, a little widened behind the 
eyes, which are small and not at all prominent ; very ob- 
soletely punctured, and sometimes with an indistinct long- 
itudinal channel. The thorax is about as wide as the 
elytra, about one-third broader than long, the sides nearly 
straight, a little narrowed behind, very finely punctured 
and pubescent. The elytra are a little longer than the 
thorax, and rather more distinctly (yet extremely finely) 
punctured. The abdomen is yellow at the extremity, the 
middle segments are pitchy, the basal segments sometimes 
pitchy, sometimes yellow; its punctuation is pretty dense, 
but extremely fine, and is, towards the apex, scarcely 
visible. The legs are yellow. 



British Species of Homalota. 181 

I am not able to point out characters to distinguish the 
sexes. 

Local, but sometimes found in great abundance, espe- 
cially in early spring. Wimbledon, Edinburgh, &c. 

Obs. — A small form of this species occurs, which be- 
sides its smaUer size, is narrower, and of a more obscure 
colour, with rather shorter antennse, and less transverse 
thorax ; a specimen of it sent to Kraatz for examination, 
some years back, was returned by him as a distinct species, 
and it is possible it may prove to be so. I have found 
it in very great abundance on Wimbledon Common, un- 
accompanied by any of the larger typical form, which 
indeed appears to be very rare near London. 

75. Homalota pallens. 

Testacea, abdomine ante apicem paulo obscuriore, ten- 
uissime pubescens, obsoletissime punctata. Long. | lin. 

H. pallens, Eedt. Faun. Austr, (ed. i), 662; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 261. 

Extremely like H. exilis, but smaller than even the 
smallest variety of it, and of a uniform pale testaceous 
colour; the fourth and fifth segments of the abdomen 
being sometimes a little darker ; the punctuation and pu- 
bescence are even finer and more delicate than in H. exi- 
lis, and the elytra are a little shorter than is generally 
the case in that species. 

Rare. Hitherto only found under stones, in rather 
muddy places, on the banks of the Nith and Avon, in 
Scotland. 

76. Homalota^ palleola. 

Testacea, capite elytrisque fusco-testaceis, abdomine 
ante apicem piceo, nitidula, subtilissime punctata, tenuis- 
sime pubescens ; abdomine basi parce obsolete punctate, 
apice Igevigato. Long. | lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncato. 

E. palleola, Er, Kaf. Brand, i. 333 ; Gen. et Spec. Staph. 
115; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 259; Wat. Cat. 

A very small, shining, prettily coloured species. Yel- 
lowish, with the head and elytra more or less distinctly 
darker, and the abdomen before the apex pitchy. The 
antennae are stout, thickened towards the apex, third 



182 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

joint considerably more slender and rather shorter than 
the second, four not quite so long as broad, five to ten 
each perceptibly broader than it predecessor, and strong- 
ly transverse; eleventh joint large, twice as long as the 
tenth. Head smaller than the thorax, the eyes a little 
prominent, its punctuation and pubescence almost imper- 
ceptible, the upper side with a very small fovea in the 
middle. The thorax is a little narrower than the elytra, 
about half as broad again as long, punctuation and pubes- 
cence extremely fine and indistinct. The elytra are fully 
half as long again as the thorax, very finely punctured 
and pubescent, but rather more distinctly so than the 
thorax. Abdomen with the penultimate segments pitchy, 
the base and apex yellow, the basal segments very obso- 
letely punctured, the apical ones smooth. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the apex of the seventh segment above is 
truncate. 

Rare, and hitherto, I believe, found only near Reigate. 

Ohs. — A specimen of H. palleola sent by Kraatz to the 
British Museum agrees with my English specimens. 

77. Homalota validiuscida. 

Nigra, antennarum basi pedibusque testaceis, thorace 
elytrisque rufo-testaceis ; capite coleopteris angustiore; 
thorace transversim subquadrato, basi canaliculato ; ab- 
domine basi obsolete punctate, apice levigate. Long, f 
Hn. 

H. validiuscula, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 261. 

Allied to H. palleola, but a little larger, not so depres- 
sed or parallel, with the abdomen darker in colour, the 
head rounder and narrower in proportion to the elytra, 
and the anterior parts of the body more distinctly punc- 
tured and pubescent. Antennae stout, thickened towards 
the apex, pale at the base, pitchy outwards; joint three 
rather shorter than two, narrowed at the base, four to ten 
each distinctly broader than its predecessor, four slightly 
transverse, the following ones gradually more strongly so, 
tenth joint about twice as broad as the fourth; eleventh 
joint rather large, twice as long as the tenth. Head 
smaller than the thorax, round, black and shining ; very 
finely and indistinctly punctured, with a short fine pubes- 
cence, the upper surface with a small fovea in the male, 
convex in the female. Thorax narrower than the elytra, 
a third or fourth broader than long, finely but distinctly 



British Species of Honialota. 183' 

punctured and pubescent, with a short, indistinct, central 
longitudinal channel behind. Elytra a little longer than 
the thorax, punctuation and pubescence distinct but fine. 
Abdomen black, with the apex paler, the basal segments 
very finely and indistinctly punctured, the apical ones 
smooth. Legs yellow. 

The male has a small fovea on the middle of the head, 
and the seventh segment of the abdomen has the ventral 
plate rather longer and narrower, and its apex more 
rounded, than in the female. 

On one occasion, I found this species in numbers on 
the Braid Hills, Edinburgh, in a ditch among dead leaves 
early in the spring. I have not seen any other British 
specimens. 

Obs. — I have not seen a specimen of H. validiuscula 
named by Kraatz ; though there are several discrepancies 
when compared with his description, I think the species 
above described will prove to be identical with Kraatz's. 
Its less parallel form, differently shaped head, and more 
distinct punctuation and pubescence, readily distinguish 
it from H. exilis. 

78. Homalota parallela. 

Nigra, antennis pedibus anoque testaceis, elytris 
brunneis, confertim subtiliter punctata, tenuiter pubes- 
cens ; thorace transverse, elytris hoc paulo longioribus ; 
abdomine basi parce subtiliter punctate, apice Isevigato. 
Long, vix I lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° supra et infra margine 
posteriore magis rotundato. 

Bolitochara parallela, Man. Bull. Mosc. 1844, p. 173 
{teste Kraatz); H. parallela, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 262; 
Wat. Cat.; Amidohia parallela, Th. Sk. Col. ii. 295. 

Likely to be confounded only with H. analis, but 
smaller than the smallest specimens of that species, and 
readily distinguished by its differently shaped head, and 
impunctate and shining extremity of the alDdomen. The 
antennse are yellowish, rather stout, a little thickened 
towards the apex; joint two longer than three, four 
nearly quadrate, five to ten transverse ; eleventh not so 
long as the two preceding together. Thorax a little 
narrower than the elytra, about a third broader than 



184 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

long, with a scarcely visible fovea in front of the base in 
the middle, very finely punctured. The elytra are a little 
longer than the thorax, thickly and finely punctured. 
The abdomen is black and shining, yellowish at the ex- 
tremity, the basal segments finely and indistinctly punc- 
tured, but with the pubescence pretty distinct, apical 
segments impunctate. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the seventh segment of the abdomen has 
the hind margin of both the upper and under plates 
rather more produced and rounded than in the female. 

Abundant in the large ants' nests at Rannoch. I am 
not aware of its occurrence elsewhere in the country. 

Section E. 

Group XIII. Large species, ivitk the thorax strongly 
punctured; penultimate joints of the antennoe transverse. 

(Species 79—81) . 

H. hrunnea is our only British representative of four 
or five allied European species, and it is only in order to 
facilitate reference, that I have associated it with H. 
hepatica, which has a totally different facies. H. hrunnea 
is a common species amongst moss, &c. H. hepatica I 
have never found, and H. exarata occurs very rarely in 
nests of Formica fuliginosa. 

79. Homalota hmnnea. 

Depressa, nitidula, testacea, capite, an tennis extrorsum, 
abdominisque segmentis plus minusve nigro-piceis ; capite 
thoraceque sat fortiter hand crebre punctatis ; abdomine 
supra segmentis 2-4 crebre evidentius punctatis, 5° 
parcius punctate, 6° fere laevigato. Long. 14-2^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 6° dorsali medio ante 
apicem tuberculo elevate, 7° apice dentibus 4 instructo. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali margine poster- 
. iore medio obsolete emarginato. 

8taphylinus hrunneus, Fab. Ent. Syst. Suppl. 180; H. 
hrunnea, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 98; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. 
ii. 265 ; Wat. Cat. ; Flatarcea hrunnea, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 
46. H. depressa, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 99; Platara^a 
depressa, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 45. 

A large, brightly coloured, and handsome species, flat. 



British Species of Homalota. 185 

yellowisli, with the antennae towards the apex^ the head, 
and the abdomen more or less, blackish. The antennas 
are moderately long, rather slender for the size of the 
species, but little thickened towards the apex; joints two 
and three of about equal length, four about as long as 
broad, fi-om this to the tenth, but little difference between 
the length and breadth of each joint; in some specimens, 
however, the penultimate joints are distinctly transverse ; 
the eleventh joint is gently pointed, not quite so long as 
the two preceding together. Head blackish, with the 
palpi and parts of the mouth testaceous, considerably 
smaller than the thorax, flat above, and sometimes ob- 
scurely impressed, distinctly but rather distantly punc- 
tured, each puncture being distinguishable as a real im- 
pression. The thorax is narrower than the elytra, about a 
third broader than long, the sides nearly straight, round- 
ed towards the anterior and posterior angles, rather 
strongly and distantly punctured, the disc is flattish, with 
more or less distinct indications of one or more shallow 
impressions. The elytra are yellowish, a little darker in 
the neighbourhood of the scutellum, the punctuation not 
quite so coarse as that of the thorax, but rather closer. 
The abdomen is somewhat variable in colour, blackish, the 
base and apex sometimes obscurely, sometimes distinctly 
paler; segments two to four are distinctly and pretty 
densely punctured, fifth segment more sparingly punc- 
tured, sixth nearly impunctate. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the third joint of the antennas is stouter 
than in the female ; the sixth segment of the abdomen 
is furnished above, just before the hind margin, with a 
distinct raised tubercle ; the hind margin of the seventh 
segment is provided with four distinct teeth, of which 
the outer ones are the stouter, the two inner ones are 
rather closer together, and are like tubercles ; the hind 
margin of the same segment, underneath, is more round- 
ed than in the female. 

In the female, the hind margin of the seventh dorsal 
segment is slightly emarginate in the middle. 

Rather common in moss and dead leaves throughout 
the country. 

Ohs. — This species varies somewhat in colour, size, and 
punctuation of the head and thorax. Erichson divided 
it into two species, H. hrunnea and depressa, which are 
still maintained by Thomson. 



186 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

80. Homalota hepatica. 

Nigra, elytris ferrugineis, antennis pedibusque testa- 
ceis ; antennis sat validisj thorace elytrisque crebre dis- 
tinctius punctatis, evidenter pubescentibus ; abdomine 
basi parce punctate, apice leevigato. Long, 2-2j lin. 

Mas ; elytris linea prope suturam longitudinaliter ele- 
vata ; abdomine segmento 6° supra lineis 2 elevatis pos- 
tice convergentibus instruct©. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali margine pos- 
teriore medio sat profunda emarginato. 

H. hepatica, Er. Gen, et Spec. Staph. 102; Kr, Ins. 
Deutsch, ii. 268; Wat, Cat, 

A fine, large, and robust species, Antennge yellow, 
stout, the first three joints elongate, two and three of 
nearly the same length, four to ten each a little broader 
than its predecessor, of four and five the length is about 
equal to the breadth, six to ten distinctly transverse, last 
joint long and pointed, as long as the two preceding to- 
gether. Head roundish, smaller than the thorax, rather 
coarsely but obsoletely punctured. The thorax is nearly 
as broad as the elytra, about one-third broader than 
long, the sides rounded in front, then nearly straight 
behind, distinctly and pretty closely punctured, and with 
a well-marked yellowish pubescence. The elytra are 
reddish-brown, rather longer than the thorax, distinctly 
and pretty closely punctured, and with a well-marked 
pubescence. The abdomen is black and shining, a little 
paler at the apex, segments two to four sparingly punc- 
tured, fifth segment still more sparingly punctured, 
sixth nearly impunctate. Legs reddish-yellow. 

The male has on each elytron a raised longitudinal 
line, nearly parallel with the suture, and on the sixth 
abdominal segment above, two raised lines converging 
posteriorly, (Kraatz), 

The female has the posterior margin of the seventh 
ventral segment distinctly excised in the middle. 

This fine species is rare, but has occurred in several 
parts of England, All the specimens I have seen are 
females, 

8L Homalota exarata. 

Linearis, nigro-picea, antennis elytris pedibusque rufo- 
testaceis, abdomine rufo-piceo ; thorace transverso, elytris 



m\. 



British Species of Hoinalota. 187 

minus crebre sat fortiter punctatis; abdomine fere laevi- 
gato. Long. 1§ lin. 

Mas ; elytris prope suturam linea longitudinal! elevata 
instructis. 

Allied to H. hepatica, but smaller, especially narrower, 
not so dark in colour, with more slender antennse, and 
shorter thorax. The antennae are unicolorous, reddish- 
brown, stout, but little thickened towards the apex, basal 
joints rather long; joints two and three of about equal 
length, four and five each about as long as broad, six to 
ten rather transverse; eleventh joint rather long and 
pointed, about as long as the two preceding together. 
Head smaller than the thorax, neither finely nor closely 
punctured, the punctures shallow and indistinct. Thorax 
pitchy, nearly as broad as the elytra, half as broad again 
as long, the sides gently rounded in front, scarcely 
narrowed behind, rather coarsely, pretty densely, and 
not very distinctly, punctured. Elytra reddish, rather 
coarsely but indistinctly and not closely punctured, about 
a fourth longer than the thorax. Abdomen pitchy, the 
extremity, as well as the margins of the segments reddish, 
almost impunctate, and sparingly pubescent. Legs yel- 
lowish. 

The male has a raised fold on each elytron, beginning 
close to the suture near the hind margin, and getting 
broader and more indistinct as it proceeds forwards. 

Very rare ; a few specimens found by Dr. Power and 
Mr. Brewer, in Tilgate Forest, in the nests of Formica 
fuliginosa, are all I have seen. 

Group XIV. Large species, with the penulti'mate joints 
of the antennce not transverse. (Species 82 — 86) . 

The members of this group form a natural cluster, allied 
in many respects to Group V. JET. xantlioptera and cenei- 
collis occur in numbers in fungi, and decaying vegetable 
matter ; H. valida and incognita I have found in heaps of 
vegetable refuse, while H. suhcenea appears to prefer the 
neighbourhood of rivers and streams . 

82. Homalota suhcenea. 

Nigra, capite thoraceque subaeneis, antennarum articu- 
lo prime pedibusque testaceis, elytris sordide branneis ; 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART III. (juNe) . V 



188 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

thorace transverse, basi impresso ; elytris confertim dis- 
tinctius granuloso-punctatis ; abdomine segmeBtis 2-4 
parce punctatis, 5 et 6 fere leevigatis. Long, l^-lf lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncate, 
et crenulato. 

An obscurely coloured, rather large species, with the 
anterior parts dullish, the abdomen shining. The an- 
tennee are moderately long, slender, scarcely thickened 
towards the apex; black, the basal joints yellowish ; joints 
two and three rather slender, of about equal length, the 
third being very little the longer of the two, four shorter and 
more slender than five, five to ten nearly like one another, 
each a little narrowed towards its base, each a little longer 
than broad ; the eleventh joint is rather long and pointed, 
not quite so long as the two preceding together. The 
head is narrower than the thorax, blackish, with a rather 
dull, brassy appearance, finely and indistinctly punctured. 
The thorax resembles the head in colour, it is narrower 
than the elytra, about a third broader than long, the sides 
gently rounded in front, then very slightly narrowed be- 
hind, very finely and not closely punctured, and with a 
broad shallow impression in front of the scutellum. Ely- 
tra about a third longer than the thorax, of a dirty brown- 
ish or yellowish-brown colour, slightly darker about the 
scutellum, closely and distinctly punctured, the sculpture 
consisting of small roughish elevations ; their pubescence 
is depressed, and pretty distinct. The abdomen is black 
and shining; segments two to four sparingly but dis- 
tinctly punctured, five and six almost impunctate. Legs 
dirty testaceous. 

The male has the apex of the seventh segment of the 
abdomen above, truncate and crenulate, the crenulations 
are rather large and about eight in number, the outer 
one on each side the most distinct. 

In wet places on the banks of the Scotch rivers, among 
moss, also sparingly in England, 

Ohs. — This species may readily be distinguished from 
H. xantlioptera, by the darker antennse with shorter 
apical joint, the obscurely brassy colour of the head and 
thorax, and the more strongly punctured and obscurely 
coloured elytra. It may possibly prove identical with 
Atheta aquatica, Th., but Thomson describes the male of 
that species as having the hind margin of the seventh 
segment furnished with four teeth. 



British Species of Homed ota. 189 

83. Homalota ceneicolUs. 

Nigra, nitidula, antennarum basi pedibus elytrisque 
testaceis, his circa scutelluni angulisque apicis infuscatis ; 
thorace transverse, basi obsolete impresso ; abdomine 
supra segmentis 2-4 parcius panctatis, 5 et 6 fere Isevi- 
gatis. Long. 1^- If lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncate, 
et crenulato. 

This species is extremely closely allied to H. xanthop- 
tera, and I have no doubt is generally confounded with 
it; it is, on an average, a little smaller than, and not 
so robust as H. xanthoptera. The elytra are paler in 
colour, and more distinctly marked with black. The 
antennae are darker in coloui', and neither quite so 
long, nor quite so stout; they are darker towards the 
extremity, and the apical joint is not so long-, though it 
bears nearly the same relation to the two preceding ones, 
as the last joint in H. xanthojytera does. 

It is an abundant species in decaying vegetable matter, 
especially in Scotland, where it is commoner than H. xan- 
thoptera, and may sometimes be found in numbers without 
any of that species being associated with it. It is widely 
distributed, as I have seen it from Naples. 

Ohs. — I am indebted to M. Ch. Brisout de Barneville, 
for the loan of his two types ( S and $ ) of JT. parisiensis ; 
they are either the above species, or a closely allied one, 
the differences being, apparently, that these French spe- 
cimens are rather smaller and narrower, and have the 
base of the antennae, and the elytra, of a darker colour, 
and the antennae rather more slender. They are rather 
old rubbed examples, and without the examination of a 
greater number of specimens, I can express no positive 
opinion as to their distinctness from the species above 
described. * 

84. Homalota xanthoptera. 

Nigra, nitidula, antennis articulo ultimo elongate, fus- 
ce-testaceis, basi testaceis, elytris pedibusque testaceis ; 
thorace transverse, basi obsolete impresso ; abdomine seg- 
mentis 2-4 parce punctatis, 5 et 6 fere laevigatis. Long. 
l|-2 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncate, 

et crenulato. 

* Since the above was written, I have seen one or two other examples 
of H. parisiensis ; they tend to confirm my opinion of its distinctness. 

p 2 



190 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Aleochara xanthoptera, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. v. 116 
(1832); H. xanthoptera, Wat. Cat. H. socialis,_ var. b, 
Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 102. H. merdaria, Th. Ofv. Vet. 
Ac. Forh. 1852, p. 141; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 269; Athe- 
ta tnerdaria, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 81. 

Antennge long and rather slender, very little thickened 
towards the apex ; yellowish, more or less darker towards 
the extremity, but with the terminal joint nearly always 
a little paler than the penultimate one, their pubescence 
rather distinct; joints one, two, and three moderately 
long, three slightly longer than two, four about as broad 
as three, longer than broad, five a little broader than four, 
from this to the tenth the joints differ but little from one 
another, each is a little longer than broad, and a 
little narrowed towards the base; the last joint is elon- 
gate, nearly the length of the three preceding together, 
gently pointed, not stouter than the tenth. Head black, 
with the mandibles and palpi yellowish, considerably 
narrower than the thorax, rounded behind the eyes, finely 
and indistinctly punctured. Thorax black and shining, 
a little narrower than the elytra, fully one-third broader 
than long, the sides gently rounded in front, then nearly 
straight behind, finely and pretty closely punctured, with 
an indistinct impression in front of the scutellum. Ely- 
tra a third or fourth longer than the thorax, of a chesnut- 
yellow colour, very indistinctly darker about the scutel- 
lum and towards the apical angles, pretty closely and 
finely punctured, and with a soft distinct pubescence. 
Abdomen black and shining, the extremity sometimes 
yellow; segments two to four sparingly but distinctly 
punctured, five and six almost impunctate. Legs bright 
yellow. 

In the male, the hind margin of the upper plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is truncate and crenulate, 
the number of crenulations varies a little, but is generally 
eight ; of tiiese, the outer one on each side is larger than 
the others; the under plate of this segment is also more 
produced, and its hind margin more rounded, than in the 
female. 

Common all over the country, in fungi and decaying 
vegetable matter, especially in the months of August and 
September; sometimes found at the sap of trees. 

Ohs. — Stephens' description of A. xanthoptera, gives 
characters by which, considered together, this species 



British Species of Hotnalota. 191 

may be distinguished from all others, viz., size, colour, 
and the elongate terminal joint of the antennas ; and, as 
his name is many years older than Thomson's merdaria, 
I have adopted it. 



85. Honoalota incognita. 

Latior, nigra, antennis pedibusque testaceis, illis apicem 
versus infuscatis, elytris obscure castaneis ; thorace trans- 
verso, basi impresso; elytris crebre sat fortiter punc- 
tatis ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 parce punctatis, 5 et 6 
fere Itevigatis. Long. 2 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali margine posteriore 
medio truncate, haud crenulato. 

A large species, allied to H. xantlioptera, usually larger 
and broader in proportion, the thorax being evidently 
broader; it is more obscurely coloured, has the elytra 
more strongly punctured, the fourth joint of the antennae 
longer, and the apex of the abdomen not visibly crenulate 
in the male. The antennae are long, but slightly thick- 
ened towards the apex ; yellow at the base, more or less 
infuscate towards the apex, pretty distinctly furnished 
with outstanding hairs; joints two and three moderately 
long and slender, four considerably longer than broad, 
from this to the tenth the joints differ but little in length, 
but each is a little stouter than the foregoing one, each 
longer than broad; the eleventh joint is elongate (espe- 
cially in the male), longer than the two preceding together, 
and a little stouter than its predecessor. The head is 
broad, narrower than the thorax, rounded behind the 
eyes, finely and indistinctly punctured. The thorax is a 
little narrower than the elytra, fully a third broader than 
long, the sides gently rounded in front, then nearly 
straight, and but very slightly narrowed behind, pretty 
finely and not densely punctured, with an indistinct im- 
pression in front of the scutellum, from which proceeds 
a short indistinct channel. The elytra are about a fourth 
longer than the thorax, of an obscure brownish colour, 
indistinctly darker about the scutellum and towards the 
apical angles, rather strongly and closely punctured. 
The abdomen is black and shining, pitchy at the extreme 
apex; segments two to four sparingly but distinctly 
punctured, five and six nearly impunctate. Legs yellow. 



192 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

In the male, the last joint of the antennas is longer 
than in the female, the seventh segment of the abdomen 
has the hind margin of the upper plate quite straight in 
the middle, but not visibly crenulate ; the ventral plate is 
also more produced, and its posterior margin more round- 
ed, than in the female. 

Rare. Rannoch, Edinburgh, Inverness-shire, Thornhill. 

Ohs. — This species is in some respects intermediate 
between H. xanthoptera and valida ; it is distinguished 
from H. valida by its more obscure colour, paler anten- 
nae, less coarsely punctured elytra, and the non-crenulate 
seventh abdominal segment of the male. 

86. Homalota valida. 

Nigra, nitidula, antennarum basi pedibusque testaceis, 
elytris brunneis, crebre evidenter punctatis ; thorace 
transverse, basi impress© ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 
parce punctatis, 5 et 6 fere Igevigatis, ano obscure brun- 
neo. Long. 2 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali medio crenulato. 

H. valida, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 274. 

A fine large species, the smallest specimens equal in 
size to H. icanthoptera. Antennas pitchy, with the three 
basal joints dark yellow, rather long and stout, slightly 
thickened towards the apex, with a sparing exserted 
pubescence; joint three rather longer than two, four to 
ten each slightly broader than its predecessor; in the 
male each longer than broad, in the female about as long 
as broad; the terminal joint is elongate and pointed, 
rather more than the length of the two preceding. The 
head is black and shining, finely and sparingly punctured. 
Thorax a little narrower than the elytra, nearly half as 
broad again as long ; black and shining, rather finely and 
not closely punctured, with a broad shallow impression 
in front of the scutellum, and sometimes with a fine in- 
distinct channel. Elytra about a fourth longer than the 
thorax, shining brown, a little darker about the scutellum 
and towards the external angles, strongly and closely 
punctured, and with a well marked pubescence. The 
abdomen is black and shining, scarcely paler at the ex- 
tremity, segments two to four sparingly but rather coarse- 
ly pvinctured, five and six nearly impunctate. Legs 
yellow. 



British Species of Homalota. 193 

In the male, the joints of the antennse from the fourth 
onwards are a little longer than in the female, the upper 
plate of the seventh abdominal segment has the hind 
margin crenulate, and sometimes slightly emarginate ; 
the crenulations vary in fineness, and are about eight in 
number; the ventral plate of the same segment is more 
produced, and has the hind margin more rounded, than 
in the female. 

Rare. Edinburgh, Strath Cannich, Thornhill. 

Ohs. — I have but little doubt this is the H. valida of 
Kraatz, though I have not seen any specimen of the 
species so named, except my British ones. It is readily 
distinguished from H. xanthoptera by its darker and more 
shining colour, its less elongate apical joint to the an- 
tennae, and its more strongly punctured elytra. 

Group XY. Moderately sized, or small species, with the 
pemdtimate joints of the anteniwe transverse. 

(Species 87—107) . 

An artificial group, comprising a number of species of 
very different appearance and size. They occur, how- 
ever, nearly without exception, in refuse vegetable mat- 
ter and in fungi ; H. succicola and triangidnm prefer the 
sap of trees, and the latter species is also sometimes found 
on the coast. H. succicola is a large species, while ato- 
TYiaria and perexigua are amongst the smallest of the 
genus. H. palustris and others are placed by Kraatz 
near H. atrameutaria, but the parallel abdomen, and the 
tibiae entirely without setae, make them even more un- 
naturally placed than in my arrangement. 

87. Homalota succicola. 

Nigra, nitidula, elytris brunneis, pedibus testaceis ; an- 
tennis articulis 5-10 transversis; thorace transverse, basi 
impresso ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 parce punctatis, 5 et 6 
Iffivigatis. Long. 1|-1| lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncate, 
et subtiliter crenulato. 

H. succicola, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1852, p. 141 ; 
Atheta succicola, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 78. H. validicornis, 
Maerk., Ki\ Ins. Deutsch. ii. 271. H. socialis, var. a, 
Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 102. H. euryptera, Wat. Cat. 



194 Dr. Sharp's Hevisioii of the 

Compared with H. xanthojjtera, this species is broader 
and stouter in proportion, with stouter shorter and dark- 
er antennae, of which the fifth joint is considerably broader 
than the fourth. The antennas are nearly black, stout, 
after the fifth joint not thickened towards the apex; joint 
three a little longer than two, four small in comparison 
with the others, about as broad as three, and nearly 
as long as broad, five considerably broader than four, 
distinctly transverse, the other joints onwards to the tenth 
closely resembling it; the eleventh joint is long in pro- 
portion to its predecessors, longer than the two preceding 
together. Head black, rather broad and short, distinctly 
narrower than the thorax, rounded behind the eyes, finely 
and indistinctly punctured. Thorax a little narrower 
than the elytra, quite half as broad again as long, the 
sides rounded in front, then nearly straight behind, so 
that it is a little narrower at the anterior than at the 
posterior angles, pretty finely and not closely punctured, 
and with a more or less distinct, shallow impression in 
front of the scutellum. Elytra about a third longer than 
the thorax, brownish in colour, a little darker about the 
scutellum, pretty closely and finely punctured. Abdo- 
men black and shining ; segments two to four sparingly 
but pretty distinctly punctured, five and six almost im- 
punctate. Legs not very clear yellow. 

In the male, the seventh dorsal segment of the abdo- 
men has the apex truncate and finely crenulate, the num- 
ber of the crenulations not easy to count, about twelve 
to sixteen, the outside one on each side a little the larger. 

Very common at the sap of trees, and also in other 
situations throughout the country. 

Ols. I. — Kraatz very truly remarks that this species 
might perhaps be more correctly placed in the next sec- 
tion, but that its nearest allies are in the present group. 

Obs. II. — This species is the U. euryptera of Mr. Water- 
house's catalogue. As Stephens' description oi Aleochara 
euryptera contains nothing peculiarly characteristic of 
this species, I have not felt justified in adopting this 
name, to the displacement of another in general use, 
merely because a specimen is so named in Stephens' 
cabinet. 

88. Homalota trmotata. 

Nigra, elytris pedibusque testaceis, illis circa scutel- 
lum angulisque apicis fuscis ; antennis articulis 5-10 



British Species of Homalota. 195 

traBSversis ) thorace transverso; abdomine segmeutis 
2-4 subtiliter sat crebre punctatis, 5 et 6 parcius punc- 
tatis. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali margine poste- 
riore subtiliter ci^enulato^ uti'inque denticulo acuto ter- 
minato. 

H. trinotata, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 272 ; Wat. Cat. 
Atheta socialis, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 76. 

A rather shining, and with the exception of the elytra 
and legs, dark-coloured species. The antennse are nearly 
black, pitchy at the base, from the third joint onwards 
gradually though slightly thickened towards the apex ; 
the three basal joints moderately long, three a little 
longer than two, four slightly broader than three, about 
as broad as, or a little broader than long, from this onwards 
each joint is slightly broader than its predecessor, five 
to ten distinctly transverse; eleventh joint rather broad, 
as long as the two preceding together. Head black, 
moderately shining, finely and indistinctly punctured, 
narrower than the thorax. Thorax a little narrower than 
the elytra, half as broad again as long, the sides nearly 
straight, gently rounded at the anterior angles, finely 
and not closely punctured, with an indistinct impression 
in front of the scutellum. Elytra fully a third longer 
than the thorax, yellowish, with a tolerably well defined, 
dark, triangular patch at the scutellum, and another on 
each side near the apical angle, finely and pretty closely 
punctured. The abdomen is black and shining, segments 
two to four pretty finely and tolerably closely punctured, 
fifth segment distinctly but more sparingly, sixth sparingly 
punctured. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the seventh dorsal segment of the abdo- 
men has the posterior margin finely crenulate, but not 
thickened, the crenulations on each side terminated by a 
small and not distinct sharper tooth; the ventral plate 
of the same segment has the posterior margin less straight, 
more rounded than in the female. 

Very abundant in vegetable refuse matter all over the 
kingdom. Especially fond of foul straw. 

Obs. — Seeing the great confusion that exists as to the 
synonymy of H. socialis, and the impossibility of deter- 
mining with accuracy the exact species to which the 
name of the older authors should be applied, I have 



19G Dr. Sharp's Revision of tJie 

thoug-ht it better to adopt Kraatz's name of trinotata. 
Paykvill's Staphylinus socialis, may, or m.ay not, be this 
species, but it is certain from his description, that he 
confounded more than one species together. 

89. Homalota hyhrida. 

Nigro-picea, elytris pedibusque testaceis, illis circa 
scutellum angulisque apicis obscure fuscis ; antennis 
apicem versus vix incrassatis ; thorace transverso, basi 
obsolete impresso ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 subtiliter sat 
crebre punctatis. Long. 1| iin. 

Mas; antennis articulo penultimo quadrato, abdomine 
segmento 7° dorsali apice truncato, hand crenulato. 

This species is so closely allied to H. trinotata that it 
will be sufl&cient to point out the characters which dis- 
tinguish it. Its colour is not so well marked, the black 
being pitchy, and the elytra obscure yellow, with the 
markings indistinct. The antennae are of different struc- 
ture, being rather more slender, even less thickened to- 
wards the apex, and with the terminal joint longer. The 
male characters are different ; in that sex the penulti- 
mate joint of the antennge is markedly longer than in the 
female, about as long as broad ; the seventh dorsal seg- 
ment of the abdomen has the hind margin non-crenulate, 
and the ventral plate of the same segment has the hind 
margin less straight and more rounded than in the 
female. 

I have found this species only near Edinburgh. 

Ohs. — I have seen but three specimens (two i and 
one ? ) of this species. The structure of its antennae 
seems to me to be quite irreconcileable with the idea of 
its being a variety of H. trinotata. Its shorter more 
transverse thorax, and broader less parallel form, apart 
from the S characters, will readily distinguish it from 
H. xanthoptts. Perhaps it may be found mixed with long 
series of H. trinotata, but I expect it will prove very 



rare. 



90. Homalota xanthopus. 

Linearis, nigra, antennarum basi elytris pedibusque 
testaceis; elytris circa scutellum angulisque apicis 



British Species of Homalota. 197 

fuscis; tliorace transverse, basi plus minusve irapresso ; 
abdomine segmentis 2-4 subtilitei" baud crebre punctatis, 
5° parcius punctato, 6° Igevigato. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncato, 
et crenulato. 

Feiii.; abdomine segmento 7° supra et infra margine 
posteriore obsoletissime emarginato. 

H. xanthopus, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1856, p. 96; 
Atlieta xanthopus, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 77. E. suhlinearis, 
Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 275 ; Wat. Cat. 

This species, though narrower and more parallel than 
its allies, is pretty near to H. trinotata and triangulum. 
The antennae are moderately long and stout, very little 
thickened towards the apex, the basal joint yellow, and 
the two or three following ones more or less distinctly 
so, the rest pitchy ; joints two and three of nearly the 
same length, four small, about as long as broad, five 
broader than four, five to ten differing but little from 
one another, transverse but not strongly so, the last 
joint moderately long and stout, about as long as the 
two preceding together. The head is a little narrower 
than the thorax, rounded behind the eyes, finely and in- 
distinctly punctured. The thorax is but slightly narrower 
than the elytra, a third or fourth broader than long, the 
sides a little rounded at the anterior angles, then nearly 
straight and scarcely narrowed behind, finely and not 
closely punctured, with a very obsolete impression in 
front of the scutellum, and sometimes with a fine indis- 
tinct channel. The elytra are about a third longer than 
the thorax, yellow, with three tolerably distinct darker 
triangular patches, one at the scutellum, and one on each 
side near the outer angle ; finely and pretty closely 
punctured. The abdomen is black and shining, seg- 
ments two to four rather sparingly punctured, fifth very 
sparingly punctured, sixth nearly impunctate. Legs 
yellow. 

In the male, the dorsal plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment has the apex truncate and crenulate ; the ventral 
plate of the same segment has also the posterior margin 
more rounded than in the female. 

Generally distributed in England, and in the south of 
Scotland, but rare. 

Ohs. — This species in colour bears a resemblance to 
H. ceneicollis, but is smaller and narrower, and has shorter- 
jointed antennae. 



198 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

91. Homalota triangulum. 

Nigra, sat nitida, elytris testaceis, circa scutellum an- 
gulisque apicis determinate nigris, pedibus fusco-testa- 
ceis ; thorace transverse ; abdomine supra segmentis 
2-4 parce punctatis, 5 et 6 leevigatis. Long, l^-lf lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncato, 
et crenulato. 

Fern. ; segmento 7° supra et infra margine posteriors 
medio obsoletissime emarginato. 

H. triangulum, KJr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 273 ; Wat. Cat. 

Allied to H. trinotata, but more parallel, with the 
thorax more developed, the end joint of the antennae 
longer, and the black triangular patch about the scutel- 
lum larger and more distinct. The antennas are black, 
moderately long and stout, slightly thickened towards 
the apex; joints two and three of about equal length, 
four scarcely broader than three, about as long as broad, 
from this onwards very slightly thickened, and each joint 
transverse, but not strongly so ; eleventh joint long, more 
than twice the length of the tenth. Head narrower than 
the thorax, black, finely and indistinctly punctured. 
Thorax a little narrower than the elytra, about a third 
broader than long, the sides gently rounded at the an- 
terior angles, then nearly straight behind, pretty finely 
and closely punctured, with a very indistinct impression 
in front of the base in the middle. The elytra are more 
than a third longer than the thorax, testaceous, with a 
large, black, well-defined, triangular patch at the scutel- 
lum, and with a black patch at each side, rather closely 
and distinctly punctured. The abdomen is black and 
shining, segments two to four sparingly punctured, fifth 
segment very sparingly punctured, sixth nearly impunc- 
tate. Legs fusco-testaceous, the thighs darker than the 
tibiae. 

In the male, the apex of the dorsal plate of the seventh 
segment of the abdomen is truncate and crenulate, the 
outer tooth on each side being rather the more distinct ; 
the venti-al plate is a little produced, and has the hind 
margin rounded. 

The female has the posterior margins of the same seg- 
ment, both above and below, very indistinctly emai'ginate 
in the middle. 



British Species of Homalota. 199 

Scarce. Croydon, Darenth, Chatham, Brighton. 

It is remarkable that this species has two very distinct 
habitats, viz., at the sap of trees, and under sea- weed on 
the coasts; I have never found it except under these 
conditions, and can find no difference whatever between 
the specimens from these different localities. Kraatz 
mentions it only as a coast species. 

Ohs. — This species is allied to H. .vanthopns, but is 
larger and broader, has the base of the antennae black, 
and the triangular patches on the elytra much more dis- 
tinctly marked. 



92. Somalota fungicola. 

Nigra, antice haud nitida, antennarum basi pedibusque 
testaceis, elytris brunneis ; thorace transverso ; abdomine 
segmentis 2-4 subtiliter vix crebre punctatis, 5° parce 
punctato, 6° fere lasvigato. Long, circiter 1^ lin. 

Mas J antennis articulo 3° incrassato ; abdomine seg- 
mento 7° dorsali apice truncate, et creniilato ; ventrali 
producto, apicem versus paulo angustato. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali haud producto, 
apice lato, leviter rotundato. 

H. fungicola, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1852, p. 142; 
Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 274; Atheta fungicola, Th. Sk. Col. 
iii. 76. H. nigricoDiis, Wat. Cat. H. socialis, Er. Gen. 
et Spec. Staph. 102 {ex parte) . 

Rather flat, the fore parts dull, the antennae stoutish, 
and the elytra brown ; but a very variable and puzzling 
species. The antennas are rather stout, two or three 
basal joints yellowish, gradually thickened from the fourth 
to the eighth joint, but not after that; joint three dis- 
tinctly longer than two, slender in the female, stout in 
the male; four comparatively small, scarcely or not at 
all broader than three, five considerably broader than 
four, from this to the seventh or eighth each slightly 
stouter than its predecessor, five to ten distinctly but 
not strongly transverse; eleventh joint rather pointed, 
about as long as the two preceding together. The head 
is narrower than the thorax, broad and short, dullish, 
finely and not closely punctured. The thorax is but little 
narrower than the elytra, fully half as broad again as long, 



200 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

the sides gently rounded in front, the disc flat, some- 
times obscurely depressed, and channelled, rather dull, 
pretty closely and distinctly punctured. The elytra are 
brownish, about one-third longer than the thorax, pretty 
thickly and finely punctured, rendered dullish by a soft 
pretty close pubescence. The abdomen is black and 
shining, segments two to four rather finely and not 
closely punctured, fifth segment sparingly punctured, 
sixth impunctate. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the third joint of the antennae is much 
stouter than in the female; the hind margin of the upper 
plate of the seventh abdominal segment is truncate, and 
finely crenulate, terminated on each side by a more dis- 
tinct but small tubercle ; the ventral plate of the same 
segment is distinctly produced, and much narrower at 
the apex than in the female. In the female, the ventral 
plate of the seventh segment is broad at the posterior 
margin, and gently rounded. 

Abundant all over the country, especially in fungus in 
the autumn. 

Obs. — There are, I think, still two species confounded 
under this; the female, in one, has the hind margin of 
the ventral plate of the seventh segment, distinctly, 
even deeply, excised; while, in the other, it is rounded 
as described above; the species with the excision seems 
to be much rarer than the other, and as I am unable to 
point out other satisfactory characters to distinguish it, 
I content myself at present, with calling attention to 
this anomaly. 

93. Homalota ignohilis. 

Sat convexa, nigra, elytris fuscis, pedibus piceis ; 
thorace transverse ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 distincte 
haud crebre punctatis, 5° parce punctate, 6° fere levi- 
gate. Long. H li^- 

Ma^j abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncate, 
et obsolete crenulato ; ventrali apicem versus paulo an- 
gustato, apice ipso rotundato. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali margine poster- 
iore dense evidenter ciliato, medio sat profunde excise. 

Allied to H.fungicola; compared with typical examples 
of that species', a little larger, not so flat, with the front 



British Species of Homalota. 201 

parts not so dull, the base of the antennge dai-k, the head 
narrower, and the ventral plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment differently formed in the female. The antennge 
are blackish, not thickened outwards after the sixth or 
seventh joint, formed much as in fungicola, the fourth 
joint small and transverse. The head is smaller than the 
thorax, the vertex moderately convex, finely and indis- 
tinctly punctured. The thorax is not quite so broad as 
the elytra, nearly half as broad again as long, pretty close- 
ly and distinctly punctured, the disc not flattened, some- 
times with a fine indistinct channel. The elytra are of a 
dark fuscous colour, about one-third longer than the 
thorax, rather closely and finely punctured. Abdomen 
with segments two to four pretty distinctly and rather 
sparingly punctured, fifth segment sparingly punctured, 
sixth almost impunctate. Thighs pitchy; tibia3 pitchy- 
testaceous. 

In the male, the upper plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment has the hind margin truncate, and finely crenu- 
late, and is terminated on each side by a more distinct 
but small tubercle, much as in H. fungicola, ; the ventral 
plate of the seventh segment in the female, has the hind 
margin fringed with closely-set parallel cilia, and is in 
the middle distinctly, even rather deeply, excised. 

Rare. I have taken it on one or two occasions at 
Shirley near Croydon, in the autumn, and also near Edin- 
burgh. I have seen specimens from Germany. 

Obs. — The cilia at the posterior margin of the seventh 
segment (ventral plate) of the female, so conspicuous in 
this species, are also to be found in ? H. fungicola, but 
are there so short, fine, and light coloured, as only to be 
perceived with difficulty. 

94. Homalota diver sa. 

Nigra, subdepressa, vix nitida, elytris fuscis, pedibus 
testaceis ; antennis articulo 4° quadrate ; thorace trans- 
verso, basi plus minusve canaliculate; abdomine supra 
segmentis 2-4 parce punctatis, 5 et 6 fere Isevigatis. 
Long. 1| lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncate, 
et subtiliter crenulato. 

Allied to H. succicola, and perhaps confounded with it ; 
not quite so shining, rather more depressed, with the 



202 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

elytra darker coloured^ and the antennae differently form- 
ed, the fourth joint not being transverse, and only a little 
narrower than the fifth, the following joints narrower, 
and the terminal one much shorter than in succicola. The 
antennae are black, with the basal joint sometimes pitchy; 
moderately long, scarcely thickened towards the apex; 
joint three slightly longer than two, but little difference 
between four and five, each about as long as broad, six 
to ten each a little broader than long; eleventh joint 
rather short, pointed, about half as long again as the 
tenth. Head much narrower than the thorax, disc mo- 
derately convex, generally with a small but distinct fovea, 
finely and indistinctly punctured, not very shining. Tho- 
rax a little narrower than the elytra, nearly half as broad 
again as long, gently rounded and depressed at the anterior 
angles, the sides nearly straight behind ; generally with a 
distinct longitudinal channel, reaching from the base half 
way to the front, this is sometimes, however, scarcely 
to be seen; rather dull, pretty finely and not closely 
punctured. Elytra about a third longer than the thorax, 
pitchy-brown, pretty closely and distinctly punctured. 
Abdomen black and shining, segments two to four rather 
finely and sparingly punctured, fifth segment very spar- 
ingly punctured, sixth almost impunctate. Legs dark 
yellow. 

The male has the hind margin of the seventh dorsal 
segment of the abdomen truncate, and very finely crenu- 
late, the truncate part terminated on each side by a rather 
longer and more distinct projection. 

I have a good series of this species taken at Eannoch 
in Perthshire, and have besides found it at Thornhill, and 
in Glen Almond, Perthshire. 

Obs. — Though somewhat allied to H. succicola, it is, I 
think, more correctly placed Jiea,rfungicola, from which 
its larger size, darker colour, less parallel form, and some- 
what differently formed antennae, distinguish it. 

95. Homalota boletohia. 

Nigra, antennarum basi pedibus elytrisque testaceis, 
his circa scutellum angulisque apicis infuscatis ; thorace 
fortiter transverse, basi obsolete impresso; abdomine 
supra segmentis 2-4 minus crebre punctatis, 5° parce 
punctate. Long. 1| lin. 



British Species of Homalota. 203 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncate, 
et obsolete obtuse quadridentato. 

H. holetohia, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1856, p. 96; Athe- 
ta holetohia, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 78. H. nigritula, Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 276; Wat. Cat. 

A rather broad and short species. The antennae are 
rather short, a little thickened towards the apex, pitchy, 
with the two or three basal joints paler ; joint three scarce- 
ly so long as two, four small, but little broader than three, 
broader than long, five to ten distinctly and pretty strongly 
transverse ; eleventh joint moderately long, about half as 
long again as the tenth. The head is broad and short, 
narrower than the thorax, rather shining, finely and in- 
distinctly punctured. The thorax is black or pitchy, 
nearly as broad as the elytra, not quite twice as broad 
as long, nearly straight in front, gently rounded at the 
sides and base, with an indistinct impression or channel 
in front of the scutellum, rather finely and not closely 
punctured. The elytra are a third longer than the thorax, 
pale yellow, darker about the scutellum, and at the sides 
towards the apical angles, pretty finely and closely punc- 
tured. The abdomen is black, or pitchy-black, sometimes 
a little paler at the extremity ; segments two to four are 
rather distinctly but not closely punctured, fifth segment 
punctured at the base, almost smooth at the apex, sixth 
almost impunctate. Legs pale yellow. 

In the male, the posterior margin of the seventh seg- 
ment of the abdomen is truncate, and a little thickened, 
with four obtuse obsolete teeth; these teeth are rather 
undulations of the margin, than to be distinguished as 
distinct projections. 

Not very common. In fungi in the South, in autumn. 

Chs. — Kraatz's description of H. nigritula, as well as 
specimens sent by him to the British Museum under 
that name, are to be referred to this species. Its much 
shorter broader form, shorter antennae, and paler elytra, 
should prevent its being confounded with H. xantJwpus . 

96. Homalota nigritula. 

Nigro-picea, vix nitida, subtiliter punctulata; thorace 
transverse, piceo ; antennis elytris pedibusque testaceis ; 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART III. (jUNE) . Q 



204 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 subtiliter sat crebre punc- 
tatis, 5 et 6 fere Igevigatis. Long. Ij lin. 

3Ias; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apicem versus 
utrinque linea longitudinali elevata, margine apicali 
medio profunde semicirculariter excise, excisionis mar- 
gine evidenter incrassato. 

Aleochara nigritula, Gyll. Ins. Suec. ii. 408; Atheta 
nigrihola^ Tb. Sk. Col. iii. 80. H. liturata, Wat. Cat. 

Antennae rather short and stout, yellow; joints two 
and three of about equal length, four to ten short, the 
first of them rather, the last of them very transverse, 
five a good deal broader than four; eleventh joint com- 
paratively long, quite as long as the two preceding to- 
gether. The head is narrower than the thorax, black, 
dull, narrower behind the eyes, which are rather promi- 
nent, finely and indistinctly punctured ; palpi yellow. 
Thorax nearly as broad as the elytra, strongly transverse, 
twice as broad as long, pitchy or pitchy-red, finely and 
rather closely punctured, sometimes with an indistinct 
longitudinal channel. Elytra pale yellow, sometimes a 
little darker about the scutellum, about half as long again 
as the thorax, finely and densely punctured. Abdomen 
pitchy-black, segments two to four finely but not very 
closely punctured, fifth and sixth segments almost im- 
punctate. Legs pale yellow. 

The male has, in the middle of the hind margin of the 
dorsal plate of the seventh abdominal segment, a deep 
semicircular incision, the margin of which is thickened 
all the way round ; outside this on each side is a thick- 
ened raised line terminating in a slight projection at 
each outer angle. 

Taken in abundance in fungi in the Fens, Cambridge, 
by Mr. Crotch. 

Ohs. — The smaller size, pale antennae with shorter 
joints, &c., distinguish this species from H. holetohia, 
with which it appears to have been confounded by 
KJraatz. It might almost be naturally placed in the next 
section. 

97. Homalota coriaria. 

Nigra, nitida, elytris fuscis, antennarum basi pedibns- 
que obscure testaceis ; thorace fortiter transverse ; abdo- 



British Species of Homalota. 205 

mine segmentis 2-4 subtiliter haud crebre punctatis, 
5 et 6 fere leevigatis. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas ; thorace disco impresso ; abdomine segmento 7° 
dorsali margine apicali utrinque denticulo prominulo 
terminato, et medio leviter emarginato. 

H. coriaria, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 282 ; Wat. Cat. 

Not very closely allied to any other species; rather 
broad and convex. The antennse are moderately stout, 
rather short, a little thickened towards the apex, blackish, 
with the two or three basal joints paler; joints two and 
three rather short, of about equal length, four small, 
about as broad as three, not quite so long as broad, five 
broader than four, from this to the tenth transverse, but 
not strongly so ; eleventh joint moderately stout, about 
as long as the two preceding together. The head is 
rather broad, but considerably narrower than the thorax 
and elytra, black and shining, finely and indistinctly 
punctured, rounded behind the eyes. Thorax strongly 
transverse, its breadth twice its length, a little narrower 
than the elytra, the sides gently rounded, rather narrower 
at the anterior than at the posterior angles, extremely 
finely punctured and pubescent; in the female with a 
small fovea in front of the scutellum, in the male with a 
more or less distinct large impression on the middle. 
The elytra are about a third longer than the thorax, of 
an obscure brownish colour, finely and closely punctured. 
The abdomen is black and shining, segments two to four 
rather sparingly punctured, fifth segment very sparingly 
and finely punctured, sixth almost impunctate. Legs 
pitchy-yellow. 

In the male, the thorax is impressed on the disc ; and 
the seventh segment of the abdomen has a small notch 
in the middle of the hind margin, and the lateral margin 
on each side is produced into a small sharp tooth, be- 
tween which and the central notch can generally be seen 
one or more indistinct smaller teeth, which, however, 
are sometimes quite absent. 

Not common. In Cut grass, &c. Thornhill, and near 
London, 

98. Homalota sodalis. 

Convexa, nigra, nitidula, elytris nigro-brunneis, an- 
tennis piceis, basi pedibusque rufo-testaceis ; thorace 

q2 



206 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

transverse, basi indistincte impresso, elytris angnstiore ; 
his dense sat fortiter punctatis ; abdomine supra seg- 
"nientis 2-4 hand crebre punctatis, 5 et 6 fere laevigatis. 
Long. 1| lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice angxalatim 
emarginato, ventrali apicem versus angustato. 

H. sodalis, Er. Kiif. Brand, i. 328; Gen. et. Spec. 
Staph. 104; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 279; Wat. Cat.; 
Atheta sodalis, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 84. 

Antennas moderately stout, thickened towards the 
apex, pitchy in colour, paler at the base ; joint two 
slightly longer than three, four to ten each slightly broader 
than its predecessor, four about as long as broad, five a lit- 
tle transverse, the following ones gradually more distinctly 
so; eleventh joint nearly as long as the two preceding 
together. The head is rather small, narrower than the 
thorax, much narrower than the elytra, black and shining, 
finely and indistinctly punctured. Thorax narrower than 
the elytra, a third broader than long, rather narrower at 
the anterior than at the posterior angles, its punctuation 
neither fine nor close ; in front of the scutellum is a broad 
obsolete impression, sometimes appearing double. The 
elytra are about a third longer than the thorax, of a 
brownish or blackish colour, densely and rather strongly 
punctured and pubescent. The abdomen is black and 
shining, segments two to four distinctly but not densely 
punctured, five and six nearly impunctate. Legs red- 
dish-yellow. 

The male has the hind margin of the upper plate of 
the seventh abdominal segment distinctly excised, the 
margin of the excision is scarcely visibly thickened ; the 
ventral plate of the same segment is very narrow towards 
the apex, but the apex itself is not pointed. 

Not uncommon in fungi in the summer. Abundant 
near Edinburgh. 

Ohs. — This species varies in the colour of its antennee 
and elytra. It is not very closely allied to any of our 
other species, but H. hnmeralis, Kr., found in Germany 
and Sweden, is very near it. 

99. Homalota gagatina. 

Convexiuscula, antice et postice subangustata, nigra, 
elytris fuscis, antennarum basi pedibusque testaceis ; an- 



British Species of Homalota. 207 

tennis articulis 7-10 minus evidenter transversis ; thorace 
transverse ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 sat crebre punctatis, 
5° parce punctate^ 6° fere lasvigato. Long. I5 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice 4-dentato, 
dentibus intermediis obtusis. 

H. gagatina, Baudi, Stud. Ent. 119 (1848). H. com- 
2jressicoll{s, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 80. H. variabilis, Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 284 ; Wat. Cat. 

Somewhat resembling the species of the H. fungi group, 
the head being narrow in proportion to the thorax, and 
the abdomen somewhat narrowed behind. It is rather 
convex, and but little shining, owing to a tolerably evi- 
dent pubescence. The antennae are moderately slender, 
a little thickened towards the apex, pitchy-black, with 
the two or three basal joints more or less distinctly yel- 
low; joints two and three of nearly equal length, only 
moderately long, from the fourth onwards each joint is 
slightly stouter, four to six each about as long as broad, 
seven to ten slightly transverse; eleventh joint about as 
long as the two preceding together. The head is mode- 
rately broad, much narrower than the thorax, scarcely 
shining, finely and indistinctly punctured. The thorax is 
a little narrower than the elytra, about half as broad again 
as long, the sides gently rounded, narrower at the an- 
terior than at the posterior angles, finely and pretty close- 
ly punctured, and with a very indistinct impression in 
front of the scutellum. The elytra are nearly a third 
longer than the thorax; of a brownish or pitchy-brown 
colour, finely and closely punctured. The abdomen is 
black, shining towards the extremity, which is sometimes 
paler; segments two to four distinctly and moderately 
closely punctured, fifth segment finely and sparingly 
punctured, sixth nearly impunctate. Legs yellow, some- 
times infuscate. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is furnished with four teeth, 
the two central ones are only separated by a shallow 
notch, and are broad and blunt, the outer ones do not 
reach quite so far back as the middle ones, and are nar- 
rower and sharper. 

Generally distributed and not rare. In fungi or dead 
leaves. London, Inverness-shire, &c. 

Ohs. — This species is a troublesome one to recognize ; 
the male characters distinguish that sex readily enough, 



208 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

but the female might be confounded with H. suhsinuata 
or fungicoJa, though distinct enough from either. It 
varies a good deal in colour, and northern specimens ap- 
pear to be larger and darker than those found near 
London. 



100, Hmnalota divisa. 

Subdepressa, antice subopaca, nigra, antennarum basi 
elytrisque fuscis, pedibus testaceis; antennis articulo ul- 
timo elongate ; thorace transverse, basi canaliculate ; ab- 
domine supra segmentis 2-4 subtiliter sat crebre punc- 
tatis, 5° parce punctato, 6° fere Isevigato. Long. 
li lin. 

Mas; capite prothoraceque late et profunde canali- 
culatis; segmento abdomine 7° dorsali margine pos- 
teriore incrassato, vix emarginato, angulo externo pro- 
minulo. 

H. divisa, Maerk. Germ. Zeit. v. 213 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. 
ii. 279; Wat. Cat. Atheta aridula, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 75. 

A rather broad, flat species. Antennae rather slender, 
scarcely thickened towards the apex; joints two and three 
rather short, three not quite so long as two, four rather 
small, about as long as broad, the following joints slightly 
transverse; eleventh joint long in proportion to the rest 
of the antennae, about three times as long as the tenth. 
The head is narrower than the thorax, subquadrate, with 
the angles rounded, finely and- indistinctly punctured; 
in the male with a deep longitudinal impression or chan- 
nel, in the female generally with a short channel, but 
sometimes without any trace of this. The thorax is a 
little narrower than the elytra, about half as broad again 
as long, the sides a little rounded at the anterior angles, 
then a little narrowed behind, finely and closely punc- 
tured ; in the female with a short channel in front of the 
scutellum, in the male with the disc longitudinally de- 
pressed and channelled. The elytra are about a third 
longer than the thorax, of a brownish colour, finely and 
pretty densely punctured. The abdomen has the basal 
segments, two to four, finely and moderately closely punc- 
tured, fifth segment more sparingly punctured, sixth 
nearly impunctate. Legs yellow. 

In the male, the head and thorax are deeply impressed, 
the abdomen has the dorsal plate of the seventh segment 



British Species of Homalota. 200 

with a thickened posterior margin, and the sides also 
towards the apex elevated, the outer angles project a 
little, so as to give the hind margin a slightly concave 
appearance. 

In moss in wet places, generally distributed in England 
and Scotland, but nowhere common. 

Ohs. — The comparatively elongate terminal joint of the 
antennee in this species, is its most notable character. 

101. Homalota mgricornis. 

Subdepressa, crebre subtiliter punctata, subopaca, 
nigra, antennis elytrisque nigro-fuscis, pedibus fusco- 
testaceis ; thorace transverse ; abdomine supra segmentis 
2-4 subtiliter sat crebre punctatis, 5° parce punctate, 
6° fere Igevigato. Long. Ij lin. 

Mas ; capite prothoraceque disco impressis ; abdomine 
segmento 7° dorsali apice late indistincte emarginato. 

H. nigricorms, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1852, p. 142; 
Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 281 ; Atheta nigricorms, Th. Sk. Col. 
iii. 86. 

Allied to H. divisa, but readily distinguished by its 
darker elytra, and the shorter terminal joint of the an- 
tennge. The antennae are moderately long, slightly thick- 
ened towards the apex, pitchy-black, the basal joint pitchy ; 
joints two and three moderately long, of about equal 
length, four rather small, about as broad as three, and 
about as long as broad, five rather stouter than four, 
slightly transverse, six to ten transverse, the first of them 
indistinctly, the last of them distinctly so; eleventh joint 
nearly twice as long as the tenth. The head is black, 
narrower than the thorax, finely and indistinctly punc- 
tured; in the male the disc is more or less depressed. 
The thorax is a little narrower than the elytra, about half 
as broad again as long, the sides a little rounded in front, 
then scarcely narrowed behind, finely and closely punc- 
tured ; in the male the disc has a broad impression, and 
in the female there is sometimes a short channel in front 
of the scutellum. The elytra are fully a third longer than 
the thorax, black or pitchy-black, finely and closely 
punctured. The abdomen is black, segments two to four 
finely and moderately densely punctured, fifth segment 
very sparingly and finely punctured, sixth nearly im- 
punctate. Legs pitchy-yellow, the femora being darker 
than the tibiae. 



210 Dr. Sharp's Rev in ion of the 

In the male, besides the impressions on the head and 
thorax, the posterior margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment, is slightly excavated. 

Found both in England and Scotland, but not abundant ; 
at the sap of trees, and in vegetable refuse. 

Ohs. — I have not thought it necessary to adopt the 
name of H. Thomsoni which has been proposed for this 
species, as Stephens' description of Aleoehara nigricornis 
may be considered for all practical purposes as not exist- 
ing, and cannot therefore require the suppression of 
Thomson's H. nigricornis. 

102. Homalota angiisticolUs. 

Nigra, elytris nigro-fuscis, pedibus fuscis; thorace 
subquadrato, basi canaliculato ; elytris hoc sesqui longi- 
oribus ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 parce subtiliter 
punctatis, 5 et 6 fere Isevigatis. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas ; an tennis articulis hand vel vix transversis ; ab- 
domine segmento 7° dorsali apice obsoletissime emargi- 
nato. 

Fern.; antennis articulis 7-10 leviter transversis; ab- 
domine segmento 7° dorsali apice rotundato. 

H. angusticoUis, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1856, p. 100 j 
Atheta angusticoUis, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 87. 

A dark- coloured, rather narrow and elongate species, 
with the thorax distinctly narrower than the elytra, and 
scarcely transverse; head, thorax and elytra rather dull. 
The antennse are black, rather long, scarcely thickened 
towards the apex ; joints two and three of about equal 
length, four rather small, about as wide as three, and 
about as long as broad, joints five and six each about as 
long as broad, seven to ten, in the male nearly or quite 
as long as broad, in the female transverse, but not strong- 
ly so; last joint nearly twice as long as the tenth. The 
head is scarcely narrower than the thorax, rather long, 
the sides straight behind the eyes, then rounded at the 
posterior angles, finely and indistinctly punctured, but 
scarcely shining; convex above in the female, flattened 
and sometimes indistinctly impressed in the male. The 
thorax is considerably narrower than the elytra, a fourth 
broader than long, slightly narrowed behind, finely and 
not densely punctured, and not shining, with a short long- 



British Species of Homalota. 211 

itudinal channel in front of the scutellum. The elytra are 
about half as long again as the thorax, obscurely brown- 
ish or brownish-black or nearly black, finely and pretty 
closely punctured, but little shining. The abdomen is 
black and shining, segments two to four finely and spar- 
ingly punctured, fifth segment very sparingly punctured, 
sixth nearly impunctate. The legs are pitchy -testaceous, 
the thighs generally darker than the tibias. 

In the male, the penultimate joints of the antenna3 are 
longer than in the female, the upper surface of the head 
is flatter, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is obsoletely emarginate, and 
the ventral plate of the same segment is narrower and 
rather longer than in the female, and its hind margin is 
more rounded. 

Not uncommon in fungi, vegetable refuse, &c., in 
Scotland; Thornhill, Edinburgh, Rannoch, Inverness- 
shire. In England, I have only found it near Croydon. 

Ohs. — My specimens agree entirely with a specimen of 
H. angusticollis, sent by Thomson to Mr. Crotch. The 
species has been generally supposed to be synonymous 
with H. ravilla, Er., Kr., but Thomson, in the 9th vol. of 
Sk. Col., recognizes H. ravilla and angusticollis as dis- 
tinct species, both occurring in Sweden ; and states that 
the much longer terminal joint of the antennse of H. 
ravilla distinguishes it from angusticollis. An example 
of H. ravilla, sent by Kraatz to the British Museum, 
when compared with my specimens of angusticollis, shows 
this distinction in a very marked manner; and among a 
long series of H. angusticollis, taken by me in different 
parts of Scotland, I find no variation in the length of 
the last joint of the antennse. 

103. Homalota jpalustris. 

Nigra, sat nitida, elytris obscure brunneis, pedibus 
testaceis ; thorace transversim subquadrato ; abdomine 
segmentis 2-4 subtiliter sat crebre punctatis, 5° parce 
punctato, 6° fere Isevigato. Long. 1-lj lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice emarginato, 
ventrali producto, apicem versus vix angustato. 

H. palustris, Kies. Stet. Ent. Zeit. v. 318; KJr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 309; Wat. Cat. Atheta hrunnipes, Th. Sk. 
Col. iii. 72. 



212 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

AntennEe moderately slender^ scarcely thickened to- 
wards the apex, pitchy or pitchy-black, the base some- 
times indistinctly paler; joint three not quite so long as 
two, four rather smaller than five, each of them about as 
long as broad, six to ten each a little broader than long ; 
eleventh joint about twice as long as the preceding one. 
The head is slightly narrower than the thorax, black and 
shining, very finely and indistinctly punctured. The 
thorax is a little narrower than the elytra, about a third 
broader than long, the sides a little rounded at the an- 
terior angles, then neai-ly straight behind ; it is black and 
shining, very finely and not closely punctured, its pubes- 
cence is extremely fine. The elytra are about a third 
longer than the thorax, brownish, often nearly black, 
finely and closely punctured. The abdomen is black and 
shining, segments two to four are finely and moderately 
closely punctured, fifth very finely and sparingly punc- 
tured, sixth almost impunctate. Legs rather dirty 
yellow. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is distinctly emarginate ; the 
ventral plate of the same segment is considerably pro- 
duced, but little narrowed towards the hind margin, 
which is nearly straight, with the angles rounded. 

Moderately common all over the country. 

Ohs. — This species is readily distinguished from H. 
angusticoUis by its more shining head and thorax, the 
latter of which is broader, and by its shorter elytra. Its 
most marked character is the formation of the upper and 
under plates of the seventh segment in the male. 

104. Eomalota corvina. 

Linearis, nigra, elytris nigro-piceis, pedibus fuscis ; 
antennis articulo penultimo prajcedente longiore ; thorace 
transversim subquadrato, basin versus subangustato, ely- 
tris angustiore ; his thorace sesqui longioribus ; abdomine 
basi parce punctate, apice levigate. Long, vix 1 lin. 

Mas; capite profunde canaliculate, thorace medio late 
foveolato, abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice obsolete 
truncate. 

E, corvina, Th. Ofv. Yet. Ac. Fiirh. 1856, p. 101 ; 
Atheta corvina, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 88. H. lepida, Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 309. 



British Si^ecies of Homalota. 21o 

A small dark-coloured species, with large head, and 
the thorax narrower than the elytra. Antennse black, 
the basal joint pitchy, a little thickened towards the apex ; 
first joint stout in proportion to the others, three not so 
long as two, four smaller than any of the others, five to 
nine distinctly transverse, ten notably longer and less 
transverse than nine; eleventh joint rather short and 
stout, about half as long again as the tenth. The head 
is scarcely narrower than the thorax, rather long, with 
the eyes prominent ; in the male with a deep longitudinal 
channel, extending the whole length, in the female with 
a short impression in the middle behind the antennae. 
The thorax is considerably narrower than the elytra, 
scarcely a third broader than long, a little narrowed 
behind, finely but somewhat roughly and pretty closely 
punctured ; in the male with a large fovea in the middle, 
in the female with an indistinct impression or channel in 
front of the scutellum. The elytra are black or pitchy- 
black, long in proportion to their breadth, half as long 
again as the thorax, finely and pretty closely punctured. 
Abdomen black and shining, segments two to four spar- 
ingly punctured, five and six nearly impunctate. Legs 
pitchy or pitchy-testaceous. 

In the male, the third joint of the antennae is stouter 
than in the female, the head and thorax are more dis- 
tinctly impressed, the seventh abdominal segment is 
narrower than in the female, and the apex of its dorsal 
plate a little truncate. 

In fungi and vegetable refuse, not common. Brocken- 
hurst, Edinburgh, Thornhill. 

Obs. — I think, from descriptions, that H. corvina, Th., 
is pretty certainly identical with H. lepida, Kr. Kraatz 
truly says, that fresh specimens of this species appear 
more strongly punctured than old ones. 



105. Homalota puherula. 

Subdepressa, parallela, nigro-picea, nitidula, elytris 
fuscis, pedibus fusco-testaceis ; capite thorace elytrisque 
parce subtilissime punctatis, et tenuissime pubescenti- 
bus ; thorace transverse, elytris hoc sesqui longioribus ; 
abdomine basi parce punctato, apice fere laevigato. Long. 
1 lin. 



214 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Mas ; thorace medio profunde impresso ; abdomine seg- 
mento 7° dorsali apice truncate et crenulato, ventrali 
productOj apice late rotundato. 

Allied to H. corvina, and about the size of that species, 
but more parallel, with broader thorax, and the anterior 
parts of the body much more finely and sparingly punc- 
tured. Antennse black, a little thickened towards the 
apex; joint three shorter than two, four to ten each 
slightly broader than its predecessor, and each a little 
broader than long, and a little narrowed towards the base ; 
eleventh joint moderately stout and pointed, not twice 
the length of the tenth. Head distinctly narrower than 
the thorax, rather broad, eyes moderately prominent, the 
disc flat and shining, and slightly channelled in the male. 
The thorax is black and shining, very nearly as broad as 
the elytra, more than half as broad again as long, scarce- 
ly narrowed behind, very finely and sparingly punctured, 
the disc in the male with a large deep impression. The 
elytra are pitchy, fully half as long again as the thorax, 
finely and sparingly punctured, and with very fine pubes- 
cence. The abdomen is black and shining, its pubes- 
cence rather more distinct than that of the fore parts of 
the body, the basal segments are sparingly punctured, 
the apical ones nearly impunctate. The legs are dirty 
yellow. 

In the male, the seventh abdominal segment has the 
dorsal plate with the apex broad and truncate, and cre- 
nulate, the ventral plate is distinctly produced, its hind 
margin broad and rounded. 

Yery rare; taken by Dr. Power, and by myself at 
Mickleham, in the month of September. 

106. Homalota atomaria. 

Nigra, nitidula, elytris vel nigris vel fuscis, pedibus 
piceo-testaceis, omnium parce subtilissime punctata ten- 
uissimeque pubescens; thorace transverse, basi indis- 
tincte foveolato ; abdomine supra vage punctate, fere 
Ifevigato. Long. | lin. 

jBT. atomaria, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 254 ; H. minuscula, 
Bris. Ann. Sec. Ent. Fr. 1859, p. ccxviii. 

A very small, black and shining species, with scarcely 
visible punctuation or pubescence. The antennae are 



British Species of Homalota. 215 

black, the base sometimes indistinctly pitchy, a little 
thickened towards the apex ; joint three shorter and 
more slender than two, narrowed towards the base, four 
to ten transverse ; eleventh joint nearly twice as long 
as the tenth. The head is a little narrower than the tho- 
rax, black, shining, and impunctate. The thorax is but 
little narrower than the elytra, about a third broader than 
long, shining, extremely finely and sparingly punctured, 
with a small, very indistinct impression in front of the 
scutellum. The elytra are black, or pitchy, a third longer 
than the thorax, extremely sparingly and finely punc- 
tured, and with a very sparing and delicate pubescence. 
The abdomen is black and shining, very sparingly punc- 
tured. The legs are pitchy. 

The male is scarcely to be distinguished from the 
female, except by the considerably narrower abdoijiinal 
segment. 

Eare. I have found it in heaps of cut grass at Thorn- 
hill, and have seen it also in Mr. Waterhouse's and other 
collections. 

Obs. — I have identified this species by comparison with 
the types of H. minuscula, Bris. Kraatz has himself 
declared the identity of M. Brisout's minuscula with his 
atomaria. 



107. Homalo ta perexigua . 

Nigra, nitidula, elytris nigro-fuscis, pedibus piceo- 
testaceis, omnium parce subtilissime punctata tenuis- 
simeque pubescens; thorace transversim subquadrato, 
elytris angustiore; abdomine supra fere lasvigato. Long. 
h lin. 

Closely allied to H. atomaria, but still smaller and more 
fragile, the thorax less transverse and narrower than 
the elytra, the antennae notably thinner, though simi- 
larly formed, so that the intermediate joints are less 
transverse. 

In the male, the seventh abdominal segment is nar- 
rower than in the female, its ventral plate is narrow, a 
little produced, and with the hind margin rounded. 

Very rare. I have found it on one or two occasions 
near London, and have seen specimens in several col- 
lections. 



216 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Section F. " 

Group XVI. Large, or not very small species; the 
penultimate joints of the antennce very strongly transverse. 

(Species 108— 1] 5). 

The species herein contained constitute a tolerably 
natural assemblage^ though there is a great diversity of 
colour and size. The male characters of all the species 
are well marked and unmistakeable. H. cinnamomea, 
and hospita occur only among the burrows of Cossus lig- 
niperda; they might naturally be separated from the 
others as a distinct group, except that no practical advan- 
tage would result from this. H. ohlita occurs gregariously 
in fungi in the autumn. The other species are all rare, 
and little is known of their habits. 

108. Homalota cinnamomea. 

Lata, brunneo-testacea, antice vix nitida, subtiliter 
punctata; abdomine nigricante, vix punctate; thorace 
fortiter transverse. Long. 2-2j lin. 

Mas ; a. elytrorum sutura basi evidenter carinata ele- 
vata ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali medio ante apicem 
longitudinaliter elevate, apice triangulariter producto, 
medioque obsolete incise, utrinque spino minore acuto 
subcui'vato. 

/3. elytrorum sutura basi vix elevata ; abdomine seg- 
mento 7° medio obsolete longitudinaliter elevate; caetera 
ut in a. 

Aleochara cimiamomea, Grav. Micr. 88 ; H. cinnamomea, 
Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 127 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 289; 
Wat. Cat.; Thamiarcea cinnamomea, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 60. 

One of the largest and finest species of the genus, and 
perhaps resembling in appearance rather a Myrmedonia 
or an Aleochara. It is broad, and robustly formed, a little 
narrowed both before and behind, of a cinnamon-brown 
colour, with the abdomen black, or pitchy-black. The 
antennae are pitchy in colour, testaceous at the base, 
stout and rather short, increasing in thickness from the 
third to the seventh or eighth joint; joint three consider- 
ably longer than two, four comparatively small, nearly as 
long as broad, five considerably broader than four, five 
to ten strongly transverse ; eleventh joint large, pointed. 



British Species of Homalota. 217 

as long as the two preceding together. Head broad and 
short, but much narrower than the thorax, rounded and 
narrowed behind the eyes, which are large and promi- 
nent; finely and not closely punctured. The thorax is 
somewhat narrower than the elytra, its breadth twice its 
length, gently rounded at the sides, a little narrower at 
the anterior than at the posterior angles, finely and mo- 
derately closely punctured, sometimes with an obsolete 
channel in front of the scutellum. The elytra are about 
a third longer than the thorax, a little darkened in colour 
towards the apical angles, finely and pretty closely punc- 
tured. The abdomen is black and shining, the basal seg- 
ment finely and sparingly punctured, the others impunc- 
tate; the hind margins of the segments often brownish. 
The legs are yellow, or reddish-yellow. 

The male characters are very peculiar, and not easy to 
describe ; the suture of the elytra is elevated at the base 
into a distinct carina, terminating abruptly at the scutel- 
lum; the seventh segment of the abdomen, is raised in 
the middle to a sort of carina, the lateral margin projects 
on each side, as a short pointed, rather curved spine, 
between these two spines the middle part of the hind 
margin is much produced, and the apex in the middle has 
a small notch. A form of the male occurs, however, in 
which the elevation of the suture, and the carina-like 
elevation of the seventh segment, are scarcely to be seen. 

Pretty common ; lives in the burrows of the goat moth, 
especially in oak and elm trees in England. 

Ohs. — The abdomen of this species is undoubtedly 
somewhat narrowed towards the apex. 



109. Homalota hos'pita. 

Brunnea, hand nitida, abdomine piceo-nigro ; thorace 
fortiter transverso, subtiliter canaliculate ; abdomine 
supra segmentis 2-4 crebre punctatis, 5° parce punc- 
tate, 6° fere leevigato. Long. If lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice medio acu- 
minato, obsolete bituberculato, margine laterali obsolete 
producto. 

H. hospita, Maerk. Germ. Zeit. v. 216 ; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 290; Wat. Cat.; Thamiarcea Jiospita, Th. 
Sk. Col. iii. 60. 



218 .Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

This species resembles H. cinnamomea in colour, but 
is easily distinguished by its smaller size and punctured 
abdomen. The antennae are stout, a little longer than 
the head and thorax, yellowish, a little thickened towards 
the apex; joint three longer than two, four about as 
stout as three, about as long as broad, five to ten each a 
little broader than its predecessor, five slightly, ten dis- 
tinctly, transverse; eleventh joint stout, as long as the 
two preceding together. Head broad, but considerably 
narrower than the thorax, with the eyes rather large and 
prominent, moderately finely and pretty closely punc- 
tured. The thorax is nearly of the breadth of the elytra, 
its breadth about twice its length, the sides gently 
rounded, finely and closely punctured, with an indistinct 
longitudinal channel in the middle. The elytra are a 
little longer than the thorax, pretty finely and closely 
punctured. The abdomen is blackish, with the base and 
apex, and the margins of the segments more or less red- 
dish ; segments two to four are evenly and pretty closely 
and finely punctured, fifth segment more sparingly punc- 
tured, sixth nearly impunctate. Legs yellowish. 

In the male, the seventh abdominal segment has, on 
the upper side before the apex, an ill-defined indistinct 
elevation, the apex is produced in the middle, in the 
form of two teeth close to one another, and not very 
distinct, the hind margin is also again somewhat pro- 
duced on each side. 

This species is found in company with H. cinnamomea, 
at Cossus-infested trees. In Germany, however, it 
appears to have been found among Formica fuliginosa ; 
perhaps, as is often the case, the tree may have been 
attacked by the Cossus, as well as tenanted by ants. 

110. Homalota scapularis. 

Convexiuscula, rufo-testacea, capite abdomineque ante 
apicem nigricantibus ; thorace transverso, apicem versus 
angustato ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 sat crebre minus 
subtiliter punctatis, 5° parce punctato, 6° fere Isevigato. 
Long. 1^-14 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice 4-dentato, 
dentibus intermediis obtusis. 

Aleochara scapularis, Sahl. Ins. Fenn. i. 372; H. sca- 
pularis, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 292; Wat. Cat.; Alaohia 
scapularis, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 100. H. ochracea, Er. Gen. 
et Spec. Staph. 104. 



British Species of Homalofa. 219 

A reddish-yellow species, the head and fourth and fifth 
abdominal segments blackish; with comparatively small 
head, and with the punctuation and pubescence of the sur- 
face distinct and well marked. The antennae are reddish- 
yellow at the base, infuscate towards the apex, they are 
moderately stout, joint three a little longer than two, four 
not broader than three, nearly as long as broad, five dis- 
tinctly broader than four, five to ten transverse, but not 
strongly so; eleventh joint about as long as the two pre- 
ceding. The head is roundish, much narrower than the 
thorax, rather finely and moderately closely punctured, 
with the eyes rather prominent. The thorax is convex, 
narrower than the elytra, its breadth nearly twice its 
length, narrower at the anterior than at the posterior 
angles, the anterior angles rounded and depressed, close- 
ly and moderately finely punctured, and with a distinct 
pubescence. The elytra are about a third longer than 
the thorax, closely and rather strongly punctured, with 
a distinct pubescence. The abdomen is yellowish-red, 
with the fourth and fifth segments darker ; segments two 
to four are rather strongly and pretty closely punctured, 
fifth segment more sparingly but distinctly punctured, 
sixth nearly impunctate; pubescence rather coarse. Legs 
yellow. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is armed with four teeth, the 
middle ones are stout, short and rounded, the outer ones 
project rather more backwards, are slender and pointed. 

Scarce ; but occurs sparingly in several localities about 
London, and has been found, not uncommonly, at Monk's 
Wood, by Mr. Crotch; Weybridge, Mickleham, Croydon. 

111. Homalota suhterranea. 

Linearis, sat nitida, rufo-testacea, capite abdomineque 
plus minusve nigricantibus, subtiliter punctata, antennis 
validis, basi pedibusque testaceis; abdomine supra seg- 
mentis 2-5 parce punctatis, 6° fere Isevigato. Long. IJ 
lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice 4-dentato, 
deutibus validis. 

H. suhterranea, Muls. Opusc. ii. 40 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. 
ii. 291 ; Wat. Cat. 

TRANS, ENT. SOC. 1869. PART ITT. (.TUNE). R 



220 Dr. Sharp^s Revision of the 

A parallel, prettily coloured, rather convex species, 
with very stout antennEe ; the anterior parts with fine 
punctuation and pubescence. The antennse are short and 
very stout, pitchy, paler at the base, gradually thickened 
from the fourth to the tenth joint; joint three short and 
stout, triangular, slightly shorter than two, four to ten 
each a little broader than its predecessor, five to ten 
strongly transverse, and each narrowed towards the base; 
eleventh joint pointed, about twice as long as the tenth. 
The head is rather large, nearly as broad as the thorax, 
blackish, finely and indistinctly punctured ; the eyes not 
prominent. The thorax is more than half as broad again 
as long, but little narrower than the elytra, reddish-brown, 
finely and moderately closely punctured. The elytra are 
about a third longer than the thorax, yellowish-red, finely 
and moderately closely punctured. The abdomen is 
shining, pitchy-black, the apex yellowish-red, the base 
reddish or pitchy-red ; segments two to five finely and 
sparingly punctured, sixth segment nearly impunctate. 
Legs yellow. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is furnished with four stout 
teeth of nearly equal length, the two middle ones are 
stout rounded projecting tubercles, the outer ones, also 
rather stout, are more pointed. 

I have seen only two British specimens of this species, 
one taken by Mr. Crotch, at Beauly in Inverness- shire, 
the other by Mr. Hislop at Forres; it is to be found 
amongst moss and dead leaves. 

112. Homalota dilaticornis. 

Obscure rufa, capite abdomineque nigricantibus, an- 
tennis elytrorumque angulo apicali fuscis, antennarum 
basi pedibusque testaceis ; antennis validis ; thorace trans- 
verso; abdomine segmentis 2-4 parce punctatis, 5° et 6° 
fere laevigatis. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segment© 7° dorsali margine apicali 
producto, medio indistincte emarginato, ante apicem tu- 
ber culis duobus elevatis, margine laterali utrinque in 
spina tenui producto. 

H. dilaticornis, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 293. 

Rather smaller and less robustly formed than H. subter- 
ranea, and with a much smaller head ; of a reddish colour. 



British Species of Homalota. 221 

finely punctured and delicately pubescent^ with the head, 
abdomen, and sides of the elytra towards the hinder angles, 
darker. The antennte are short and stout, considerably 
thickened from the fourth to the seventh joint; joints 
two and three very nearly of equal length, four small but 
transverse, five considerably broader than four, it and the 
following strongly transverse; eleventh joint pointed, as 
long as the two preceding. The head is pitchy, con- 
siderably narrower than the thorax, narrowed behind the 
eyes, finely and indistinctly punctured. The thorax is 
rather narrower than the elytra, its breadth about twice 
its length, narrower at the anterior angles than at the 
base, very finely and moderately closely punctured. The 
elytra are about a third longer than the thorax, reddish, 
infuscate towards the apical angles, finely and pretty 
closely punctured. The abdomen is shining, pitchy-black, 
obscurely paler at the base and apex ; segments two to 
four finely and sparingly punctured, five and six nearly 
smooth. Legs yellow. 

The male characters are very peculiar, but not easy to 
describe. The seventh abdominal segment has the dor- 
sal plate in the middle a little produced behind, and the 
middle of its hind margin presents a shallow notch, the 
margin of which is a little thickened ; a little before the 
hind margin, and close to the outside, is to be seen on each 
side a distinct raised tubercle ; moreover the lateral mar- 
gin of this segment, is, on each side, produced behind, 
into a very slender and very indistinct spine, not reaching 
so far back as the produced middle part of the segment. 

Very rare. I have seen only a few specimens, all of 
which have been taken by Dr. Power, in the neighbour- 
hood of London. 



113. Homalota testacei/pes. 

Subdepressa, nitida, subtiliter punctata et tenuiter 
pubescens, nigra, antennarum basi elytris pedibusque 
testaceis ; antennis validis ; thorace transverse, eequali; 
abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 subtiliter parce punctatis, 
5° et 6° fere Isevigatis. Long. Ij lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali margine posteriore 
4-dentato, dentibus elongatis, acutis. 

H. testaceipes,'Keer, Faun. Col. Helv. 327. H. hrevicollis, 
Baudi, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 1060. H. varicornis, Kr. /. 

R, 2 



222 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

c. 292. H. Saundersi, Eye, Ent. Month. Mag. iii. 121 
(1866) . 

Comparatively broader and flatter than H. suhterranea 
and dilaticornis, and darker in colour. The antennae are 
short and very stout, blackish, obscurely paler at the base ; 
joint three nearly as long as two, four small but trans- 
verse, about as broad as three, five much broader than 
four, from this to the tenth each joint is very broad and 
transverse ; the eleventh joint is pointed, about the length 
of the two preceding. The head is a little narrower than 
the thorax, but broad, black and shining, very finely punc- 
tured. The thorax is but little narrower than the elytra, 
its breadth about twice its length, the sides evenly round- 
ed, scarcely narrower at the anterior than at the posterior 
angles, closely and very finely punctured. The elytra 
are testaceous or fusco-testaceous, the lateral margins 
a little darker, fully one-third longer than the thorax, 
finely and pretty closely punctured, with a delicate but 
distinct pubescence. The abdomen is black and shining ; 
segments two to four sparingly and finely punctured, 
fifth segment very sparingly punctured, sixth nearly im- 
punctate. Legs yellow. 

The male characters are peculiar. The hind margin 
of the dorsal plate of the seventh abdominal segment is 
furnished with four very distinct teeth ; of these, the two 
middle ones are near one another, and appear as two pro- 
duced elongate tubercles, the apex of each of which is a 
little flattened and somewhat curved inwards, the outer 
teeth are long, slender, pointed, and a little curved in- 
wards, and project backwards further than the central 
ones. 

This species has as yet been found, in this country, only 
in the neighbourhood of London. There is a fine series 
of it in Dr. Power's collection, varying somewhat in size, 
and a little in the colour of the elytra. 

Obs. — There are in the British Museum specimens of 
H. hrevicollis, sent by Kraatz ; they agree with the exam- 
ples described above. 

114. Homalota ohlita. 

Nigra, haud nitida, elytris fuscis, pedibus fusco-testa- 
ceis ; thorace transverse, medio canaliculate ; abdomine 



British Species of Homalota. 223 

supra segmentis 2-4 sat crebre punctatis_, 5° parce punc- 
tate, 6° fere laevigato. Long. 1 lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice 4-dentato, 
dentibus intermediis obtusis, rotundatis, lateralibus tenui- 
buSj introrsum curvatis. 

H. ohlita, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 113; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 294; Wat. Cat. 

A rather small, obscure species, with short stout an- 
tennas. The antennae are blackish, sometimes obscurely- 
paler at the base, thickened from the third to the sixth 
joint, but scarcely after that ; joints two and three of 
about equal length, four considerably broader than three, 
but narrower than five, distinctly transverse, five to ten 
strongly transverse; eleventh joint about as long as the 
two preceding. The head is broad, narrower than the 
thorax, black and dull, pretty closely but very finely and 
indistinctly punctured. The thorax is but little narrower 
than the elytra, its breadth fully half as great again as 
its length, the sides gently rounded in front, scarcely 
narrower at the anterior than at the posterior angles, 
very finely and closely punctured, and delicately pubes- 
cent, with a moderately distinct longitudinal channel in 
the middle. The elytra are fully one-third longer than 
the thorax, sometimes obscurely brown in colour, some- 
times nearly black, finely and closely punctured. The 
abdomen is black, segments two to four distinctly and mo- 
derately closely punctured, fifth segment sparingly and 
finely punctured, sixth nearly impunctate. The pubes- 
cence of the abdomen is more distinct than that of the 
anterior parts. The legs are testaceous, more or Jess 
dusky. 

In the male, the dorsal plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment has, in the middle, two stout rounded tubercles 
projecting backwards, these tubercles are united at their 
base, but separated at the apex by a slight notch; be- 
sides this, on each side is to be seen a rather longer, 
slender, pointed spine, curved inwards. 

Local; but often to be found abundantly in August 
and September, in fungi. Cambridge, New Forest, 
Malvern, Shirley, &c. 

Ohs. — Specimens of this species occur, with rather 
brighter- coloured elytra and legs than in the type, and 
in such cases are often more shiningr and smaller. 



22^ Dr. Sharp's Beoision of the 

115. Homalota autumnalis. 

Fusco-nigra, sat nitida, parce tenuiter pubescens, an- 
tennarum basi pedibusque testaceis ; thorace transverse, 
medio canaliculate ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 parce 
distinctius punctatis^ 5° et 6° fere leevigatis. Long. 1 lin. 

Mas; capite subtiliter canaliculate; abdomine seg- 
mente 7° dersali apice 4-dentate^ dentibus intermediis 
obtusisj approximatisj fere cenjunctis, externis acumi- 
natis. 

H. autumnalis, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 113; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 283. 

A smallj rather broad species, sparingly punctured 
and pubescent, and yet but little shining, from the fact 
that the surface between the punctures is very finely 
coriaceous. The antennae are short and moderately 
stout, considerably thickened from the third joint to the 
apex, pitchy in colour, with the three basal joints yellow- 
ish ; joint three more slender than two, but nearly as 
long, four small, about the width of three, nearly as 
long as broad, five to ten transverse, the first of them 
slightly, the last of them rather strongly so; eleventh 
joint stout, as long as the two preceding. Head rather 
narrower than the thorax, broad, very indistinctly punc- 
tured, the parts of the mouth testaceous. The thorax is 
a little narrower than the elytra, transverse, its breadth 
about twice its length, the sides rounded at the anterior 
angles, finely and sparingly punctured and pubescent, 
with an indistinct longitudinal channel in the middle. 
The elytra are about a third longer than the thorax, 
rather more distinctly and closely punctured than it. 
The abdomen has segments two to four sparingly and 
moderately finely punctured, five and six nearly impune- 
tate. The legs are yellow, the posterior tarsi stout, and 
moderately long, the basal joint very short, the terminal 
one about as long as the four preceding. 

In the male, the front of the head is indistinctly chan- 
nelled, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the seventh 
abdominal segment is furnished with four teeth, of about 
the same length ; the middle ones are broad and rounded, 
and near one another, so as to appear as if forming a 
central, rather produced, lamina, with a notch at its 
apex; the lateral teeth are fine and pointed. 



British Species of Homalota. 225 

Very rare. I have found it only at Horning, in Nor- 
folk, and in a piece of wet ground near Norwood. 

Obs. — I have only one example of the male of this 
species at my command ; its male characters do not seem 
to agree altogether with Kraatz^s description, or Mul- 
sant's figure. The place of the species is near H. oblita, 
(as in Brichson) , and not next coriaria, where it is placed 
by Kraatz, It is readily distinguished from ohlita by its 
more sparing punctuation and pubescence, and the 
brighter- coloured legs and base of the antennas. 

Group XVII. Small or very small species; the penulti- 
mate joints only of the antennae strongly transverse. 

(Species 116—122). 

A group of small black or obscurely coloured species, 
found in dung, vegetable refuse, and carcases. H. in- 
quinulu is the smallest species of the genus. The male 
characters are but unimportant. 

116. Homalota sericea. 

Nigra, antennis elytrisque fuscis^ pedibus fusco-testa- 
ceis, tenuiter distincte pubescens; thorace transverse; 
abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 parce subtiliter punctatis, 
5° et 6° fere laevigatis. Long. |-1 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncate, 
vix emarginato. 

H. sericea, Muls. Opusc. i. 41 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 
295; Atheta sericea, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 89; H. amicula, 
Wat. Cat. 

A rather robust little species, delicately but distinctly 
pubescent, moderately shining, with short stout antennae. 
These are pitchy-black, with the two first joints pitchy, 
thickened from the third to the apex ; joint two stout, 
three rather shorter and more slender than two, four to 
ten each a little stouter than its predecessor, four slightly 
transverse, ten strongly so ; eleventh joint stout, about 
as long as the two preceding. Head moderately large, 
rather narrower than the thorax, the sides a little 
straight behind the eyes, before being rounded at the 
posterior angles, extremely finely punctured ; in the male 
with an indistinct fovea on the disc. The thorax is but 



226 Dr. Sharp^s Revision of the 

little narrower than tlie elytra, its breadth fully half as 
great again as its length, about as wide at the anterior as 
at the posterior angles, finely and indistinctly punctured, 
sometimes with an indistinct impression in front of the 
scutellum, sometimes with an obscure channel, and often 
without either. The elytra are blackish, or pitchy- 
black, rather short, about one-third longer than the 
thorax, finely and closely punctured, with a fine and mo- 
derately close pubescence. The abdomen is black and 
shining, often a little broader towards the apex, its pubes- 
cence pretty distinct, segments two to four finely and 
rather sparingly punctured, five and six nearly impunc- 
tate. Legs dirty testaceous. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is truncate, and obscurely 
emarginate; the under plate of the same segment is 
also more produced than in the female, its apex less flat- 
tened, and more round. 

Abundant all over the country in vegetable refuse, 
hayricks, outhouses, &c. 

Obs. — I see no sufficient reason for considering this 
species as Stephens's Aleochara amicula ; his description 
may, or may not, apply to H. sericea. His descriptions 
(111. V. 131) of species 66-72 would each apply about 
equally well to H. sericea, and each is about equally 
vague and uncharacteristic. 

117. Homalota subtilis. 

Nigra, hand nitida, confertim subtiliter punctata, evi- 
denter pubescens, elytris fuscis, pedibus fusco-testaceis ; 
thorace transverse, aequali; abdomine supra segmentis 
2-4 sat parce punctatis, 5° et 6° fere laevigatis. Long, 
f lin. 

H. subtilis, Scriba, Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1866, p. 128. 

Allied to H. sericea, but distinguished by its denser 
punctuation and pubescence, its longer elytra, and the 
thinner joints (especially two to six) of the antennae. The 
antennae are moderately stout, a little thickened towards 
the apex, black ; joint three slightly shorter than two, 
four nearly quadrate, five to ten each slightly broader 
than its predecessor, the first of them slightly, the last 
distinctly transverse; eleventh joint rather stout, about 
as long as the two preceding. The head is a little 



British Species of Homalota. 227 

narrower than the thorax, indistinctly punctured. The 
thorax is slightly but distinctly narrower than the elytra, 
its breadth fully half as great again as its length, about 
as broad at the antei'ior as at the posterior angles, finely 
and thickly punctured, and finely but rather roughly 
pubescent. The elytra are fully one-third longer than 
the thorax, closely and finely punctured. The abdomen 
is punctured much as in H. serieea, but not quite so spar- 
ingly. The legs are rather dusky testaceous. 

Rare. I have found single specimens in several parts 
of Scotland. 

Obs. — I have examined two specimens of H. suhtilis 
sent by Herr Scriba to Mr. Crotch ; these difi^r from my 
specimens by being a little larger and broader, and 
having no channel or impression at the back of the head. 
These two specimens are, however, females, while I be- 
lieve all my Scotch examples to be males ; they have the 
apex of the seventh abdominal segment very indistinctly 
truncate. This species resembles H. celata in some 
respects, but its abdomen is much more sparingly punc- 
tured. 



118. Homalota induhia. 

Nigra, sat nitida, tenuiter pubescens, parce punctata, 
pedibus piceis; antennis articulis 5-10 minus fortiter 
transversis; thorace transverse j abdomine supra seg- 
mentis 2-4 parce subtiliter punctatis, 5° et 6° fere lasviga- 
tis. Long, f lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali margine posteriore 
sat fortiter crenulato. 

Scarcely larger than S. serieea, but blacker, stiU more 
sparingly pubescent and therefore more shining-, with 
the antennge not quite so stout, and the seventh abdomi- 
nal segment crenulate in the male. The antennae are 
black, moderately stout, a little thickened towards the 
apex; joints two and three longer and more slender than 
in S. serieea, three not quite so long as two, four about 
as broad as three, and about as long as broad, five slightly 
transverse, ten pretty distinctly so ; eleventh joint point- 
ed, about as long as the two preceding. The head is 
narrower than the thorax, but broad, the disc flat, punc- 
tuation and pubescence almost absent. The thorax is 



228 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

but little narrower than the elytra^ its breadth quite half 
as great again as its length, as broad at the anterior as 
at the posterior angles, finely and sparingly punctured 
and pubescent, with a small indistinct impression in front 
of the scutellum. The elytra are about a third longer 
than the thorax, rather sparingly punctured and pubes- 
cent, the punctuation rather more distinct than on the 
thorax. The abdomen is black and shining; segments 
two to four sparingly punctured, five and six almost im- 
punctate. Legs pitchy. 

In the male, the apex of the seventh abdominal seg- 
ment is distinctly, and, for a small species, even coarsely 
crenulate. 

Rare. I have found it at Thornhill, and near Edin- 
burgh and Dumfries. 

119. Homalota indiscreta. 

Subdepressa, nigra, subnitida, pedibus fuscis, confer- 
tim subtiliter punctata ; thorace transverse, basi foveolato ; 
abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 subtiliter sat crebre 
punctatis, 5° parce punctate, 6° fere Igevigato. Long, 
flin. 

Closely allied to H. sericea, but darker in colour, more 
depressed, rather broader but more narrowed to the front, 
the pubescence finer, denser, and more regular, and the 
elytra longer in proportion to the thorax. The antennae 
are entirely black, rather stout, thickened towards the 
apex; joint two longer than three, four about as broad as 
three, and about as broad as long, five to ten transverse, 
the first of them slightly, the last strongly so ; eleventh 
joint about twice as long as the tenth. Head narrower 
than the thorax, much narrower than the elytra, finely 
and indistinctly punctured, and sometimes with an obscure 
channel or fovea in the middle. The thorax is a little 
narrower than the elytra, its breadth about half as great 
ao-ain as its length, rather narrower at the anterior than 
at the posterior angles, finely and pretty closely punc- 
tured, and with a very delicate pubescence, with a shallow 
transverse fovea in front of the scutellum. The elytra 
are black or pitchy-black, fully one-third longer than 
the thorax, finely and thickly punctured, and delicately 
pubescent. The abdomen is black and shining, segments 



British Species of Homalota. 229 

two to four finely, scarcely closely, punctured, fifth seg- 
ment very sparingly punctured, sixth nearly impunctate. 
The legs are testaceous, the tibiae a little lighter than 
the femora. 

I am unable to point out satisfactory characters to 
distinguish the male of this species. 

Rare. I have found it at Thornhill, and in Inverness- 
shire. 

Obs. — This species is allied to H. indubia, but is dis- 
tinguished by its shorter antennae more thickened to- 
wards the apex, of which joints five to ten are distinctly 
transverse, and the uncrenulate seventh abdominal seg- 
ment of the male. 

120. Homalota mortuorum. 

Nigra, subopaca, thorace elytrisque confertim sub- 
tiliter punctatis et tenuissime pubescentibus, pedibus 
fuscis; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 subtiliter punc- 
tatis, 5° et 6° fere Isevigatis. Long. | lin. 

Atheta mortuorum, Th. Sk. Col. ix. 281. 

Closely allied to H. sericea, but smaller and blacker, 
with the thorax and elytra thickly and finely punctured, 
and densely and extremely finely pubescent ; the antennte 
also are shorter than in H. sericea, the basal joints being 
less elongate. The antennae are black, short and stout, 
thickened towards the apex; joint two short and stout, 
longer than three, three short and triangular, four to ten 
distinctly transverse, this last strongly so ; eleventh joint 
stout, about twice the length of the tenth. The head is 
black, dull, finely and indistinctly punctured, with an 
indistinct impression on the middle. The thorax is a 
little narrower than the elytra, its breadth about one- 
third greater than its length, dull, thickly and very 
finely punctured, sometimes with a short channel in front 
of the scutellum. The elytra are rather short, about a 
fourth longer than the thorax, very finely and densely 
punctured and pubescent. The abdomen is black and 
moderately shining, segments two to four finely and 
rather sparingly punctured, five and six almost impunc- 
tate. Legs pitchy. 

The male appears to difier but little from the female. 

Rare. I have found it only in Scotland, at Rannoch 
in Perthshire, and at Thornhill. 



230 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Ohs. — I have little doubt this is the mortuorum of 
Thomson ; it is allied to H. indiscreta, but is smaller, less 
shining, has shorter antennae and elytra, and a less 
transverse thorax. 



121. Homalota atricolor. 

Linearis, subdepressa, vix nitida, nigra, elytris pedi- 
busque nigro-fuscis, confertim subtiliter punctata, et ten- 
uiter pubescens ; thorace transverse, basin versus sub- 
angustato ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 crebre subtiliter 
punctatis, 5° parce punctate. Long. | lin. 

Var. — Elytris pedibusque nigris, concoloribua. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice truncato. 

H. inconspicua, Wat. Cat. {nee Er.) . 

A very small, black, rather parallel and depressed 
species, with close and fine but distinct punctuation and 
pubescence. The antennas are black, thickened towards 
the apex ; joints two and three short and stout, two 
longer and stouter than three, from joint four thickened 
towards the apex, four about as broad as three, nearly as 
long as broad, the others to the tenth transverse ; eleventh 
joint about as long as the two preceding. Head but 
little narrower than the thorax, rather quadrate, rather 
long in proportion to its breadth, the eyes a little pro- 
minent, finely and closely punctured, the punctuation 
consisting of fine elevations, so that the surface appears 
rough, with a distinct channel or impression on the 
middle. Thorax a little narrower than the elytra, its 
breadth fully half as great again as its length, a little 
narrowed behind, finely and closely punctured. The 
elytra are black or pitchy-black, one-half or one-third 
longer than the thorax, closely and finely punctured. 
The abdomen is black and shining, segments two to four 
rather closely and finely but somewhat roughly punc- 
tured, fifth segment more sparingly punctured, sixth 
nearly impunctate. Legs black, or pitchy-black. 

In the male, the apex of the dorsal plate of the seventh 
abdominal segment is truncate in the middle. 

Extremely abundant in Scotland, in carcases, dung, 
&c. ; also near London, but not so common there. 

Ohs. — This species is intermediate between H. mor- 
tuorum and inquimda ; it is a little smaller than the 



British species of Homalota. 231 

former, considerably narrower, and not so closely and 
finely punctured, so that it is not so dull. It is con- 
siderably larger than inquinula, and much darker in 
colour. Its punctuation is peculiar, being fine but dis- 
tinctly rough. * 

122. Homalota inquinula. 

Linearis, nigra, subnitida, elytris fuscis, pedibus fusco- 
testaceis ; thorace transverso, basin versus subangustato ; 
abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 sat crebre subtiliter punc- 
tatis, 5° parce punctato. Long. ^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segment© 7° dorsali apice truncato. 

Aleochara inquinula, Grav. Micr. 78 ; H. inquinula, 
Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 334; Gen. et Spec. Staph. 116; Kr. 
Ins. Deutsch. ii. 297 ; Wat. Cat. 

The smallest species of the genus ; narrow, and with 
fine and pretty close punctuation and pubescence. The 
antennae are short and comparatively stout, thickened to- 
wards the apex, the three basal joints stout; joint two 
stouter and much longer than three, this much narrowed 
at the base, four to ten transverse, the first slightly, the 
last distinctly so; eleventh joint stout and pointed, about 
as long as the two preceding. The head is rather nar- 
rower than the thorax, rather long in proportion to its 
breadth, closely, finely, and indistinctly punctured, with 
a distinct channel or impression on the middle. The 
thorax is a little narrower than the elytra, its breadth 
about one-third greater than its length, a little narrowed 
behind, closely and finely punctured, and sometimes with 
a longitudinal channel. The elytra are about one-third 
longer than the thorax, of an obscure brownish or pitchy 
colour, thickly and finely punctured. The abdomen is 
black and shining, segments two to four finely and pretty 
closely punctured, fifth segment finely and sparingly 
punctured, sixth still more sparingly punctured. The 
legs are dirty yellow, or pitchy in colour. 

In the male, the apex of the dorsal plate of the seventh 
abdominal segment is a little truncate in the middle. 

Local; but common in dung in sandy places in the 
centre and south of England. I have not found it in 
Scotland. 

* I have only lately distinguished this species from the preceding one, 
and have named many specimens of it as U. mortuorum, Th. I mention 
this, that those for whom I have done so, may make the change of name 
where necessary. 



232 Dr. Sliarp^s Revision of the 

Section G. 

Group XVIII. Abdomen rather narrowed towards the 
apex; the hinder angles of the thorax well marhed; habitat 
in ants' nests. (Species 123 — 125) . 

Of this group, H. flavipes and eonfusa are closely 
allied, but anceps has an entirely different facies, 

123. Homalofa anceps. 

Fusco-nigra, opaca, confertim punctata, antennarum 
basi pedibus anoque obscure testaceis ; thorace transver- 
se, piano, canaliculate, angulis posticis haud rotundatis; 
abdomine supra confertim subtilissime, apice minus cre- 
bre punctate. Long. Ij lin. 

H. anceps. Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 336; Gen. et Spec. Staph. 
125; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 264; Wat, Cat.; Lyprocorrhe 
anceps, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 108. 

. A peculiar and distinct species ; the head, thorax, and 
elytra being harder than in the other species of the genus, 
and clothed with an extremely short, and scarcely visible 
pubescence ; it has somewhat the appearance of a small 
H. fungi, but is flatter and duller. The antennas are 
pitchy, paler at the base, moderately long, rather slender, 
scarcely thickened towards the apex ; joints two and three 
of nearly equal length, moderately long, four to ten each 
differing but little from one another in length, the first of 
them distinctly longer than broad, the last of them about 
as long as broad; the eleventh joint about as long as the 
two preceding. The head is considerably narrower than 
the thorax, rather broad and short, very finely and close- 
ly punctured, a little shining. The thorax is at the base 
about as broad as the elytra, its breadth nearly twice its 
length, distinctly narrower at the anterior than at the 
posterior angles, the latter being distinct and not round- 
ed ; the surface of the thorax is flat, and has a distinct 
longitudinal channel in the middle, it is thickly and pretty 
finely punctured, and has sometimes one or two irregular 
little pits, or impressions. The elytra are rather short, 
about one-third longer than the thorax, closely and pret- 
ty distinctly punctured, dull. The abdomen is closely 
and finely punctured, with a distinct moderately long 
pubescence. The legs are yellowish. 



British Species of Homalota. 233 

The male is difficult to distinguish ; it has the ventral 
plate of the seventh abdominal segment narrower^ and 
more produced than in the female. 

Abundant in England and Scotland, in the nests of 
Formica rufa. 

124. Homalota flavipes. 

Nigra, sat nitida, antennarum basi pedibus anoque 
rufo-testaceis, elytris rufo-brunneis, abdomine piceo ; 
thorace transverse, angulis posticis haud rotundatis ; ab- 
domine supra segmentis 2-4 parce punctatis, 5° et 6° 
laevigatis. Long. 1| lin. 

ilf as ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice fere trian- 
gulariter emarginato. 

Aleochara flavipes, Grav. Mon. 161; S. flavipes, Er. 
Gen. et Spec. Staph. 124; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 263; 
Wat. Cat.; Notothecta flavipes, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 107. 

A rather broad, robust species, narrowed before and 
behind. The antennae are pitchy in colour, yellowish at 
the base, the apical joint also sometimes obscurely yellow ; 
they are moderately long, scarcely thickened towards the 
apex, and pretty distinctly furnished with projecting hairs ; 
joints two and three are of about equal length, four to 
ten differ but little from one another in length and breadth, 
each as long as broad; eleventh joint long and rather 
slender, pointed, longer than the two preceding together. 
The head is narrower than the thorax broad and short, 
black and shining, finely and indistinctly punctured. 
The thorax is black, or pitchy-black, a little narrower 
than the elytra, twice as broad as long, narrower at the 
anterior than at the posterior angles ; the base a little 
sinuate on each side near the external angles, which are 
distinct and not at all depressed, moderately closely and 
pretty distinctly punctured, with an indistinct impression 
in front of the scutellum. The elytra are brownish or 
reddish-brown, scarcely shining, about one-third longer 
than the thorax, much broader than long, pretty closely 
and distinctly, and somewhat rugulosely punctured. The 
abdomen is black and shining, pitchy at the base, red- 
dish-yellow at the extremity ; segments two to four are 
sparingly punctured, five and six impunctate. The legs 
are reddish-yellow. 

In the male, the hind margin of the seventh segment 
of the abdomen is distinctly emarginate in the middle. 



234 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Abundant in the nests of Formica rufa, all over the 
kingdom . 

125. Homalota confusa. 

Nigra, sat nitida, antennarum basi pedibus anoque 
rufo-testaceis, elytris rufo-brunneis, abdomine piceo; 
thorace transverse, angulis posticis hand rotundatis ; an- 
tennis articulis 5-10 transversis; abdomine supra seg- 
mentis 2-4 sat crebre punctatis, 5° parce punctato. 
Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice fere trian- 
gulariter emarginato. 

H. confusa, Maerk. Germ. Zeit. v. 215; Kj*. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 264 ; Wat. Cat. ; Notothecta confusa, Th. Sk. 
Col. iii. 107. 

Yery closely allied to H. Jlavipes, but rather smaller, 
and with the antennae shorter and stouter, so that of 
joints five to ten each one is distinctly broader than long. 
The abdomen is more closely punctured, the base of the 
fifth segment being distinctly punctured. Its structure 
and punctuation generally are extremely like H. flavipes. 

I have never found this species, but it has occurred to 
Mr. F. Smith and others, in the nests of Formica fuli- 
ginosa. 

Section H. 

Group XIX. Small or very small species; abdomen 
only a little narrowed towards the apex, closely punctured ; 
thorax hut little narrowed towards thejront. 

(Species 126—131) . 

The species of this group have indistinct male charac- 
ters; H. nigra, germana, and hodierna, are found in 
vegetable refuse matter ; sordidula, celata, and (I believe) 
canescens, in dung. 

126. Homalota nigra. 

Linearis, sat nitida, nigra, pedibus fuscis, confertim 
subtiliter punctata, et tenuiter pubescens ; thorace leviter 
transverse ; abdomine apicem versus subangustato, supra 
toto confertim subtiliter punctato. Long. |-1 lin. 



British Species of Homalota. 235- 

3Ias; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice obsolete 
quadridentato. 

H. nigra, Kr. Ins. Deutscb. ii. 287 ; Wat. Cat. 

A small, ratlier narrow, black species, shining, but 
clothed with a fine pubescence, giving it a somewhat 
gray appearance. The antennae are black, of moderate 
length and thickness, a little thickened towards the apex ; 
the first joint is stout, two and three of moderate length 
and thickness, two longer than three, this latter much 
narrowed at the base, four scarcely broader than the pre- 
ceding one, about as long as broad, from this to the tenth 
each one a little broader than its predecessor, none of 
them, however, being strongly transverse, and sometimes 
appearing but little broader than long; eleventh joint 
about as long as the two preceding together. The head 
is smaller than the thorax, rather small, black and shining, 
finely and indistinctly punctured, sometimes indistinctly 
channelled or impressed. The thorax is a little narrower 
than the elytra, about a third broader than long, very 
finely and closely punctured, with an indistinct impres- 
sion in front of the scutellum, from which proceeds a 
fine channel, sometimes scarcely to be distinguished. 
The elytra are about a third longer than the thorax, 
closely and finely punctured. The abdomen is a little 
narrowed towards the apex, closely finely and evenly 
punctured above, segments five and six somewhat more 
sparingly than the preceding ones. The legs are 
pitchy. 

In the male, the apical angles of the dorsal plate of 
the seventh abdominal segment are acute, and eA^en a 
little produced, and the hind margin is furnished besides 
with two small indistinct projections, the distance be- 
tween which is about the same as that between each one 
and the lateral tooth. 

In the female, the middle of the hind margin of the 
same segment is slightly and indistinctly emarginate in 
the middle. 

Extremely abundant, in vegetable refuse, all over 
England and Scotland. 

127. Homalota germana. 

Nigra, vix nitida, pedibus fuscis, confertim evidenter 
punctata, et tenuiter pubescens; thorace transverse; 

TRANS ENT. SOC. 1869. PART IIT. (jUNe) . S 



236 Dr. Sharp's Bevislon of th« 

abdomine apicem versus subangustato, supra toto con- 
fertim punctato. Long. | lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice cbsoletis- 
sime quadridentato. 

Scarcely smaller than H. nigra, but distinctly broader 
in proportion, with a shorter and more transverse thorax, 
and more distinct and rougher punctuation. The an- 
tennge are formed much as in H. nigra, only rather shorter. 
The head is rather shorter than in H. nigra, black, dull, 
rather sparingly but distinctly and roughly punctured, 
in the male with a distinct channel or impression. The 
thorax is a little narrower than the elytra, its breadth 
more than half as great again as its length, closely and 
finely but distinctly punctured, sometimes with an in- 
distinct longitudinal channel. The elytra are about a 
third longer than the thorax, closely and finely punc- 
tured. The abdomen is black, a little shining, closely 
and finely but distinctly punctured, the punctuation not 
closer but more distinct than in H. nigra. The legs are 
pitchy. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is formed much as in H. 
nigra, the teeth, however, are still more indistinct, and 
scarcely to be detected. 

This species appears to be generally distributed, and 
pretty common, especially in Scotland. It is probably 
mixed in collections with H. nigra. 

128. Homalota hodierna. 

Nigra, vix nitida, ely tris fuscis, pedibus fusco-testaceis, 
crebre subtiliter punctata; antennis subelongatis, arti- 
culis hand transversis ; thorace leviter transverse, cana- 
liculato ; abdomine supra toto confertim subtiliter punc- 
tato. Long. 1 lin. 

Mas; capite impresso ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali 
apice quadridentato. 

Closely allied to H. nigra, but larger than the largest 
of that species, more robustly formed, and at once dis- 
tinguished by its longer antennae, less thickened towards 
the apex. The antenna are pitchy-black, obscurely 
paler at the base, rather long and slender, scarcely at all 
thickened towards the apex; joint two a little longer 



British Species of Homaloia. 2S7 

than three, three narrowed at the base, four to ten differ- 
ing but little from one another in length, the length of 
each a little greater than its breadth ; eleventh joint long 
(much longer than in H. nigra), more than twice the 
length of the tenth. The head is broader and shorter 
than in H. nigra, in the male distinctly channelled and 
impressed. The thorax is a little narrower than the 
elytra, about one- third broader than long, thickly and 
finely punctured, with a distinct central longitudinal 
channel. The elytra are about one-thii*d longer than the 
thorax, of an obscure brownish or fuscous colour, closely 
and finely punctured. The abdomen is a little narrowed 
towards the apex, its upper surface densely and finely 
punctured and pubescent, segments five and six rather 
more sparingly so than the preceding ones. Legs dusky 
yellow. 

In the male, the hind margin of the seventh abdominal 
segment is furnished with four short projecting teeth 
much as in H. nigra. I have not seen a specimen of the 
female. 

I have captured four specimens of this species at 
Horning, in Norfolk, and have seen it also in Mr. 
Crotch's collection. M. Brisout de Barneville has also 
submitted to me a French example, marked '' Lille, 
roseaux." 



129. Homalota celata. 

Nigra, subopaca, confertim subtiliter punctata, an- 
tennarum basi elytrisque fuscis, pedibus obscure testa- 
ceis ; thorace transverse, basi obsolete canaliculato ; 
abdomine segmentis 2-4 crebre subtiliter, 5° et 6° parcius 
punctatis. Long. | lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice 4-dentato. 

H. celata, Er. Kiif. Brand, i. 335 ; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 122 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 320. Atheta dadopora, 
Th. Sk. Col. ix. 283. 

A small, but rather robust, obscure species, readily 
distinguished from H. sericea, and its allies, by its more 
densely punctured abdomen; broader than H. sordidula, 
and not so flat or depressed. The antennae are moderately 
stout, blackish, obscurely paler at the base, not thick- 
ened after the sixth joint; joint two is longer than three, 



238 Dr. Sharp^s Bevision of the 

four scarcely broader than three^ nearly as long as broad, 
five distinctly broader than four, from this to the tenth 
the joints differ but little from one another, the breadth 
of each is a little greater than its length ; the eleventh 
joint is rather long, quite as long as the two preceding 
together. The head is broad, a little narrower than the 
thorax, pretty closely and finely but distinctly and rather 
roughly punctured, sometimes with an indistinct impres- 
sion on the disc. The thorax is a little narrower than 
the elytra, its breadth about half as great again as its 
length, the sides gently rounded, nearly as broad at the 
anterior as at the posterior angles, closely and finely 
but distinctly and rather roughly punctured, and with a 
more or less distinct longitudinal channel in front of the 
scutellum. The elytra are about a fourth longer than 
the thorax, brownish or fuscous in colour, pretty closely 
and distinctly punctured . The abdomen is black, pitchy 
at the extremity, a little shining, segments two to four 
are closely and distinctly punctured, fifth and sixth seg- 
ments moderately closely punctured. The legs are 
rather dirty yellow. 

The hind margin of the upper plate of the seventh 
abdominal segment is furnis'hed, in the male, with four 
small teeth, one at each angle and two in the middle, of 
these the external ones are the more distinct, the notch 
separating the two middle ones is broad, but very 
shallow. 

Rare. I have found single specimens in two or three 
localities near London. 

Ohs. — I have examined a specimen of A. dadopora, 
sent by Thomson to Mr. Crotch ; it is of this species. 
Thomson considers {vide loc. cit.) that Erichson^s de- 
scription of H. celata probably refers to Kraatz^s H. nigra. 
In this suspicion he is not improbably correct, but I 
think it better not to change the names, until the ques- 
tion is put beyond doubt by the examination of Erich- 
son's specimens. 

130. Homalota sordidula. 

Nigra, pedibus fuscis, opaca, confertim subtiliter punc- 
tata ; antennis sat elongatis, articulo ultimo oblongo ; tho- 
race leviter transverso, subtiliter canaliculate; abdomine 
supra toto confertim subtiliter pvmctato. Long. | lin. 



British Species of Homalota. 239 

H. sordidula, Er. Kilf. Brand, i. 335 3 Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 123; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 296; Wat. Cat.; Athe- 
ta sordidula, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 91. 

A small narrow species^ with pretty distinctly pointed 
abdomen, and elongate terminal joint to the antenna;. 
The antennae are long for the small size of the species, 
black, the two basal joints sometimes obscurely pitchy, 
not thickened after the fifth or sixth joint ; joints two and 
three rather stout, two longer than three, four smaller 
than any of the others, but little broader than three, 
rather transverse^ fi^ve broader and longer than four, 
from it to the tenth the length of each joint is nearly 
equal to its breadth ; eleventh joint long, oblong, longer 
than the two preceding. The head is small, distinctly 
narrower than the thorax, much narrower than the elytra, 
its sides a little straight behind the eyes, pretty closely 
and finely but distinctly punctured, generally with an 
indistinct longitudinal impression on the front part. The 
thorax is a little narrower than the elytra, its breadth 
about one-third greater than its length, finely and closely 
punctured, and with a fine but distinct longitudinal chan- 
nel in front of the scutellum. The elytra are about a 
fourth longer than the thorax, closely and finely punc- 
tured. The abdomen is distinctly narrowed towards the 
apex, its upper surface closely and finely and evenly 
punctured, the pubescence dense. The legs are pitchy- 
yellow. 

The male is scarcely to be distinguished from the female. 

In dung, both in England and Scotland, but apparently 
scarce or overlooked. 

131. Homalota canescens. 

Nigra, opaca, pedibus fuscis, confertim punctata; an- 
tennis articulis 5-10 transversis; thorace transverse, sub- 
tiliter canaliculato ; abdomine supra toto confertim sub- 
tiliter punctato. Long. | lin. 

Mas; abdomine segment© 7° dorsali apice obsolete 
4-dentato. 

Allied to H. sordidida, broader and more parallel, with 
the antennae, especially the terminal joint, shorter, the 
thorax shorter, and the punctuation throughout not quite 
so close and fine. The antennae are blackish, of moderate 



240 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

length and stoutness, but indistinctly thickened towards 
the apex ; joint three shorter and ruore slender than two, 
narrowed towards the base, four smaller than the others, 
about as broad as three, nearly as long as broad, five to ten 
differing but little from one another in length, each one 
slightly broader than its predecessor, the breadth of each 
evidently greater than its length ; eleventh joint rather 
stout, a little pointed, about as long as the two preceding 
together. The head is rather broad, a little narrower 
than the thorax, finely but distinctly and rather roughly 
punctured, generally with a longitudinal impression on 
the disc. The thorax is but little narrower than the ely- 
tra, its breadth more than half as great again as its length, 
closely and finely but distinctly punctured, and with a 
short, not very distinct, channel in front of the scutel- 
lum. The elytra are fully one-third longer than the thorax, 
closely and finely punctured. The abdomen is scarcely 
narrowed towards the apex, finely, evenly, and closely 
punctured. The legs are pitchy-yellow. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is furnished with four small 
indistinct equidistant teeth, which are placed much as 
in H. celata, but are smaller. 

Rare. Thornhill, Brockenhurst, Weybridge, Croydon. 
In dung, I believe. 

Obs. — This species is readily distinguished from H. ce- 
lata by its smaller size, more depressed form, darker 
colour, and more closely punctured apical segments of 
the abdomen. 

Group XX. 82Jec{es of moderate size, ahdomen slightly 
or moderately narrowed towards the apex, thorax scarcely 
or moderately narrowed toivards the front. 

(Species 132—142) . 

A tolerably natural group, which might, however, be 
subdivided into several others. H. marcida, intermedia, 
and cadaverina, are found in moss and vegetable matter; 
the other species frequent dung, and cinnamoptera is often 
found in small carcases. 

132. Homalota Tnarcida. 

Nigra, sat nitida, antennis piceis, pilosellis, basi pedi- 
busque testaceis, elytris fuscis ; thorace leviter transverso, 



British Species of Hotiialota. 241 

basi foveolato ; elytris hoc sesqui longioribus ; abdomine 
apicem versus vix angustato, supra segmentis 2-4 parce 
subtiliter punctatis, 5° et 6° fere leevigatis ; tibiis poster- 
ioribus intus evidenter ciliatis. Long, l^-lf lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali margine posteriore 
obsolete incrassato, ventrali medio obtuse acuminato. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali margine poster- 
iore obsolete emarginato, fere truncate, ventrali late ro- 
tundato, dense subtiliter ciliato. 

H. marcida, Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 328 ; Gen. et Spec. Staph. 
106; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 298; Wat. Cat. 

A peculiar species, scarcely to be confounded with any 
others, and in many respects resembling H. occulta and 
its allies. The antennae are long, scarcely thickened to- 
wards the apex, brownish, with the three or four basal 
joints yellow, furnished throughout their length with 
longish, very fine, outstanding hairs; the first joint is 
stout, with a long conspicuous seta on its upper side ; 
joints two and three are rather long, three a little longer 
than two, four and five a little stouter than three, each 
longer than broad, six to ten each about as long as broad; 
eleventh joint scarcely so long as the two preceding. 
The head is rather small, narrower than the thorax, nar- 
rowed behind the eyes, which are a little prominent, 
sparingly and indistinctly punctured. The thorax is dis- 
tinctly narrower than the elytra, about a third broader 
than long, a little narrowed behind, moderately closely 
and finely but distinctly and roughly punctured, with a 
few long outstanding hairs at the sides, and an indistinct 
transverse impression in front of the scutellum. The 
elytra are long and parallel, longer than broad, fully half 
as long again as the thorax, of a brownish colour, distinct- 
ly, rather roughly, and closely punctured. The abdomen 
is shining, scarcely narrowed towards the apex, which is 
often paler; segments two to four very sparingly and 
finely punctured, the apical ones almost impunctate, the 
sides and apex furnished with distinct outstanding hairs. 
The legs are yellow, the middle tibise on the outside 
about the middle with a distinct outstanding seta, the 
posterior tibiae with a very small and indistinct seta in 
the middle on the outside, on the inside finely but dis- 
tinctly ciliate throughout their whole length, these cilia 
are yellow, and about twelve in number. 



242 Dr. Sharp's Bevlslon of the 

In the male, the third joint of the antennae is more 
densely furnished with fine outstanding hairs ; the dorsal 
plate of the seventh abdominal segment is narrow, indis- 
tinctly rounded at the apex, which is obscurely thickened, 
and the under plate of the same segment is a little pro- 
duced in the middle, so as to form an obtuse angle ; while 
in the female, the ventral plate of the same segment is 
broad and rounded, and furnished with closely-set fine 
parallel cilia. 

In England and Scotland, but never very common. 

133. Homalota intermedia. 

Subdepressa, antice sat nitida, sub tiliter punctata, tenui- 
ter pubescens, nigra, antennarura basi obscure testacea, 
elytris pedibusque testaceis ; thorace transversim sub- 
quadrato; abdomine apicem versus attenuate, nitidulo, 
segmentis 2-5 crebre subtiliter punctatis, 6° parce punc- 
tate. Long. 1^-1 1 lin. 

H. intermedia, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1852, p. 145; 
Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 301 ; Wat. Cat.; Atheta intermedia, 
Th. Sk. Col. iii. 95. 

This species a good deal resembles H. xanthojjtera and 
its allies, but has the abdomen distinctly narrowed to the 
apex, and its segments more punctured. The antennae 
are long and rather stout, scarcely thickened towards the 
apex ; joints two and three long, three longer than two, 
four about as stout as three, and little less than the other 
joints, longer than broad, five to ten each about as long 
as broad, ten, however, a little shorter than the others; 
the eleventh joint is long, gently pointed, about as long 
as the two preceding together. The head is narrower 
than the thorax, but rather broad, finely and indistinctly 
punctured. The thorax is rather large, a little narrower 
than the elytra, about a third broader than long, the sides 
nearly straight, a little rounded at the anterior angles, 
finely and pretty closely punctured, with a small narrow 
impression at the base in front of the scutellum. The 
elytra are yellow, a little darker about the scutellum and 
at tlie outsides, closely and finely punctured, about a 
fourth longer than the thorax. The abdomen is black, 
rather shining, distinctly narrowed towards the apex ; 
segments two to five finely, evenly, and j^retty closely 
punctured, the fifth rather more sparingly than the basal 



British Species of Homalota. 243 

ones, the sixth segment shining, and very sparingly punc- 
tured ; the sides are rather sparingly furnished with out- 
standing setge, the apex more distinctly. The legs are 
bright yellow, the middle tibiae with a short indistinct 
outstanding seta about the middle, the hinder ones with- 
out any exserted seta. 

The male has the ventral plate of the seventh abdomi- 
nal segment narrower and longer than the female. 

This species occurs sparingly in various parts of Scot- 
land; Rannoch, Thornhill, Strath Cannich; also, but very 
rarely, in the neighbourhood of London. 

134. Homalota longicornis. 

Subdepressa, nitidula, nigra, elytris pedibus anoque 
brunneo-testaceis ; antennis elongatis, articulo quarto 
transverso; abdomine supra confertim subtiliterpunctato; 
tibiis intermediis et posticis setis exsertis longioribus. 
Long. 1| lin. 

Mas; abdomine segment© 7° dorsali apice obsolete 
emarginato. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice ciliato, 
medio emarginato. 

Aleochara longicornis, Grav. Mon. 87; H. longicornis, 
Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 129; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 302; 
Wat. Cat.; Atheta longicornis, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 95. 

A very distinct species ; the much developed, long an- 
tennas, the yellowish elytra, the much pointed and thickly 
punctured abdomen, and the very long exserted setae of 
the tibiae are quite sufficient to distinguish it. The an- 
tennae are long and stout, not thickened after the seventh 
joint, nearly black, with the first joint pitchy, the 
basal joints with distinct exserted hairs ; joint three con- 
siderably longer than two, four much smaller than any of 
the others, its length distinctly less than its breadth, 
from five to ten each joint is distinctly longer than its 
predecessor, the fifth not quite so long as broad, the tenth 
longer than broad ; eleventh joint long, obtusely pointed, 
quite half as long again as the tenth. The head is com- 
paratively small, considerably narrower than the thorax, 
black and shining, sparingly and finely punctured, but 
with the pubescence distinct. The thoi^ax is scai-cely 
narrower than the elytra, its breadth about half as great 



244 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

again as its length, the sides gently rounded, slightly nar- 
rowed in front, rather finely and not closely punctured, 
the pubescence rather long, the sides with a few distinct 
long outstanding hairs. The elytra are brownish-yellow, 
darker about the scutellum and towards the sides, closely 
and rather strongly punctured, a little longer than the 
thorax. The abdomen is black, strongly narrowed to- 
wards the apex,which is pitchy, densely and evenly punc- 
tured, the sides and apex with distinct outstanding hairs. 
The legs are dark yellow, with the femora infuscate, the 
middle and posterior tibise each with two long exserted 
hairs, one a little below the knee, the other a little be- 
yond the middle, they are also pretty closely furnished 
with short cilia both on the inner and outer sides. 

In the male, the apex of the dorsal plate of the seventh 
abdominal segment is indistinctly emarginate, the ventral 
plate rounded. 

In the female, the ventral plate has the hind margin 
furnished with short parallel cilia, and is distinctly emar- 
ginate in the middle. 

Extremely abundant in dung, all over the country. 

135. Homalota macrocera. 

Nigra, sat nitida, crebre subtiliter punctata, elytris 
fuscis, pedibus piceo-testaceis ; antennis longioribus, arti- 
culo ultimo oblongo, elongate ; thorace leviter transverse, 
obsolete canaliculate ; abdomine apicem versus angustato, 
supra segmentis 2-4 crebre subtiliter punctatis, 5° minus 
crebre, 6° parce punctate. Long. 1 lin. 

H. macrocera, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1856, p. 106; 
Atheta macrocera, Th. Sk. Col, iii. 96. 

A rather narrow species, with evidently pointed abdo- 
men. Antennae rather long, not (or scarcely) thickened 
towards the apex; joints two and three of about the same 
length, four smaller than five, longer than broad, five to 
nine differing but little from one another in length and 
breadth, each distinctly longer than broad, ten about as 
long as broad; eleventh joint elongate, oblong, quite as 
long as the two preceding together. The head is a little 
narrower than the thorax, pretty closely and finely but 
distinctly and rather roughly punctured, sometimes with 
an indistinct channel. The thorax is a little narrower 



British Species of Homalota. 245 

than the elytra, about a third broader than long, the sides 
gently rounded, scarcely narrower at the anterior than at 
the posterior angles, the sides with a few fine outstanding 
setae, pretty closely and finely punctured, with a fine 
longitudinal channel in front of the scutellum, varying 
in length and distinctness. The elytra are but little 
longer than the thorax, of an obscure fuscous colour, 
closely and finely punctured. The abdomen is strongly 
narrowed to the apex, black, the apex sometimes obscure- 
ly paler; segments two to four pretty closely and finely 
punctured, fifth segment more sparingly but distinctly 
punctured, sixth very sparingly punctured ; the sides and 
apex, as well as the hind margins of the segments, with 
numerous distinct outstanding black setae. The legs are 
dirty yellow, the middle and hinder tibiae with a distinct 
outstanding seta on the middle. 

I have found this species in numbers, in dung, near 
Thornhill, and rarely in other parts of Scotland, but 
never in England. 

Obs. — This is not very closely allied to any other species. 

136. Homalota cadaverina. 

Lata, subdepressa, nigra, antice parum nitida ; thorace 
transverse, basi vix foveolato; elytris hoc distinctius 
punctatis ; abdomine nigerrimo, nitidulo, supra seg- 
mentis 2-4 parce punctatis, 5° et 6° fere laevigatis ; pedi- 
bus rufis, femoribus piceis. Long. 1^ lin. 

Var. — Elytris fuscis. 

H. cadaverina, Bris. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1860, p. 341. 

A fine and distinct species, broader than the others of 
this group, the head especially being broad. The an- 
tennae are black, moderately long, rather slender, but 
little thickened towards the apex; joints two and three 
long and rather slender, two a little the longer; of the 
following joints the first three or four are longer than 
broad, the subsequent ones but little broader than long", 
the penultimate one being scarcely transverse; eleventh 
joint moderately long, rather pointed, about as long as 
the two preceding together. The head is broad, but 
distinctly narrower than the thorax, sparingly and indis- 
tinctly punctured. The thorax is a little narrower than 
the elytra, not quite twice as broad as long, the sides 



246 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

slightly rounded, scarcely narrower at the anterior than 
at the posterior angles, finely and rather sparingly punc- 
tured, sometimes with a fine indistinct longitudinal 
channel, the sides with two or three short exserted setae. 
The elytra are about a fourth longer than the thorax, 
closely, rather strongly, somewhat rugulosely punctured, 
their punctuation much stronger than that of the thorax. 
The abdomen is black and shining, pretty distinctly nar- 
rowed towards the apex, segments two to four sparingly 
punctured, fifth segment very sparingly and finely punc- 
tured, sixth segment nearly impunctate; the sides and 
apex furnished with numerous distinct outstanding hairs. 
The legs are reddish, the thighs pitchy, tibiae without 
exserted setae, the posterior ones rather long and slender, 
their tarsi long and pointed. 

The male is only to be distinguished from the female 
by the narrower and more produced ventral plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment. 

I have found one or two specimens of this species near 
London, and have obtained a fine series, from heaps of 
cut grass, at Thornhill. 

Ohs. — I have compared these specimens with M. 
Brisout's type of H. cadaverina, and find they agree in 
all points with it. 

137. Homalota Imvana. 

Nigra, sat nitida, elytris brunneis, pedibus testaceis ; 
thorace transverso, elytris angustiore; abdomine apicem 
versus minus fortiter angustato, supra segmentis 2-4 sat 
crebre punctatis, 5° parce punctato, 6° fere laevigato. 
Long. li-H liii- 

Mas; abdomine segment© 7° dorsali apice leviter 
emarginato, utrinque denticulis 2 subapproximatis. 

H. Icevana, Muls. Opusc. i. 39; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 
306. 

Resembles both H. cinnamoptera and atramentaria ; 
distinguished from the former by the antennae stouter 
towards the apex, the head thorax and elytra more 
shining and less densely punctured, the abdomen less 
narrowed towards the apex and more sparingly punc- 
tured ; from H. atratnentaria by the stouter antennae, uni- 
colorous brown elytra, pale legs, and narrower thorax. 



British Species of Homalota. 247 

The antennae are of moderate length and stoutness, 
slightly but distinctly thickened towards the apex, 
pitchy-black, with the basal joints scarcely lighter; first 
joint stout, two and three of about equal length, four 
smaller than the others, scarcely broader than three, 
about as long as broad, the length of the following joints 
differs but little from their breadth, the two or three 
penultimate joints a little transvei'sej eleventh joint 
rather long, longer than the two preceding together. 
The head is rather broad, a little narrower than the 
thorax, sparingly and moderately finely punctured, 
rounded behind the eyes, sometimes with a small impres- 
sion on the disc. The thorax is distinctly narrower than 
the elytra, about a third broader than long', the sides 
gently rounded in front, little narrowed behind, so that 
it is about as broad at the anterior as at the posterior 
angles, moderately closely and finely punctured, the 
sides with a few outstanding setae, sometimes with a 
short channel in front of the scutellum, sometimes quite 
un channelled. The elytra are brownish, one-third longer 
than the thorax, pretty closely and finely and somewhat 
rugulosely punctured, their pubescence (as well as that of 
the head and thorax) rather long. The abdomen is 
black, pretty distinctly narrowed towards the apex, 
which is sometimes pitchy, segments two to four are dis- 
tinctly and not very closely punctured, fifth segment more 
sparingly punctured, sixth nearly impunctate ; the sides 
and apex furnished distinctly with outstanding hairs. 
The legs are yellow, the middle and posterior tibiae are 
furnished each with two fine projecting setae, of which 
the one nearer the knee is distinctly the shorter. 

In the male, the hind margin of the upper plate of 
the seventh segment is distinctly emarginate in the 
middle, the lateral margin projects on each side as a 
short broad tooth, and on the inner side of this, and only 
separated from it by an obscure notch, is another similar 
tooth. 

Scarce. Rannoch, Inverness, Brighton, Croydon. It 
occurs in dung, and is, perhaps, commoner than is sup- 
posed. 

138. Homalota cinnamoptera. 

Nigra, antice subopaca, elytris obscure brunneis, pedi- 
bus testaceis ; thorace transverso, basi leviter canalicu- 



248 Br. Sharp's Revision of the 

lato ; abdomine apicem versus evidenter angustato, supra 
segraentis 2-4 crebre subtiliter punctatis, 5° parcius, 
6° parce punctate. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice vix emar- 
ginatOj fere truncato, angulis externis acutis. 

H. cinnamoptera, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1856, p. 105 ; 
Atheta cinnamoptera, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 93. H, suhrugosa, 
Wat. Cat. 

A species with rather long antennae, somewhat spar- 
ingly furnished with exserted hairs, its head and thorax 
with a dull almost brassy appearance, the elytra of a dull 
brownish colour. The antennee are longer than the head 
and thorax, scarcely thickened toward the apex, of a 
blackish colour, obscurely pitchy at the base ; joints two 
and three rather long, three a little the longer, four to 
nine as long as or rather longer than broad, ten scarcely 
shorter than broad; eleventh joint rather long, about as 
long as the two preceding together. Head narrower 
than the thorax, rather broad in proportion to its length, 
rounded behind the eyes, rather convex above, dull, 
finely and pretty closely but distinctly, even rather 
roughly, punctured. The thorax is a little narrower than 
the elytra, its breadth about half as great again as its 
length, the sides a little narrower at the anterior than at 
the posterior angles, the sides gently rounded in front, 
then nearly straight behind, distinctly, moderately closely, 
rather roughly punctured, the sides with two or three 
exserted hairs, with a fine longitudinal channel in the 
middle in front of the scutellum, sometimes extending 
the whole length of the thorax, sometimes only half-way. 
The elytra are of an obscure brownish colour, about one- 
third longer than the thorax, rather finely but distinctly, 
closely and somewhat rugulosely punctured. The abdo- 
men is black and shining, distinctly narrowed towards 
the apex, segments two to four finely and rather closely 
punctured, fifth segment rather more sparingly punc- 
tured, sixth very finely and sparingly punctured, the 
sides and apex furnished with distinct rather long out- 
standing set«. The legs are yellow ; the middle and 
posterior tibiae furnished each with two fine exserted 
setge, one short, just below the knee, the other longer, a 
little more than half-way down. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment has the external angles more 
acute than in the female. 



British Species of Homalota. 249 

Tolerably common in vegetable refuse^ and in carcases, 
in Scotland. I have also found it, very rarely, in the 
neighbourhood of London. 

Ohs. — Thomson has suggested that H. putrida, Kr., is 
a synomym of this species ; I do not know H. putrida, 
but in any case, Thomson's name has the priority. • 

139. Homalota villosula. 

Nigerrima, sat fortiter punctata ; antennis apicem versus 
leviter incrassatis ; thorace transverso ; abdomine apicem 
versus minus fortiter angustato, supra segmentis 2-4 sat 
crebre, 5° et 6° parce punctatis ; pedibus piceis, tarsis 
geniculisque dilutioribus. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali medio producto, 
apice truncato, utrinque spina tenui armato; ventrali 
apice leviter rotundato. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali medio late sub- 
emarginato, utrinque denticulo brevi instructor ventrali 
margine posteriore ciliato, medio minus evidenter ex- 
cise. 

H. villostda, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 305; Wat. Cat. 

Of a deep black colour, with the exception of the ab- 
domen but little shining. The antennse are black, mo- 
derately stout, distinctly thickened towards the apex ; 
joints two and three not slender, of about equal length, 
four to ten each a little broader than its predecessor, the 
first of them as long as broad, the latter ones only 
slightly transverse, the tenth being a little longer than 
the ninth; eleventh joint rather stout, gently pointed, 
about as long as the two preceding together. The head 
is rather small, distinctly smaller than the thorax, spar- 
ingly but rather roughly punctured. The thorax is a 
little narrower than the elytra, its breadth about half as 
great again as its length, a little narrower at the anterior 
than at the posterior angles, pretty distinctly and not 
closely punctured, with an indistinct impression in front 
of the scutellum, and at the sides with a few outstanding 
setee. The elytra are about a third longer than the 
thorax, closely and strongly punctured, the pubescence 
rather long. The abdomen is black and shining, but 
little narrowed except at the apical segments, segments 
two to four distinctly, moderately, sparingly punctured. 



250 Dr. Sharp^s Fevision of the 

fifth and sixth finely and sparingly punctured, the sides 
and apex with distinct outstanding hairs. The legs are 
pitchy, the knees and tarsi reddish; the four posterior 
tibias are furnished each with two distinct long setse, the 
lower ones being especially long ; the posterior tarsi are 
stout. and pointed, and the hairs with which they are 
furnished are conspicuous. 

In the male, the dorsal plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment is truncate in the middle, and the lateral mar- 
gin is produced behind as a long fine spine, reaching 
only a little beyond the broad truncate middle part, 
from which it is separated by a distinct space ; the pos- 
terior margin of the ventral plate is gently rounded. 

In the female, the hind margin of the upper plate is 
broadly and obsoletely emarginate in the middle, the lateral 
margin projects a little on each side as a short sharp tooth ; 
the hind margin of the ventral plate is furnished with 
black cilia, and is somewhat excised in the middle. 

In dung, generally distributed, but not very abundant. 
Apparently commoner in Scotland than in England. 

Ohs. — Whether H. nigripes, Th., is synonymous with 
this species is not certain, though it is probable from 
his description. 

140. Homalota atramentaria. 

Antice nigro-subgenea, subnitida, abdomine nitidulo 
nigerrimo, pedibus piceis ; thorace transverse ; abdomine 
apicem versus vix angustato, segmentis 2-4 sat parce 
punctatis, 5° parcius punctate, 6° fere lasvigato. Long. 
U-li lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice medio levi- 
ter emarginato, utrinque margine laterali acuto. 

Fern. J abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice medio 
emarginato. 

Var. — Elytris disco plus minusve rufescentibus. 

Aleochara atramentaria, Gyll. Ins. Suec. ii. 408 ; H. 
atramentaria, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. Ill; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 303 ; Wat. Cat. ; Atheta atramentaria, Th. 
Sk. Col. iii. 92. 

This species is remarkable by the peculiar dull brassy 
lustre of the head, thorax, and elytra. The antennae are 
blackish, with the basal joint pitchy, a little thickened 



British Species of Homalota. 251 

towards the apex, and furnished throughout pretty dis- 
tinctly with exserted hairs; joints two and three of about 
equal length, four to ten each slightly broader than its 
predecessor, four to six each as long as, or a little longer 
than broad, seven to ten slightly broader than long; 
eleventh joint about as long as the two preceding toge- 
ther. The head is narrower than the thorax, not large, 
sparingly and indistinctly punctured. The thorax is a 
little narrower than the elytra, about a third broader 
than long, the sides nearly straight, about as broad at the 
anterior as at the posterior angles, moderately closely and 
finely punctured, at the sides with two or three outstand- 
ing hairs, in front of the scutellum with an indistinct 
transverse impression. The elytra are about a third long- 
er than the thorax, their colour either entirely dull brassy, 
or more or less distinctly reddish, moderately closely and 
indistinctly, somewhat rugulosely punctured. The abdo- 
men is black and shining, scarcely narrowed towards the 
apex ; segments 2-4 finely and sparingly punctured, fifth 
segment still more sparingly punctured, sixth nearly im- 
punctate, the outstanding hairs of the sides and apex not 
very marked. The legs are pitchy, the femora generally 
a little darker than the tibia3; the middle and posterior 
tibiae each with two fine short exserted setsB. 

In the male, the middle of the hind margin of the 
seventh segment of the abdomen is a little emarginate in 
the middle, on each side of the emargination it is some- 
what rounded, and the lateral margin projects somewhat 
as a short tooth, not easy to see. 

In the female, the hind margin of the corresponding 
plate is a little emarginate in the middle. 

Extremely abundant, in dung, in the most varied 
localities and situations, from the coasts to the tops of 
the mountains. 

141. Homalota setigera. 

Nigra, nitidula, elytris nigro-piceis, pedibus piceis, 
crebre sat fortiter punctata ; antennis apicem versus 
leviter incrassatis, articulis 7-10 transversis; thorace 
leviter transverse, antice hand compresso; abdomine 
apicem versus subangustato, supra segmentis 2-4 sat 
parce punctatis, 5° parcius punctate, 6° fere laevigato. 
Long. 1 lin. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART III. (jTTNB) . T 



252 Dr. Sharp's Bevision of the 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali margine pos- 
teriore rotundato. 

Fern. ; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice medio ex- 
ciso. 

Smaller than If . atramentaria, the anterior parts blacker 
and more shining, the antennae shorter and more thick- 
ened towards the apex. The antennae are black, the 
basal joint pitchy; they are distinctly thickened towards 
the apex, and furnished throughout with exserted hairs 
much as in H. atramentaria; joints two and three mo- 
derately long, three scarcely so long as two, four to ten 
each a little broader than its predecessor, of four and 
five the length differs little from the breadth, the fol- 
lowing joints gradually more transverse, the penulti- 
mate ones distinctly transverse ; the eleventh joint 
is rather long, quite as long as the two preceding 
together. The head is of moderate size, a little narrower 
than the thorax, its punctuation moderately close, and 
rather rough. The thorax is distinctly narrower than 
the elytra, about one-third broader than long, the sides 
gently rounded in front, then slightly narrowed behind, 
not narrower at the anterior than at the posterior angles, 
rather closely and strongly punctured, the sides with a 
few exserted setse. The elytra are about a third longer 
than the thorax, pitchy-black or pitchy, pretty closely 
and strongly punctured. The abdomen is black and 
shining*, moderately narrowed towards the apex, seg- 
ments two to four distinctly but not closely punctured, 
fifth segment more sparingly punctured, sixth nearly 
impunctate, the sides and apex furnished distinctly with 
outstanding setae. The legs are pitchy, the four posterior 
tibiae with two fine, rather short, exserted setae. 

In the male, the upper plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment is without any peculiar structure, and the hind 
margin of the under plate is gently rounded ; while in 
the female this plate is distinctly excised in the middle^ 
and the hind margin ciliate. 

Generally distributed, in dung, but not very common. 

Obs. — This species is confounded in collections both 
with H. atramentaria and S. parva. I have mentioned 
above, characters which will distinguish it from the 
former. From H. parva, its more thickened antennae, 
broader head, less transverse thorax (which is also less 
narrowed in front) , rather more sparing punctuation, and 
the shorter lower setae of its tibiae, distinguish it. 



British Species of Homalota, 253 

142. Homalota parva. 

Nigra, nitidula, crebre punctata, et distincte pubes- 
cens ; thorace transverse, basi obsolete canaliculato ; pedi- 
bus piceis; abdomine apicem versus sat fortiter attenuate, 
segmentis 2-4 crebre, 5° et 6° parcius punctatis. Long. 
1 lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali margine pos- 
teriore rotundato. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice medio 
exciso. 

Aleochara parva, Sahl. Ins. Fenn. i. 380 ; H. parva, 
Wat. Cat. H. cauta, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 122; Kr. 
Ins. Deutsch. ii. 318; Atheta cauta, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 91. 

A small, black, and shining species, with rather rough 
punctuation and pubescence. The antennae are mo- 
derately long, not stout, but slightly thickened towards 
the apex ; joints two and three moderately long, slender, 
three scarcely so long as two, four about as long as broad, 
the following ones slightly transverse, the tenth scarcely 
more so than the sixth; eleventh joint gently pointed, 
quite as long as the two preceding together. The head 
is rather small, a little narrower than the thorax, much 
narrower than the elytra, pretty closely and distinctly 
punctured. The thorax is a little narrower than the 
elytra, its breadth not half as great again as its length, the 
sides are gently rounded, and it is a little narrower at 
the anterior than at the posterior angles ; it is moderately 
closely and finely, rather roughly punctured, the sides 
with distinct outstanding hairs ; in front of the scutellum 
with a short indistinct channel. The elytra are black or 
pitchy, a little longer than the thorax, closely and mo- 
derately finely punctured. The abdomen is black, dis- 
tinctly narrowed towards the apex, segments two to four 
distinctly and pretty closely, fifth segment more sparingly, 
sixth very sparingly, punctured ; the outstanding setse of 
the sides and apex are distinct. The legs are pitchy, the 
four posterior tibiae each with two fine exserted setae, of 
which the lower one is considerably the longer. 

In the male, the upper and under plates of the seventh 
abdominal segment are without any particular structure, 
while in the female the hind margin of the under plate is 
ciliate, and excised in the middle. 

Very common, in dung, as well as in other situations, 
all over the country. 

t2 



254 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Group XXI. — Thorax strongly narrowed to the front; 

abdomen strongly pointed and thickly punctured. 

(Species 143—148) . 

If H. melanaria be excepted, the species herein con- 
tained form a natural group ; melanaria^ occurs in vege- 
table refuse ; testudinea, aterrima, and pilosiventris in 
dung; pygmcea and muscorum, often among moss and 
leaves. 



143. Homalota melanaria. 

Nigra, opaca, dense subtiliter et sequaliter punctata; 
antennis sat validis, piceis, pedibus elytrisque testaceis, 
his circa scutellum infuscatis ; thorace transversim con- 
vexiusculo, eequali; abdomine apicem versus angustato, 
dense sequaliter punctato. Long. 1| lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice obsoletis- 
sime emarginato, ventrali angusto, producto. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice obsolete, 
ventrali evidenter, emarginato. 

Aleochara melanaria, Sahl. Ins. Fenn. i. 389; Gopro- 
thassa melanaria, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 34. H. lividipennis, 
Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 129; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 311. 
H. sordida, Wat. Cat. 

A fine large species, with bright yellow elytra, having a 
triangular black patch about the scutellum. The antennae 
are rather long and stout, slightly thickened towards the 
apex, of a pitchy colour; joint three longer than two, 
four a little broader than three, shorter and narrower 
than the succeeding ones, slightly transverse, joints five 
to ten each a little longer and broader than its prede- 
cessor, each about as long as broad; the eleventh joint 
is elongate, pointed, longer than the two preceding to- 
gether. The head is broad and short, much narrower 
than the thorax, convex above, closely and finely punc- 
tured. The thorax is, at the base, as broad as the elytra, 
transversely arched, its breadth fully half as great 
again as its length, the sides rounded, a little narrower at 
the anterior than at the posterior angles, closely and 
finely, very regularly, punctured, with a short dense 
regular pubescence. The elytra are about a fourth 
longer than the thorax, of a clear yellow colour, with a 
triangular black patch about the scutellum, the point of 



British Species of Homalota. 255 

which extends almost to the apex of the elytra, closely 
and finely punctured. The abdomen is narrowed towards 
the apex, black, with the extremity paler, and on the 
under side the margins of the segments brownish, closely 
finely and evenly punctured, the sixth segment a little 
more sparingly than the basal ones, densely pubescent, 
the sides and apex as well as the posterior margins of 
the segments furnished with longer outstanding black 
hairs. The legs are yellow, the middle tibiae with a dis- 
tinct stout exserted black seta in the middle, the pos- 
terior tibiae without any seta. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh segment of the abdomen is indistinctly emargi- 
nate, the under plate of the same segment is a little 
produced in the middle. 

In the female, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of 
the seventh segment is a little emarginate, the under 
plate is pretty deeply excised in the middle, the hind 
margin furnished with pale, closely set, fine, parallel 
cilia. 

Very abundant in vegetable refuse all over England 
and Scotland. 

Ohs. — Thomson has reversed the sexes of this species. 



144. Homalota testudinea. 

Nigra, pedibus elytrisque' testaceis, his circa scutellum 
infuscatis, crebre fortiter ruguloso-punctatis ; thorace 
transverse, convexiusculo, asquali ; abdomine apicem ver- 
sus fortiter angustato, supra crebre distinctius (segmento 
6° parcius) punctate. Long. l^-H liii- 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice medio ro- 
tundato. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice medio 
leviter emarginato. 

H. testudinea, Er. Gen, et Spec. Staph. 131 ; Coprothas- 
sa testudinea, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 35. H. melanaria, Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 312; Wat. Cat. 

A very distinct species, allied on the one hand to H. 
mielanaria, on the other to H. aterrima ; distinguished from 
the former by its smaller size, darker colour, stronger 



256 Di'. Sharp's Revision of the 

punctuation, and less developed antennae ; from H. aterri- 
TTia by its larger size, stouter antennae, coarser punctua- 
tion, and differently coloured elytra. The antennae are 
of moderate length and stoutness, but little thickened 
towards the apex, black, with the basal joint pitchy, dis- 
tinctly pilose ; joints one and two stout, three longer and 
more slender than two, four to six each about as long as 
broad, seven to ten each a little shorter than broad; 
eleventh joint as long as the two preceding together. 
The head is broad and short, moderately closely and dis- 
tinctly punctured. The thorax is ample, as broad as, or 
broader than the elytra, nearly half as broad again as long, 
transversely convex, the sides rounded, distinctly nar- 
rower at the anterior than at the posterior angles, with- 
out exserted setae at the sides, shining, closely and 
distinctly punctured. The elytra are but little longer 
than the thorax, of a livid yellow colour, with a large 
triangular common black patch, and with the sides also 
darker, rather strongly and closely, somewhat rugulosely 
punctured. The abdomen is strongly narrowed towards 
the apex, closely and distinctly punctured, the sixth seg- 
ment more sparingly than the basal ones, the pubescence 
is depressed and pretty dense, the outstanding black 
setae of the sides, apex, and margins of the segments 
long and numerous. The legs are pitchy- testaceous, the 
middle and posterior tibias each with a distinct exserted 
seta. 

In the male, the ventral plate of the seventh abdominal 
segment is narrow at the apex and rounded. 

In the female, it is broader, furnished with distinct 
short, black, parallel cilia, and rather broadly and not 
deeply emarginate in the middle. 

In dung, not very abundant. I have never found it in 
Scotland. 

145. Homalota aterrima. 

Nigra, subopaca, confertim subtHissime punctata, pedi- 
bus piceo-testaceis ; antennis sat elongatis, articulis hand 
transversis ; thorace transverse, aequali, vel subtiliter ca- 
naliculate; abdomine apicem versus angustato, supra 
dense subtilissime punctate. Long. Ij lin. 

Aleochara aterrima, Grav. Micr. 83 ; H. aterrima, Er. 
Gen. et Spec. Staph. 133; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 313; Wat. 
Cat. ; Acrotona aterrima, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 36. 



British Species of Homalota. 257 

A dark- coloured, somewhat broad species, with strongly- 
pointed abdomen, rather long and slender antennae, and 
dense and fine punctuation. The antennae are a little 
longer than the head and thorax, black, scarcely thick- 
ened towards the apex; joints two and three rather elon- 
gate, of about equal length, three rather the finer, four 
distinctly longer than broad, five to ten difiering but 
little from one another in length and breadth, the first 
of them longer than broad, the last of them about as long 
as broad ; eleventh joint pointed, rather long, as long as 
the two preceding together. The head is rounded, con- 
siderably narrower than the thorax, closely and finely 
punctured. The thorax is, at the base, nearly as broad as 
the elytra; its breadth nearly twice its length, the sides 
rounded, narrower at the anterior than at the posterior 
angles, closely and finely punctured, delicately and dis- 
tinctly pubescent, sometimes with a fine central longitu- 
dinal channel, sometimes unchannelled. The elytra are 
black, or brownish-black, about a fourth longer than the 
thorax, bi'oad, closely and finely punctured. The abdo- 
men is strongly narrowed to the apex, densely, finely, 
and evenly punctured, sixth segment more sparingly than 
the basal ones ; furnished at the sides and apex with out- 
standing black setae. The legs are pitchy-yellow, the 
femora darker than the tibiae, the middle and posterior 
tibiae furnished near the middle with a distinct outstanding 
seta, the basal joint of the posterior tarsi but little longer 
than the second. 

Very abundant, all over the country, in various situa- 
tions. 

146 . Homalota pygmma. 

Nigro-fusca, subopaca, elytris fuscis, antennarum basi 
pedibusque testaceis, confertim subtilissime punctata; 
thorace leviter transverse, convexiusculo, sequali; abdo- 
mine apicem versus angustato, supra dense subtilissime 
punctate; tarsis posticis articulo basali elongate. Long. 
1 lin. 

Aleochara pygmcea, Grav. Micr. 86; H. pygmwa, Kr. 
Ins. Deutsch. ii. 314; Wat. Cat. Acrotona ohfuscata, 
Th. Sk. Col. iii. 36. H. aterrima, var., Er. Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 133. 

Var. — Antennarum thoracis elytrorumque colore plus 
minusve dilutiore. 



258 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

This species more resembles an Oxypoda than does 
any other of this genus; its punctuation, and the struc- 
ture of the posterior tarsi, closely imitate the same parts 
in Oxypoda, nevertheless pygmoea is a true Homalota. 
The antennge are moderately long, pitchy-black, two or 
three basal joints obscurely yellow, a little thickened to- 
wards the apex; joints two and three rather long and 
slender, of about equal length, four to seven each 
longer than broad, eight to ten about as long as broad ; 
eleventh joint rather long, gently pointed, about as long 
as the two preceding together. The head is smaller than 
the thorax, rounded, a little narrowed to the front, 
blackish, not shining, the palpi obscurely yellowish, 
closely and very finely punctured, pubescence distinct 
but very fine. The thorax is, at the base, as broad as 
the elytra, its breadth about one-third greater than its 
length, the sides gently rounded and distinctly narrowed 
towards the front, transversely convex, very finely and 
closely punctured, and delicately pubescent. The elytra 
are brownish or obscurely blackish, about a fourth longer 
than the thorax, densely and finely punctured. The 
abdomen is strongly pointed at the apex, finely and 
densely punctured, the apical segments a little more 
sparingly than the basal ones, the margins of the seg- 
ments generally, the apex always, more or less distinctly 
paler, the sides and apex furnished with outstanding 
black setse. The legs are yellow, the basal joint of the 
posterior tarsi as long as, or longer than, the two succeed- 
ing ones, the exserted seta of the posterior tibise is 
absent, or rather so small as to escape observation. 

Pretty generally distributed in England and Scotland, 
but not abundant. The light-coloured form seems to be 
the common one in the South, while the dark form is the 
only one I have found in Scotland. 

Ohs. — Thomson considers this species to be the Aleo- 
chara ohfuscata of Gravenhorst, but I agree with Kraatz 
that it is rather Gravenhorst^s A. pygmcea ; though it is 
difficult to speak with any certainty, I should consider 
Gravenhorst's A. ohfuscata rather applicable to S. pilo- 
siventris, Th. In any case, the name pygmcea should be 
adopted, for if the Gravenhorstian names be left out of 
the question altogether, H. pygmcea, Kr., has priority 
over H. ohfuscata, Th. 



British Sjyecies of Homalota. 259 

147. Homalota inuscorum. 

Nigra, parum nitida, elytris nigro-fuscis, pedibus tes- 
taceis, feraoribus obscurioribus, crebre subtiliter punctata ; 
antennis articulis 7-10 leviter transversis; thorace leviter 
transverse, convexiusculo, gequali; abdomine apicem 
versus angustato, supra crebre apice vix parcius punc- 
tate. Long. 1 lin. 

H. muscorum, Bris. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. I860, p. 344. 
H. pieties, Wat. Cat. 

Antenna of moderate length and stoutness, a little 
thickened towards the apex; joints two and three rather 
long, two a little longer than three, four moderately 
stout, four to six about as long as broad, seven to 
ten each a little shorter than broad; eleventh joint 
rather long and stout, about as long as the two 
preceding together. The head is narrower than the 
thorax, rounded, convex above, finely and moderately 
closely punctured. The thorax is, at the base, a little 
narrower than the elytra, its breadth about one-third 
greater than its length, considerably narrower at the 
anterior than at the posterior angles, transversely arched, 
without channel or impression, closely and very finely 
punctured, and delicately pubescent. The elytra are a 
little longer than the thorax, of an obscure fuscous or 
blackish colour, closely and finely punctured. The ab- 
domen is distinctly narrowed towards the apex, finely 
closely and evenly punctured, the sixth segment a little 
more sparingly than the preceding ones ; the pubescence 
is long, depressed, and distinct, the outstanding setae of 
the sides and apex of moderate length. The legs are 
yellowish, the femora pitchy, the outstanding setse of the 
posterior tibiae small and indistinct. 

Very abundant all over the country. 

Obs. — This species is readily distinguished from H. 
pygmcea, by its less elongate form, shorter concolorous 
antennae, and shorter basal joint to the posterior tarsi. 
H. pilosiventris is smaller, has a shorter thorax, with a fine 
channel at the base, shorter antennee, and smaller head. 
I have compared my specimens with M. Brisout's type 
of H. muscorum, and find they agree in all respects. 
Kraatz has stated that H. muscorum is identical with 
H. stercoraria, Kr., but I cannot agree that M. Brisout^s 
specimens accord with Kraatz's description of H. stereo- 



260 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

raria. H. muscoruyn can, I think^ scarcely be wanting 
in Germany, and it is possible that it has not been 
separated by Kj-aatz from H. stercoraria, which would 
account for the above confusion. It is the H. picipes of 
Mr. Waterhouse's catalogue, but as another name exists, 
I have not adopted Stephens's, his description being quite 
valueless. 

148. Homaloia pilosiventris. 

Nigra, parum nitida, pedibus piceis, crebre punctata; 
antennis articulis 4-10 leviter transversis; thorace trans- 
verso, convexiusculo, basi leviter canaliculate ; abdomine 
apicem versus fortiter angustato, crebre apice vix parcius 
punctate. Long. 1 lin. 

H. pilosiventris, Th. Ofv. Vet. Ac. Forh. 1856, p. 106; 
Acrotona pilosiventris, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 38. H. stercoraria^ 
Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 319. 

Antennte pitchy-black, rather short, moderately stout, 
slightly thickened towards the apex ; joint three short, not 
quite so long as two, distinctly narrowed towards the base, 
four to ten a little transverse, four a little broader than 
three, and five than four, after this but little difference 
in the length and breadth till the eleventh, which is 
rather large, about as long as the two preceding. The 
head is rather small, distinctly narrower than the thorax, 
much narrower than the elytra, moderately closely and 
finely punctured. The thorax is a little narrower than 
the elytra, more than half as broad again as long, distinctly 
arched transversely, and narrower at the anterior than 
at the posterior angles, closely and rather finely punc- 
tured, always with a longitudinal channel in front of the 
scutellum, sometimes short, and sometimes extending 
the whole length of the thorax. The elytra are about 
a third or fourth longer than the thorax, of a pitchy or 
pitchy-black colour, moderately closely and distinctly 
punctured. The abdomen is black, strongly narrowed 
behind, pretty closely, evenly and densely punctured, 
the apical segments a little more sparingly than the 
basal ones; its pubescence is long, depressed and dis- 
tinct, and the sides and apex are furnished pretty numer- 
ously with black, rather rigid, long, outstanding hairs. 
The legs are pitchy-yellow, the middle and posterior 
tibiae furnished, on the outside, just below the knee, 
with a rather stout distinct outstanding seta. 



British Siiecies of Homalota. 261 

Not common. I have found it in dung at Thornhill^ 
in the New Forest^ and near London. 

Obs. — There is, in the British Museum, an insect sent 
by Kraatz, as H. stercoraria ; it is in very bad condition, 
but does not, I think, belong to this species. Never- 
theless, I am pretty sure that the species above described 
is Kraatz^s stercoraria, as his description is very good, 
and applies thoroughly, with the exception of the pre- 
liminary remarks, about which there appears to be some 
confusion . 

Group XXII. Abdomen distinctly narrowed totvards 
the apex, thorax distinctly narrowed in front, apical seg- 
ments of the abdomen sparingly, or not at all punctured. 

(Species 149—157) . 

This group also contains species differing in many 
respects from one another, but associated in order to 
facilitate reference. The species apparently all occur 
among moss and leaves. H. cribrata appears to me a 
species of which the affinities are but little marked ; 
while H. notha is one of the most remarkable species of 
the genus. 

149. Homalota fusca. 

Fusca, sat nitida, antennarum basi pedibusque testa- 
ceis, elytris anoque ferrugineis ; thorace transverso, 
canaliculato ; abdomine supra segmentis 2-4 crebre, 
b° et 6° parcius punctatis. Long. 1^ lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice evidenter 
4-dentato. 

Aleochara fusca, Sahl. Ins. Fenn. i. 371. S. vernacula, 
Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 131 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 315; 
Atheta vernacula, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 84. H. laticollis, Wat. 
Cat. 

Antennae yellow, more or less infuscate after the 
third joint, moderately long, a little thickened towards 
the apex, and furnished with fine exserted hairs ; joints 
two and three moderately long, three a little longer and 
more slender than two, four smaller than the others, 
about as long as broad, five to seven each a little longer 
than broad, eight to ten scarcely so long as broad j 



262 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

eleventh joint rather stout^ gently pointed, scarcely so 
long as the two preceding together. The head is con- 
siderably narrower than the thorax, rather broad and 
shorty black, closely and distinctly punctured, palpi 
3^ellowish. The thorax is broad, at the base as broad as 
the elytra, about twice as broad as long, the sides gently 
rounded, a little narrower at the anterior than at the 
posterior angles, of an obscure fuscous colour, a little 
paler at the sides, closely and distinctly punctured, with 
a central longitudinal channel, pubescence fine and short, 
exserted setae at the sides almost none. The elytra are 
about a third longer than the thorax, of a yellowish 
colour, closely and pretty distinctly punctured. The 
abdomen is distinctly narrowed towards the apex, and is 
of a blackish colour with the extremity paler, segments 
two to four closely and rather finely, five and six more 
sparingly and finely, punctured; the outstanding setsa 
at the sides not numerous. The legs are yellow, the 
tibiae without exserted setse. 

In the male, the hind margin of the dorsal plate of the 
seventh abdominal segment is furnished with four dis- 
tinct teeth ; they are about equidistant from one another, 
the external ones rather finer and longer than the inner 
ones, but the notch between the two inner ones is a 
little the deeper. 

In the female, the hind margin of the seventh seg- 
ment is simple, both above and below. 

Common, both in England and Scotland. 

Obs. — It is stated, both by Kraatz and Thomson, that 
the seventh ventral abdominal plate is emarginate in the 
female of this species. This, however, I do not find to 
be the case. 

150. Homalota suhsinuata. 

Nigra, parum nitida, elyti-is nigro-fuscis, pedibus 
fuscis, ano obscure piceo ; capite minore, thorace duplo 
angustiore; thorace transverse, subtiliter canaliculate, 
transversim convexiusculo ; abdomine apicem versus 
leviter angustato, supra segmentis 2-4 crebre distinctius, 
6° et 6° parcius, punctatis. Long. 1-lj lin. 

Mas; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice rotundato. 

Fern.; abdomine segmento 7° ventrali apice medio 
leviter emarginato. 



British Species of Homalota. 263 

H. suhsinuata, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 125; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 316. H. castanipes, Wat. Cat. Acrotona 
fimetaria, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 37. 

This species is distinguished amongst its allies by its 
small head, the abdomen but little narrowed towards the 
apex, and strongly and moderately closely punctured. 
The antennae are blackish, with the first joint pitchy; 
moderately short, not stout, a little thickened towards 
the apex ; joints two and three moderately long, of about 
equal length, four to ten each slightly broader than its 
predecessor, of the first of them the length differs but 
little from the breadth, and the last ones are but little 
shorter than broad; the eleventh joint is rather stout, 
about as long as the two preceding together. The head 
is small and rounded, about half as broad as the thorax, 
finely and moderately closely punctured. The thorax is, 
at the base, about as broad as the elytra, about half as 
broad again as long, distinctly narrower at the anterior 
than at the posterior angles, pretty closely and finely 
punctured, with a moderately distinct central longitudinal 
channel, the exserted setas of the sides indistinct. The 
elytra are about a fourth longer than the thorax, pitchy- 
black or blackish, closely, moderately finely, and dis- 
tinctly punctured. The abdomen is black and shining, 
narrowed from behind the middle to the apex, which is 
pitchy ; segments two to four are rather closely and dis- 
tinctly punctured, five and six more finely and sparingly 
punctured, the pubescence is distinct and rather rough, 
the outstanding setae of the sides and apex rather 
numerous, but not long. The legs are pitchy-yellow; 
the middle tibiae each with a short seta in the middle, 
posterior ones with the setae undeveloped. 

In the male, the ventral plate of the seventh abdo- 
minal segment is a little produced in the middle, while 
in the female it is furnished with distinct black cilia, 
and rather broadly and not deeply emarginate. 

In England and Scotland, but not very common ; 
generally found among moss and dead leaves, in the 
spring. 

151. Homalota pulchra. 

Nigra, nitidula, antennis thoracis lateribus anoque 
fuscis, pedibus elytrisque testaceis, his circa scutellum 



264 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

angulisque apicis infuscatis ; thorace transverse ; abdo- 
mine supra segmentis 2-4 minus crebre^ 5° et 6° parcius 
punctatis. Long. Ij lin. 

H. pulchra, Kr. Ins. Deutscb. ii. 321; Wat. Cat. 

Antennae rather slender, of a dirty yellowish colour, a 
little thickened towards the apex; first joint stout, two 
and three of nearly equal length, four to ten differing 
but little from one another in length, the first of them 
longer than broad, the last scarcely so long as broad; 
eleventh joint about as long as the two preceding to- 
gether. The head is rather broad, considerably narrower 
than the thorax, black and shining, indistinctly punc- 
tured. The thorax is, at the base, about as broad as the 
elytra, of a pitchy colour, a little paler at the sides, more 
than half as broad again as long, a little narrower at the 
anterior than at the posterior angles, sparingly punc- 
tured, with a very indistinct impression at the base in 
front of the scutellum, with a few short exserted setae at 
the sides. The elytra are about a third longer than the 
thorax, of a shining yellowish colour, with indistinct in- 
fuscation about the scutellum and towards the external 
angles, rather coarsely but shallowly punctured. The 
abdomen is black and shining, moderately narrowed to- 
wards the apex, which is pitchy or yellowish ; segments 
two to four are rather sparingly but distinctly punctured, 
five and six finely and very sparingly punctured, the 
outstanding setae of the sides rather long and distinct. 
Legs yellow ; tibiae without setae. 

The male is only to be distinguished by the ventral 
plate of the seventh segment of the abdomen being nar- 
rowed, and rather more produced than in the female. 

Rare. I have found it at Horning in Norfolk, in the 
neighbourhood of London, and on the Braid Hills at 
Edinburgh, in the early spring. 



152. Homalota orhata. 

Nigra, nitida, antennis nigro-fuscis, elytris brunneis, 
pedibus testaceis ; thorace convexiusculo, transverse, 
parce subtiliter punctate, et tenuissime pubescente; 
abdomine segmentis 2-4 sat crebre, 5° et 6° parcius 
punctatis. Long. 1^ lin. 



British Species of Homalota. 265 

B. orhata, Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 339; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 132; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 322; Wat. Cat.; 
Acrotona orhata, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 39. 

Closely allied to H. fungi, but with darker antennge, 
rather longer thorax, which is also more delicately punc- 
tured and pubescent, and with brownish elytra. The 
antennae are blackish or pitchy, pretty distinctly pilose, 
slightly thickened towards the apex ; joints two and 
three of about equal length, four rather longer than 
broad, five to seven about as long as broad, eight to ten 
scarcely transverse; eleventh joint moderately stout, 
about as long as the two preceding together. The head 
is rather small, much narrower than the thorax, black 
and shining, very finely and indistinctly punctured. The 
thorax is black, the sides sometimes pitchy, as broad as 
the elytra, about one-half or one-third broader than long, 
the sides rounded, narrower at the anterior than at the 
posterior angles, transversely convex, very finely and 
not closely punctured. The abdomen is black and 
shining, narrowed towards the apex, which is sometimes 
paler; segments two to four distinctly and pretty closely 
punctured, five a little more sparingly, six sparingly 
punctured ; the outstanding setge of the sides and apex 
are numerous and distinct. The legs are yellow, the 
tibiae without exserted setae. 

The male is only to be distinguished by the ventral 
plate of the seventh abdominal segment being narrower 
and longer than in the female. 

Rare ; and in this country found only in sandy places 
on the coast. Deal, Weymouth, Aberlady, Arbroath. 

153. Homalota fungi. 

Nigra, sat nitida, antennis pedibusque testaceis ; illis 
sat tenuibus, subtiliter pilosellis, articulis hand trans- 
versis ; capite thorace multo minore ; hoc transverse, con- 
vexiusculo, asquali, vel obsolete canaliculate, elytrorum 
fere longitudinis ; abdomine segmentis 2-4 crebre, 5° et 
6° parcius punctatis. Long. \\ lin. 

Var. — H. duhia. Antennis apicem versus subincras- 
satis, articulo penultimo fere transverse ; thorace breviore. 

Aleo char a fungi, Gvsbv. M-on. 157; H. fungi, Er. Gen. 
et Spec. Staph. 131; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 321; Wat. 
Cat. ; Acrotona fungi, Th. Sk. Col. iii. 38. 



266 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

An obscurely coloured species, distinctly narrowed both 
before and behind, and with the thorax largely developed 
in proportion to the elytra. The antennae are yellowish, 
scarcely at all thickened towards the apex, finely but dis- 
tinctly pilose ; joints two and three moderately long, of 
about equal length, four not so long as five, longer than 
broad, five to ten differing but little from one another in 
length or breadth; in the type, the length of each joint 
is greater than its breadth, while in the var. dubia, the 
penultimate joint is scarcely so long as broad; the eleventh 
joint is rather long, gently pointed, as long as the two 
preceding together. The head is small, much narrower 
than the thorax, rounded, finely and indistinctly punc- 
tured ; the palpi are dirty yellow. The thorax is as broad 
as (almost broader than) the elytra, half as broad again as 
long, transversely convex, the sides rounded, narrower 
at the anterior than at the posterior angles, finely but not 
closely punctured, with or without an obscure central 
longitudinal channel, with a few short, indistinct, exserted 
setse at the sides. The elytra are but little longer than 
the thorax, blackish or pitchy-black, pretty closely and 
distinctly but shallowly punctured, the apex on each side 
sinuate at the external angles. The abdomen is black 
and rather shining; segments two to four distinctly and 
pretty closely punctured, fifth segment a little more fine- 
ly and sparingly, sixth segment sparingly punctured ; the 
outstanding sette of the sides and apex are distinct and 
numerous. Legs yellow, posterior tibiee without exserted 
setse. 

The male is only to be distinguished from the female, 
by the narrower and more produced apical part of the 
ventral plate of the seventh abdominal segment. 

Very common all over the country, in moss and dead 
leaves. 

Ohs. — The var. duhia has shorter antennte and thorax, 
and on this account, I formerly considered it a variety of 
H. clientula, but in colour and punctuation it agrees better 
with H. fungi. It is more abundant than the type. 

154. Homalota clientula. 

Nigra, sat nitida, antennis pedibusque testaceis, elytris 
anoque ferrugineis ; thorace transverse ; abdomine supra 
segmentis 2-4 crebre, 5° et 6° parcius punctatis. Long. 
1 lin. 



British Species of Homa lota. 267 

H. cUentula, 'Er . Gen. et Spec. Staph. 133; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 322; Wat. Cat. 

Yery closely allied to H. fungi, and probably only a 
variety of that species ; but smaller_, not so broad in the 
middle^ the antennge in proportion to the size somewhat 
stouter, the punctuation of the thorax and elytra rather 
closer and finer, and the colour brighter. The sides of 
the thorax are paler than the centre, the elytra are 
yellowish or brownish, a little darker about the scutel- 
lum, and the extremity of the abdomen is pitchy or yellow- 
ish, as are also sometimes the margins of the segments. 

Tolerably common, both in England and Scotland. 



155. Homalota orphana. 

Nigra, sat nitida, antennarum basi pedibusque obscure 
testaceis, elytris nigro-fuscis ; thorace fortiter trans- 
verso, convexiusculo, sequali ; elytris hoc longioribus ; 
abdomine segmentis 2-4 crebre, 5" et 6° parcius punc- 
tatis. Long. | lin. 

H. orphana, Er. Kaf. Brand, i. 340 ; Gen. et Spec. 
Staph. 133 ; Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 323 ; Acrotona orphana, 
Th. Sk. Col. iii. 39. 

Allied to H. fungi, but much smaller, and proportion- 
ately broader and shorter. The antennae are pitchy, 
paler at the base, distinctly thickened towards the apex ; 
joint three nearly as long as two, but more slender, four 
and five each about as long as broad, the following ones 
slightly transverse ; eleventh joint nearly as long as the 
two preceding together. The head is rather broad and 
short, much narrower than the thorax, finely and indis- 
tinctly punctured. The thorax is, at the base, about as 
broad as the elytra, its breadth about twice its length, 
narrower at the anterior than at the posterior angles, 
finely and moderately closely punctured. The elytra are 
about a third or fourth longer than the thorax, closely 
and distinctly punctured. The abdomen is distinctly 
narrowed towards the apex, segments two to four closely 
and distinctly punctured, fifth segment rather more 
sparingly punctured, sixth segment still more spar- 
ingly punctured. Legs pitchy, tibiae without exserted 
setge. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PAET III. (juNE) . IT 



268 Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 

Very rare ; single specimens have occurred at Ham- 
mersmith Marshes, and elsewhere in the neighbourhood 
of London. 



156. Homalota crihrata. 

Brevior, nigra, vix nitida, pedibus fusco-testaceis, con- 
fertim evidenter punctata ; capite thorace multo minore, 
hoc transverse ; abdomine apicem versus attenuate, supra 
segmentis 2-4 crebre subtiliter, 5° et 6° sat parce punc- 
tatis. Long. | lin. 

H. crihrata, Kr. Ins. Deutsch. ii. 288. 

A small species, distinguished by its short broad form, 
with comparatively strong punctuation; narrowed both 
before and behind. The antennae are pitchy-black, rather 
short, not stout, distinctly thickened towards the apex; 
joint two is stout, much longer and stouter than three, 
four to ten each a little stouter than its predecessor, four 
about as broad as three, nearly as long" as broad, five 
slightly transverse, ten distinctly so ; the eleventh joint 
is rather short, pointed, about as long as the two pre- 
ceding. The head is rather broad in proportion to its 
length, much narrower than the thorax, only half the 
width of the elytra, closely, regularly, and distinctly 
punctured, pubescence scarcely visible. The thorax is a 
little narrower than the elytra, its breadth nearly twice 
its length, the sides gently rounded, the base more dis- 
tinctly so, a little narrower at the anterior than at the 
posterior angles, closely and finely but distinctly punc- 
tured, the pubescence short and indistinct. The elytra 
are pitchy-black, a third or fourth longer than the thorax, 
closely and distinctly punctured, the punctuation being 
rather rugulose, their pubescence more distinct than that 
of the head and thorax. The abdomen is broad, distinct- 
ly narrowed to the apex ; segments two to four are closely 
finely and distinctly punctured, fifth segment rather more 
sparingly, sixth sparingly, punctured. Legs pitchy- 
yellow. 

I have seen only two or three specimens of this species, 
one of which I captured myself near Croydon. 

Ohs. — I have identified H. crihrata only by description, 
it being apparently as rare abroad as in this country. 
Kraatz remarks, that among the Erichsonian specimens 



British Species of Homalota. 269 

of H. inconspicua are two of this species ; the punctua- 
tion of the head certainly resembles that of H. inconspicua, 
but the sculpture of the elytra is very diflFerent. The 
position of the species in the genus is not very easy 
to determine. 



157. Homalota notha. 

Brevissima, fusca, antennarum basi pedibusque rufis^ 
distincte pubescens ; thorace brevi^ elytris hujus longi- 
tudinis ; abdomine lateribus fere rotundatis^ supra parce 
et obsolete punctato. Long. 1 lin. 

Mas; elytris angulo suturali tuberculo elevate in- 
structo ; abdomine segmento 7° dorsali apice medio 
anguste emarginato. 

R. notha, Er. Gen. et Spec. Staph. 126; Kr. Ins. 
Deutsch. ii. 323. 

The most discordant species of the genus ; very broad 
and short,, and having the appearance of a Gyrophcena 
as much as of a Homalota. The antennae are moderately 
long, distinctly pilose, thickened towards the apex, the 
basal joints reddish, the apical ones infuscate; joint 
three finer and a little shorter than two, four also 
slender, longer than broad, five about as long as broad, 
the following ones transverse, the tenth distinctly trans- 
verse; eleventh joint shorty stout and pointed, about 
twice as long as the tenth. The head is broad, but much 
narrower than the thorax, black and shining, indistinctly 
but not altogether finely punctured. The thorax is 
nearly as broad as the elytra, very short, more than 
twice as broad as long, transversely convex, narrower at 
the anterior than at the posterior angles, finely and in- 
distinctly punctured, with rather long, distinct, some- 
what scanty pubescence. The elytra are about as long 
as the thorax, pretty closely and distinctly punctured, 
pubescence distinct and rather long, the sides with a 
few distinct outstanding sette. The abdomen is flat 
above, dilated and convex beneath, the sides rounded 
and furnished with outstanding setae, the margins of the 
segments finely and indistinctly punctured and pubes- 
cent. The legs are reddish-yellow, the tarsi rather 
stout. 



270 



Dr. Sharp's Revision of the 



In the male, each elytron is furnished at the apex, 
close to the suture, with a distinct elevated tubercle; 
the apex of the dorsal plate of the seventh segment of 
the abdomen has a notch in the middle, and the hind 
margin projects somewhat on each side of the notch. 

Found, very rarely, by Mr. Brewer, on grassy banks, 
at the sides of the Med way, near Chatham. 

Obs. — I have seen this species alive, and find that it 
not only simulates a Gyrophcena in appearance, but that 
the abdomen is doubled up over the head when the insect 
walks about, exactly as in Encephalus complicans. 



INDEX. 



Skction a. (p. 93). 

Group I. (p. 94). 
Group II. (p. 103). 
Group III. (p. 109). 
Group IV. (p. 117). 
Group V. (p. 127). 

Section B. (pp. 93, 138). 

Group VI. (p. 138). 
Group VII. (p. 142). 

Section C. (pp. 93, 160). 

Group VIII. (p. 160). 
Group IX. (p. 165). 

Skotion D. (pp. 93, 169). 

Group X. (p. 169). 
Group XI. (p. 174). 
Group XII. (p. 180). 



Section E. (pp. 93, 184). 

Group XIII. (p. 184). 
Group XIV. (p. 187). 
Group XV. (p. 193). 

Section F. (pp. 93, 216). 

Group XVI. (p. 216). 
Group XVII. (p. 225). 

Section G. (pp. 93, 232). 

Group XVIII. (p. 232). 

Section H. (pp. 94, 234). 

Group XIX. (p. 234). 
Group XX. (p. 240). 
Group XXI. (p. 254). 
Group XXII. (p. 261). 



British Species of Homalota. 

Alphabetical List of 8p)ecies. 



271 



H. cegra, Heer, p. 164. 
wneicollis, Sb., p. 189. 
OBquata, Er., p. 152. 
analis, Grav., p. 175. 
anceps, Br., p. 232. 
cmgusticollis, Th., p. 210. 
angustula, Gyl., p. 153. 
aterrimcb, Grav., p. 256. 
atoma/ria, Kr., p. 214. 
atramentaria, Gyl., p. 250. 
atricolor, Sh., p. 230. 
Auhei, Bris., p. 171. 
autuirmalis, Er., p. 224. 
holetoUa, Th., p. 202. 
brunnea, Fab., p. 184. 
cadcLverina, Bris., p. 245. 
ccBsula, Er., p. 159. 
cambrica, Woll., p. 100. 
ccmescens, Sb., p. 239. 
ca/rhona/ria, Sabl., p. 114. 
cwvifrons, Sb., p. 177. 
celata, Er., p. 237. 
cinriamomea, Grav., p. 216. 
cinnwmoptera, Tb., p. 247. 
circella/ris, Grav., p. 160. 
clavipes, Sb., p. 124. 
cUentula, Er., p. 266. 
confusa, Mark., p. 284. 
coriaria, Kr., p. 204. 
corvina, Tb., p. 212. 
crassicornis, Gyl., p. 135. 
cribrata, Kr., p. 268. 
cribriceps, Sb., p. 166. 
cv/rrax, Kr., p. 94. 
curtipennis, Sb., p. 173. 
cuspidata, Er., p. 168. 
debilis, Er., p. 157. 
decipiens, Sb., p. 179. 
deformis, Kr., p. 159. 
delicatula, Sb., p. 107. 
dilaticornis, Kr., p. 220. 
diversa, Sb., p. 201. 
divisa, Mark., p. 208. 
Eichoffi; Seri., p. 99. 
elegantula, Bris., p. 161. 
elongatula, Grav., p. 121. 
erermta, Rye, p. 169. 
exarata, Sb., p. 186. 
excellens, Kr., p. 146. 
exilis, Er., p. 180. 
eximia, Sb., p. 103. 
fallaciosa, Sb., p. 157. 
fallax, Kr., p. 116. 
fiavipes, Grav., p. 233. 
fragilis, Kr., p. 104. 
fmigi, Grav., p. 265. 



H. fungicola, Tb., p. 199. 
fungivora Tb., p. 144. 
fusca, Sabl., p. 261. 
gagatina, Bau., p. 206. 
gemina, Er., p. 172. 
germana, Sb., p. 235. 
graminicola, Grav., p. 137. 
grega/ria, Er., p. 126. 
Halobrectha, Sb., p. 139. 
hepatiea, Er., p. 186. 
hodierna, Sb., p. 236. 
hospita, Mark., p. 217. 
hybrida, Sb., p. 196. 
Ivygrotopora, Kr., p. 120. 
ignobilis, Sh., p. 200. 
imbecilla, Wat., p. 110. 
immersa, Er., p. 165. 
inccma, Er., p. 150. 
incognita, Sb., p. 191. 
indiscreta, Sb., p. 228. 
indubia, Sb., p. 227. 
inquinula, Grav., p. 231. 
insecta, Tb.,-p. 97. 
intermedia, Th., p. 242. 
labilis, Er., p. 113. 
IcevoAia, Muls., p. 246. 
languida, Er., p. 95. 
linearis, Grav., p. 154. 
littorea, Sh., p. 109. 
londinensis, Sb., p. 118. 
longicornis, Grav., p. 243. 
longula, Heer, p. 105. 
luridipennis, Man., p. 117. 
luteipes, Er., p. 111. 
macrocera, Tb., p. 244. 
ma/rcida, Er., p. 240. 
melana/ria, Sabl., p. 254. 
monticola, Tb., p. 147. 
mortuorum, Tb., p. 229. 
muscorum, Bris., p. 259. 
nigella, Er., p. 151. 
nigra, Kr., p. 234. 
nigricornis, Th., p. 209. 
nigritula, Gyl., p. 203. 
nitidula, Kr., p. 129. 
notha, Er., p. 269. 
oblita, Er., p. 222. 
oblongiuscula, Sb., p. 130. 
occulta, Er., p. 143. 
orbata, Er., p. 264. 
orphana, Er., p. 267. 
pagana, Er., p. 136. 
pallens, Eedt., p. 181. 
palleola, Er., p. 181. 
palustris, Kies., p. 211. 
parallela, Man., p. 183. 



TEANS. ENT. 80C. 1869. PART III. (jUNE) 



272 Dr. Sharp's Revision of Homalota. 

IN DEX — continued . 



H. parva, Sahl., p. 253. 
pcuvens, Er., p. 98. 
perexigua, Sh., p. 215. 
'picipes, Th., p. 145. 
pilicornis, Th., p. 155. 
pilosiventris, Th., p. 260. 
plana, Gyl., p. 167. 
planifrons, Wat., p. 102. 
plumbea, Wat., p. 114. 
princeps, Sh., p. 142. 
puberula, Sh., p. 213. 
pulchra, Kr., p. 263. 
puncticeps, Th., p. 140. 
fygmcea, Grav., p. 257. 
rnfotestacea, Kr., Tp. 163. 
scapularis, Sahl., p. 218. 
sericea, Muls., p. 225. 
setigera, Sh., p. 251. 
silvicola. Fuss, p. 132. 
simillima, Sh., Tp. 177. 
sodalis, Er., p. 205. 
sordidula, Er., p. 238. 
soror, Kr., p. 178. 



H. splendens, Kr., p. 163. 
sii'hcenea, Sh., p. 187. 
suhglahra, Sh., p. 149. 
subsinuata, Er., p. 262. 
subterranea, Muls., p. 219. 
subtilis, Scri., p. 226. 
subtilissima, Kr., p. 108. 
succicola, Th., p. 193. 
testaceipes, Heer, p. 221. 
testudinea, Er., p. 255. 
tibialis, Heer, p. 125. 
triangulum, Kr., p. 198. 
trinotata, Kr., p. 194. 
valida, Kr., p. 192. 
validiuscula, Kr., p. 182. 
vestita, Grav., p. 128. 
vicina, Ste., p. 133. 
vilis, Er., p. 174. 
villosula, Kr., p. 249. 
volans, Scri., p. 122. 
xanthoptera, Ste., p. 189. 
xantliofus, Th., p. 196. 



•■5?v. L ^m. 



( 273 ) 

XY. Descriptions of new or little known forms of Diurnal 
Lepidoptera. By Arthur G. Butlee, F.L.S., &c. 

[Bead 3rd May, 1869.] 

Argynnis Aglaia, Linn., aberr. (PI. V. figs. 2, 3.) 

$ . Differt supra a forma communi maculis externis 
alarum anticarum obsoletis, venis ad marginem externum 
nigro-dilatatisj disco et area basali posticarum nigris, 
annulis autem quatuor discalibus margine externo sub- 
parallelis fulvis ; margine externo late fulvo, immaculate, 
a venis nigro-dilatatis disrupto. Subtus characteribus 
basalibus anticarum confusis nigro innatis, punctis sex 
discalibus transversis serie undata, area apicali flavido- 
olivacea ad angulum ani fulvescente, striis duabus apud 
apicem argenteis; posticis olivaceis, area basali omnino 
argentea, a venis olivaceis interrupta, maculis discalibus 
partim obscuratis, plagis septem magnis a venis separatis 
argenteis diflfusis, margine externo pallido, immaculate. 

Hah. — Helvetia (Chamouny) . Coll. mihi. 

This very interesting specimen was exhibited at a 
recent meeting of the Entomological Society (Proc. Ent. 
Soc. 1869, p. viii); Mr. McLachlan informs me that the 
same form exists in the collection of Mr. Bond, but as it 
seems never to have been described or figured, it is high 
time that some notice should be taken of it. I caught 
the insect on a slope facing the Mt. Blanc range, where 
it was flying about in company with male specimens of 
Aglaia and Niohe ; these two forms are constantly together, 
vary into one another, chase one another about, and show 
every sign of being one and the same species. 

Chaeaxes Etesipe, Godart. (PI. V. figs. 5, 6, c? •) 

c? Nymphalis Etheta, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 356 
(1819); Griffith's An. Kingd. Ins. Lep. pi. 2, fig. 4. 

$ Papilio mheodes, Drury {nee Fabr.) 111. 3, pi. 10 (1800) . 

9 Nymphalis Etesipe, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 355 

(1819). 

Hah. — Sierra Leone. J, Coll. Swanzy. 

TEANS. ent. soc. 1869. PART IV. (auGUST) . Y 



274 Mr. A. G. Butler on 

The sexes of this species have hitherto been kept 
separate, probably on account of the rarity of the insect, 
and the exceedingly poor figure of the male in Guerin's 
Iconographie (copied in Griffith's Animal Kingdom) ; in 
this figure, the tails are much too stout and clumsy, the 
entire build of the insect is incorrect, the colouring under- 
done, and only the uppersurface is represented; a mo- 
derately fine example lately received by Mr. Swanzy from 
Sierra Leone, has given me an opportunity of correcting 
this error. 

Godart describes Etlieta as follows : — 

"Nym. alis supra atro-caeruleis, dimidio apicali casru- 
lescenti-maculatis : subtus albis, nigro ferrugineoque mar- 
moratis. 

"It difiers from Etesipe in that it is smaller, and the 
uppersurface of the wings exhibits towards the margin 
two transverse rows of pale blue spots ', the hind-wings, 
moreover, in that the white discoidal band is altogether 
wanting; only the uppersurface of the front wings is 
marked with some white spots between the disc and the 
centre of the costa. From the West Coast of Africa. 

"N.B. Might not this be the male of Etesipe?" 

The natural position of Etesipe is evidently between G. 
Joeaste, * Butler, and G. Tiridates, Fabricius, the under- 
surface being most like the former, the uppersurface more 
closely resembling the latter species. 

Apatuka Zalmunna, sp. nov. (PL V. fig. 4.) 

c?. AlsB supra nigro-fuscee, striolis nonnullis anti- 
carum discoidalibus inconspicuis palHdis, punctis tribus 
albidis subapicalibus serie angulata positis, striolaque 
submarginali in alis ambabus pallide brunnea; corpus 
nigro-fuscum. Subtus, alae anticae area basali fulva, apicali 
nigro-fusca ; apice plaga squamosa glaucescente ; macula 
discoidea, altera striolari pone cellam, maculisqvie discali- 
bus duodecim hie illuc positis, albidis ; posticee glauces- 
centes, lineis tribus obscurioribus et albo fulvoque varise ; 
corpus luteo-albidum. Exp. alar. unc. 2^^. 

Hah. — Brazilia. Brit. Mus. 

Presented to the Collection by General Hardwicke. 

* Felder's C. Achmmenes is the male of C. Joeaste; my sectional de- 
scription taken in connection with the locality, sufficiently characterized 
the insect, so that Felder's name must sink into a synonym. 



Diurnal Lepidoptera. 21 h 

Papilio Meeope, Cramer. (PL V. fig. 1.) 

? P. Cenea, var., StoU, Suppl. Cramer, pi. 29, figs. 1, 
la (1779). 

Hob. — Graham's Town. Coll. Higgins. 

This variety, kindly lent to me by Mr. Higgins, is 
chiefly interesting as being a connecting link between 
the two forms of P. Cenea figured in Mr. Trimen's paper, 
lately published in the Transactions of the Linnean 
Society (vol. xxvi, p. 497, pi. 43, figs. 3, 4) ; it also to a cer- 
tain extent explains the modification of Cenea into Hippo- 
coon (which is apparently one of the most diflScult colour 
transitions accomplished by this species) inasmuch as it 
is almost intermediate between Cenea and the variety of 
Hippocoon, represented at fig. 2 of Mr. Trimen's plate, 
the pattern, but not the colouring, of the hindwings being 
the same with that of the latter form. 

I cannot quite agree with all Mr. Trimen's conclusions 
respecting P. Merope, for it seems to me, that though we 
have every evidence that all the forms of this type now 
existing have been modified from one original species, until 
we can show a series of transitional varieties uniting them 
all together, we shall be obliged to consider some of them 
at least as distinct local species ; the Western form indeed 
is so difierent even in the male sex from its Southern 
representative, that it can be at once distinguished; the 
same sex also difiers a little from less distant localities, 
although not at all to the same extent that the female 
does, yet, since amount of difierence does not constitute 
a species, the slightest constant character is of importance. 

The forms of the Merope group in the Collection of the 
British Museum are as under — 

(1) . Papilio Merope. 

(a.) Cenea. 

c?. Alae anticas macula subapicali elongata velut in 
femina, margine externo distincte undato ; margine cos- 
tali nigro paululum in cellam errante : posticse cauda 
partim nigra; subtus fundo basali albido, apicali ochreo. 

9 Cenea, StoU, Suppl. Cramer, pi. 29, fig. 1 (1791) . 

(?, ? , Zoolu Country. Presented by G. F. Angas, Esq., 
and Sir Andrew Smith. 

y2 



276 Mr. A. G. Butler on Diurnal Lepidoptera. 

(a. a.) Cenea, var. 

S Alee anticae margine externo dentato-sinuato, macula 
subapicali minore; posticge fascia lata discali nigra ali- 
quando interrupta; subtus fundo obscuriore ochraceo. 

? Cenea, var., maculis anticarum albis. Trimen in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvi. tab. 43, fig. 4 (1869) . 

(?, ? , Port Natal. Obtained 1858. Collected by Mr. 
Gueinzius. 

(b.) Merope (true) . 

S Merope, Cramer, Pap. Exot.ii. pi. 151, figs. A, B (1779) . 

? Troplionms, Westwood, Arcana Entom. pi. 39, figs. 1, 2. 
S Knysna. Presented 1859, by R. Trimen, Esq. ; 

? from Mr. Milne's Collection. 

The typical Merope, excepting in form, is on the upper- 
surface much like the male of Meriones, but the tails of 
the hind- wings are uniformly of a pale ochre colour ; the 
undersurface of the hind-wings is also paler than in the 
other Southern males. 

(2) . Tapilio Brutus. 
(a.) Brutus. 

S Brutus, Fabricius, Sp. Ins. p. 13 (1781). 

? Hippocoon, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii. p. 38 (1793) . 

Sierra Leone. $ presented by the Rev. D. F. Morgan ; 
? collected 1858, by Mr. James Foxcroft. 

The male of this form, which agrees with the Sulfureus 
{sic) of Palisot de Beauvois, difiers from Cramer's Merope 
in its greater length of wing, and the very pale colouring 
of the undersurface of the hind- wings. 

(b.) Niavius. 

c? Bruto similis at major, margine quoque anticarum 
externo multo latiore. 

? Niavius, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 234, fig. A (1782) . 

Ashanti. <? from Mr. Stothard's collection ; $ ob- 
tained 1844, from the collection of the Wesleyan Mis- 
sionary Society. 

This is also the Niavius of Palisot de Beauvois ; it may 
be at once distinguished from Hippocoon by its much 
gi-eater size, and more elongate wings ; the Ashanti forms 
of Danais Niavius and of Diadema Anthedon difier from 
the Sierra Leone forms in the same particulars. 



( 277 ) 

XVI. Notes on Eastern Butterflies {continued). By 
Alfred R. Wallace, F.Z.S., V.-P. Eut. Soc, &c. 

[Read 3rd May, 1869.] 



Genus Diadema. 

In Doubleday, Westwood, and He^vitson's Genera of 
Diurnal Lepidoptera this genus included six or seven 
others, which were most of them characterized and 
named as subgenera, or sections. These are now 
generally considered as distinct genera, since they offer 
remarkable structural differences, and mostly inhabit 
distinct geographical regions. The genus thus restricted 
will contain eighteen species, only two of which do not 
inhabit the Malay Archipelago. One of these, Diadema 
Salmacis, is found in Africa, and a beautiful new one, 
apparently allied to it [Diadema Dexithea) has been de- 
scribed by Mr. Hewitson, from Madagascar. Two of 
the commonest species, Diadema Bolina, L. {Auije, Cr.) 
and D, Misippus, L. [Bolina, Cr.), have an immense 
range, from Australia and the Pacific to India and Africa, 
but no other species of the restricted genus is found in 
continental India, and all but two are inhabitants of the 
Austro-Malayan region, which we may therefore look 
upon as the probable birth-place of the group, as indi- 
cated by the following table : — 



Diadema. 


Africa. 


India. 


Indo-Malay 
Eegiou. 


Austro-Mu- 
lay Eegiou. 


2 Species . . 
2 Species 
1 Species . . 
13 Species 


2 
2 


2 


_ 

2 

1 


2 
13 


Total 18 Species . . 


4 


2 


3 


15 



It is remarkable that the African D. Salmacis should 
most resemble in its colouration and general appearance 
a species inhabiting Celebes, D. Diomea ; one of the little 
group of facts which point to some unknown mode of 
connection in former times between these remote por- 
tions of the earth. 

trans, ent. soc. 1869. — part iv. (august) . 



278 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

This genuSj and those which have been separated from 
it, furnish us with examples of almost all the anomalies 
of variation. Some species present an amount of varia- 
tion perhaps greater than any to be found among butter- 
flies; others scarcely vary at all. The sexes are, in some 
species, absolutely without a feature of their colouration 
in common ; in others they are hardly distinguishable. 
In a large number of species there is the most wonder- 
ful mimicry of other groups, so thai they have been 
mistaken for Danaidm and Acrceidce, and there is, perhaps, 
nothing more striking than the accurate manner in which 
some African species imitate the striped and spotted 
Am-cece, which inhabit the very same districts. In the 
Eastern islands the protective mimicry has sometimes 
caused the usual sexual characters to be completely re- 
versed, which has led to confusion in the determination 
of the species. 

PapiJio Vitellia, figured by Cramer, has been usually 
placed in this genus, but specimens collected by myself 
in the original locality, Amboyna, show it to be a species 
of Elymnias. 

DIADBMA, Boisduval. 
1. Diadem A Bolina. 

S . Papilio Bolina, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. Reg. p. 295; 

Syst. Nat. ii. 781. Clerck, Icon. t. 21. 
c?. Papilio Auge, Cram. 190, A. B. 

S • Papilio Lasinassa, Cram. 205, A. B.; Fabr. Ent. 

Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 127. 
? . Papilio Ipliigenia, Cram. 67, D. E. 

Cramer figures as distinct species eight varieties of 
the female, and many others exist in collections. I do 
not repeat the references to all these, which are to be 
found in the " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," Moore's 
'^Catalogue of the East Indian Museum,'' and other 
works. I woidd remark, however, that Porphyria and 
Velleda of Cramer, usually placed with this species, seem 
to me to be females of Diadema Alimena. 

Hah. — Every island in the Archipelago, as well as 
India, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. (S. Africa ?). 

Mr. Butler has pointed out to me, that Clerck's figure, 
the only one quoted by Linna3us, undoubtedly represents 



on Eastern Butterflies. 279 

the same insect as that which has hitherto been termed 
Auge or Lasinassa, with which the detailed description 
in Mus. Ludovicae Ulricge perfectly agrees, while it will 
not at all apply to the Bolina of Cramer. This error 
originated with Cramer, who quotes Linngeus and Clerck 
for his Pajnlio Bolina, which is a different insect, to 
which it will now be necessary to apply the name of 
Misippus, given to the female by Linnaeus. Cramer^s 
mistake has been unfortunately adopted by all succeed- 
ing authors, who seem never to have compared the two 
insects with the original description and figure. The 
alteration at this late period will, therefore, cause much 
confusion, but unless the law of priority is abandoned, 
no other course is open to me. 

This is an exceedingly wide-spread and variable 
species. The male is tolerably constant, but presents 
three decided modifications. That which extends over 
the whole continent of India, is generally distinguished 
by a row of white points behind the blue and white spot 
on the hind-wing, and the white bands across the wings 
on the underside are well marked. Those of the Malayan 
and Polynesian countries never have the white dots, and 
seldom have the bands beneath so distinctly marked. 
Clerck^s figure closely resembles an Indian specimen 
without the white dots. Cramer's figures represent the 
two most common Malayan forms of the male insect. 
Papilio Auge is the most abundant, and with it are 
associated females of the type of his P. Iphigenia. 
Papilio Lasinassa is a larger insect, in which the blue 
gloss completely covers the white spots, the margins are 
less deeply scallopped and less distinctly spotted with 
white, while on the underside the white transverse bands 
are nearly or quite absent, and the submarginal lunules 
are larger, deeper, and placed closer to the submarginal 
line. The large dusky and yellow-banded females, such 
as P. Manlia, P. Eriphile, &c., seem to belong to this 
form, which is most commonly met with in the Moluccas 
and the Pacific Islands. The most common females of 
the Indian form (P. Perimele, Cram. 67, B.) are also very 
distinct looking insects. In the British Museum are 
some remarkable specimens from the Philippine Islands, 
in which the male has the spot on the hind-wings reduced 
to a mere blue gloss without any paler centre, so that in 
most lights it is invisible; but without a large series 



280 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Nides 

from this locality, it would be impossible to determine 
how far this is linked to the more ordinary forms by in- 
termediate types. We seem, therefore, to have here a 
species partly separated into several tolerably distinct 
forms or races, which only require to be isolated by 
changes of land and sea to become well-marked species. 
It may also be remarked, that although the sexes are 
generally strikingly different, there are individuals whose 
sex it is impossible to determine without an examina- 
tion of their structural characters, and which form a com- 
plete gradation from one to the other. If any Entomo- 
logist would devote himself to the study of this species, 
by collecting every possible variety of form from every 
locality in which it is found, it would alone furnish 
materials for a most instructive essay, which might go 
far towards elucidating the process of the formation of 
species. 

2. DiADEMA MiSIPPUS. 

? . Papilio Misippus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 767. 

? . Papilio Biocippus, Cram. 28, B. C. ; Fabr. Ent. 

Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 51. 
$ . Papilio Inaria, Cram. 214, A. B, 
$ . Papilio Bolina, Cram. 65, E. F. {nee Linn.). 
Hah. — Java, Borneo, Lombock, Timor, Celebes, India, 
China, Formosa, Australia, Africa. 

This species is remarkable for the striking contrast of 
the sexes : the female resembles Danais Chrysippus, in 
company with which I have often taken it flying, when 
the two were indistinguishable. Specimens occasion- 
ally show a slight approach of the sexes to each other, 
and in the British Museum is a hermajshrodite, one side 
of which is male, and the other female. The form Inaria, 
which seems common in Africa, is rare in the East, 
where there is no Danais it resembles. 

3. DiADEMA AlIMENA. 

(J. Papilio Alimena, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 780; Clerck, 
Ic. pi. 32, f. 1 ; Cramer, 221, A. B. C. 

$ . Papilio Porphyria, Cramer, 255, E. F. 

$ . Papilio Velleda, Cramer, 349, CD. 



on Eastern Butterjiics. 281 

Hah. — Bouru, Amboyna, Ceram, Goram, Ke Islands, 
Waigiou, New Guinea. (Wallace) . 

This species varies much, and the sexes generally 
differ greatly, but there are intermediate forms which 
connect the whole into an unbroken series. P. Porphyria 
and P. Velleda of Cramer, have usually been placed with 
Diadema Lasinassa, but they agree very closely with 
some of my specimens of this species. 

4. Diadema Polymena. 

Diadema Polymena, Felder, No vara Voyage, Lepidop. 
p. 414, pi. Iv. figs. 5, 6. 

Hah. — Aru Islands (Felder) . 

This is an extreme form of Diadema Alimena, the 
female assuming the white colour which characterizes 
many butterflies of different genera in the islands south- 
east of Coram. 

5. Diadema Pandakus. 

c?. Pai)iUo Pandnrus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 767 3 Esper, 
Ausl. Schmett. pi. 40, f. 1. 

Papilio Callisto, Cramer, 24, A. B. 

$ . Papilio Pipleis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 775 ; Cramer, 
60, A. B. 

Hah. — Amboyna, Coram (Wallace) . 

The female has the band across the upper wings either 
creamy white or pale rufous ; the former appearing to be 
characteristic of Amboyna, the latter of Coram. 

6, Diadema Pandora, n. s. 

Female. Wings rather more elongate than in D. Pan- 
darus, the posterior margin more deeply scallopped. 

Above; the band on the anterior wings replaced by 
four spots, the lower and upper of which are small, the 
two middle larger, white, tinged with ashy violet; the 
row of white spots parallel to the margin smaller and of 
a subquadrate form; the submarginal lunules nearly 
half-square instead of triangular. Posterior wings with 
the black spots almost circular, the pupils almost ob- 
solete. 



282 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

Beneath; the upper part of the transverse band almost 
obsolete, the costal margin from its extremity to the 
apex, whitish; the third and fourth spots from the outer 
angle of the anterior wings much smaller than the rest ; 
other differences as above. Rather smaller than the 
females of D. Pandarus. 

Hah. — Bourn (Wallace). 

If we are to discriminate local forms with a view to 
the investigation of their true place in nature, such slight 
but definite modifications as this insect presents must be 
recognized by giving it a distinct specific name. 

7. DiADEMA Saundeesi, n. 3. 

Male. Form and size of D. Pandarus. 

Above ; black, richly glossed with blue in some~places; 
anterior wings with a transverse white band, as in D. 
Hewitsoni, but broader, edged with violet and with a 
faint violet gloss, the lower spot of this band small and 
detached; the rufous-orange band as in D. Hewitsoni, 
but broader, more richly coloured, and continued on to 
the anterior wings so as almost to meet the white band ; 
the row of black spots larger and more regular, but not 
pupillate ; the submarginal row of blue marks wanting. 

Beneath ; differs from D. Hewitsoni by the shorter and 
whiter transverse band, and the rufous patch with two 
black pupillate spots at the outer angle of the anterior 
wings ; on the posterior wings there is a whitish patch 
near the base, and the row of pupillate spots are only 
edged with rufous, and are placed on a dusky ground^ 
bounded above and below by a wavy white line. 

Hah.— Timor (Coll. Wallace, B. M.). 

This fine species is intermediate between D. Pandarus 
and D. Hewitsoni. 

8. DiADEMA Hewitsoni. 

Diadema Pandarus, var., Hewitson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1858, p. 464, pi. liv. f. 1, 2. ( c? . 9 ) • 

The underside of these insects corresponds closely with 
the upper side, as figured by Mr. Hewitson. 
Hah. — Ke Islands (Wallace) . 



071 Eastern Butterflies. 283 

This beautiful species is strikingly distinct. Mr. 
Hewitson seems to have been led to class it as a variety 
of Pandarus from the analogy of D. Lasinassa, which is 
known to vary enormously; but there are these important 
differences between the two cases, that many of the most 
striking modifications of D. Lasinassa occur together on 
the same spot, that they are connected by innumerable 
intermediate forms, and that almost all these variations 
occur in the female, while the male hardly varies at all. 
D. Pandarus, on the contrary, is strikingly constant in 
Amboyna and Ceram, where alone it is found, each of 
the allied forms seems to be equally constant in its own 
locality, there are no intermediate connecting links, 
and the males vary quite as much as the females. I have, 
therefore, no hesitation in naming this as a very distinct 
species. 

9. DiADEMA OCTOCULA. 

Diadema octocula, Butler, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1869 
(Jan.), pi. ix. f. 1, c?. 

Hab. — Tologa Island (?, perhaps Gilolo) . (Coll, Druce) . 

10. Diadema Tydea. 

Diadema Tydea, Felder, Novara Voyage, Lepidop. p. 415, 
pl.lv. f. 1, 2 (c?). 3,4 (?). 

Hah. — New Guinea, Waigiou, Batchian (Wallace), Gi- 
lolo (Lorquin) . 

My specimen from New Guinea has the small blue spot 
on the hind-wings expanded into an oval white patch, 
almost as in D. Deois, and the orange-rufous band broad- 
er; the female has the white bands more distinct, and 
the ocellate spots on the hind-wings smaller. The speci- 
mens from Waigiou are intermediate, and as there are 
other islands between Waigiou and Gilolo, I am inclined 
to think that a complete gradation of forms will be found. 

11. Diadema Deois. 

Diadema Deois, Hewitson, Proc. Zool. See. 1868, p. 464, 
pi. liv. f. 3, 4, 5. 
Hah. — Aru Islands. 



284 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

This must be considered as an extreme form of the 
New Guinea type of B. Tyclea, from which^ however^ it 
differs in the shape of the anterior wing, as well as in 
markings. The females of this species and of D. Hewit- 
soni have a great resemblance to some of the forms of 
Melanitis Melane, Hewits., which inhabits the same islands. 

12. Diadem A Diomea. 

Diadema Diomea, Hewitson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 51, 
pi. viii. f . 2 {$). 

Hah. — Menado, Celebes (Wallace) . 

The female differs only in having the bands broader 
and whiter, and the submarginal spots on the hind-wings 
more distinct. 

13. Diadema featerna, n. s. 

Male: very near D. Dimnea, rather smaller; upper- 
wings less elongate, and the outer margin straighter. 

Above; the bands are smaller, and completely covered 
with a violet blue gloss, costal margin entirely black, 
band of hind-wings of four spots only. 

Beneath; has a large oval white spot above the origin 
of the first branch of the subcostal vein, which is entirely 
absent from both sexes of D. Diomea. 

Hah. — Macassar, Celebes (Wallace) . 

This insect is certainly very close to D. Diomea, but it 
differs decidedly in the form of the wings, as well as in 
several characteristic markings. Many species, both of 
birds and insects, are found exclusively in the North or 
South of Celebes, but very rarely do they possess repre- 
sentative species. One such case, however, occurs in 
birds, and with that now noticed, would seem to indicate 
that the extreme points of this strangely shaped island, 
have formed two or more distinct islands, at a not very 
remote epoch. 

14. Diadema antilope. 

$ . Papilio antilope, Cramer, 183, E. F.; Nymplialis 
antilope, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. 397. 

Male: smaller. Above; light olive-brown, with a large 



on Eastern Butterflies. 285 

apical patch on the anterior wings, a little paler, and a 
broad submarginal band on the hind-wings nearly white. 
Beneath; as in the female, but paler. 

Hab. — Amboyna, Ceram, Bouru. (Wallace). 

Prof. Westwood supposed a glossy-blue insect from 
Java, of exactly the same form as the above, to be the 
male of Cramer's Antilope, and he is followed by Mr. 
Moore in the Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of the East 
India Company. I have ascertained, however, that these 
are females, and constitute one or more distinct species, 
peculiar to the western part of the Archipelago. 

15. DiADEMA ANOMALA. 

Diadema Perimele, ^J, Felder, Wien. Ent. Monats. iv. 
102 (nee Cram.) . 

? . Diadema antilope, S , Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 
281 (note); Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. Comp. p. 160. 

Male. Form of D. Antilope, rather smaller. 

Above; bronzy or olive-brown, with a blue gloss on the 
costal and outer margins of the anterior wings, and the 
outer part of the hind-wings paler. A row of white 
round spots parallel to the outer margin as in D. Antilope, 
but larger and more distinct; a band of three white or 
bluish-white marks, sometimes very indistinct, across the 
anterior wings beyond the middle; marginal and sub- 
marginal spots as in D. Antilope. Beneath ; olive-brown, 
spots and markings as above, with one additional white 
spot on the costal margin. 

Female. Above; rich purple-brown, the whole surface 
of the upper-wings, except the basal third, richly glossed 
with satiny blue, a transverse band of three blueish elon- 
gate spots beyond the cell, and a fourth much smaller; 
the two white spots of the intra-marginal band nearest 
the costa large and confluent, while those nearest the anal 
angle are small and indistinct. Beneath; as in the male. 

Hab. — Malacca {^); Java (?) (Wallace). 

Local form. 

Male. Like D. anomala, but the two apical white spots 
are larger, and there is a broad submarginal whitish band 
on the hind wings, not reaching the outer angle. 



286 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

Female. Rather larger than D. anomala, the transverse 
band of blue spots wanting, the intra-marginal spots 
smaller near the apex, and more incurved towards the end 
of the cell ; on the hind-wings a broad brownish band 
behind, and the marginal and submarginal spots much 
more distinct. Beneath ; there is in both sexes a whitish 
submarginal band on the hind-wings, of which there is 
hardly any trace in D. anomala. 

Hah. — Macassar $ , Menado ? (Celebes) . 

Two females in the British Museum, said to be from 
Java, dilBFer from mine in having the apex of the wings 
rather more angular, and in the upperside being nearly 
uniformly glossed, as in my Bornean form. A male, 
without locality, agrees closely with my Malacca specimen, 
but has the white spots and lines more developed on the 
disc and apex of the upper- wings. A male from Borneo 
in the British Museum approaches the colouring of the 
female, being darker than my Malacca male, and having 
a brighter blue gloss on the outer margin, and apical 
third of the anterior wings. Two other males, marked 
"India," closely resemble my Bornean male, but have 
the apical white spots much less distinctly marked. One 
of these has much more blue gloss on the outer margin 
of the anterior wings than the other. We thus find, that 
there is a great amount of variation in this species, but 
have not sufficient materials to determine whether there 
are any fixed local forms. 

Felder has described this insect as Papilio Perimele, 
Cramer, and I was for some time disposed to agree with 
him, but a more careful comparison of the figure with my 
specimens has convinced me that Cramer's figure repre- 
sents a female form of his Pafilio Lasinassa, and that the 
present insect must have another name bestowed upon 
it. Craraer's figure differs from D. anomala in the fol- 
lowing particulars : — 1. The wings are shorter and broad- 
er, and the upper- wings less falcate, 2. The blue gloss 
on the anterior wings is not represented in the figure, 
and the blue spots there shown are not found in D. ano- 
mala. 3. The submarginal spots on the anterior wings 
are entirely absent from the figure. 4. The spots on the 
hind-wings do not decrease towards the anal angle, but 
are of equal size in the figure. 5. On the under-surface 
D. anomala has two white spots below the costal vein, 
the figure has only one. 6. There are two spots, one 



on Eastern Butterflies. 287 

above the other, at the anal angle in Cramer's figure, but 
only one in all the specimens of D. anomala. Now in all 
these points in which the figure dijBFers from D. anomala, 
it agrees pretty closely with some of the female forms of 
D. Lasinassa, to which I have little doubt it belongs. 

Biadema anomala offers the most remarkable case 
known among butterflies of a reversal of the usual sexual 
colouring, the males being always dull brown, the females 
glossed with rich blue. The reason for this exception to 
the ordinary rule is, I believe, to be found in the fact 
that the brilliant blue gloss causes the female to resemble 
or mimic the Euploea Midamus, one of the very common- 
est butterflies of the East, and one that belongs to the 
pre-eminently protected group of the Danaidve. The two 
insects frequent the same places, and the resemblance on 
the wing was such as to deceive myself, and it is perhaps 
owing to this cause that I captured so few specimens of 
this interesting butterfly. That protection which female 
insects usually obtain by being less brilliant and con- 
spicuous than the males, is here given by exactly oppo- 
site means ; a remarkable proof, as it appears to me, that 
female butterflies would be more generally brilliant than 
they are, were not their variations in this direction 
checked, and eliminated by the danger they incur through 
it. It may be observed, that in the allied species Biade- 
ma Antilope, the female resembles Eujyloea Climena (a 
common species in the countries it inhabits) much more 
than the male does. It also closely resembles Elymnias 
Vitellia, a species which has long figured in our lists as a 
Biadema; and there is reason to believe that the Eury- 
telidce, to which Elymnias belongs, are themselves a pro- 
tected group, though perhaps not so perfectly so as the 
Banaidce. 

I exhibited this species at the British Association in 
1866, as a remarkable illustration of '^mimicry,'' and 
afterwards at a meeting of this Society; and I should 
have described the species before, had I not for a long 
time considered with Felder, that it was a form of Peri' 
mele. 

16. Diadem A albula, n. s. 

Form of B. anomala, rather smaller. 

Male. Above; rusty brown, the markings as in B. 



288 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes on Eastern Butterflies. 

anomala, but whiter and more diffused^ the spots at the 
apex confluent, and forming a white spot ; a broad white 
band covering the outer part of the hind-wings. Beneath ; 
nearly as above; four whitish linear spots forming a 
transverse band across the upper-wings, the white band 
on the hind-wings broader than above, the costal spot 
larger than in D. anomala. 

Female. Darker than the male, and of a richer pur- 
plish rusty brown. Above; spots and bands as in the 
male, but the transverse band of longitudinal spots bluish, 
and produced almost to the white intra-marginal spots. 

Beneath; as in the male, but rather paler. 

Hah. — Timor. 

This is an extreme form of D. anomala; the female is 
the most richly coloured, and seems to mimic Buploea 
Bandinii, and an undescribed species allied to JE. Eurypon, 
both of which inhabit the same island. 



( 289 ) 

XVII. Descriptions of new Species of the Genus Pison ; 
and a Synonymic List of those previously described. 
By Frederick Smith^ V.-P. and late Pres. Ent. 
Soc. 

[Bead 7tb June, 1869.] 

In the year 1837^ Shuckard published an excellent paper 
in the second volume of the Transactions of the Society 
(p. 73) on this genus of fossorial insects ; at that time he 
could only refer to two species that had been previously 
described ; to these he added seven, and as three of these 
were not in his own collection, we may conclude that 
thirty-two years ago, nine species only were to be found 
in the Collections of British Entomologists. These 
species were placed in two divisions, in consec|uence of 
some difference observable in the neuration of the wings ; 
for the second division he proposed the name of Pisoni- 
tus, and this name I have used generically, and have 
added two species to those placed in that division by 
Shuckard. To the genus Pison I have added twenty- 
five species, thirteen of which are described in the pre- 
sent paper. A third division of these insects I have in- 
cluded in a new genus, Parapison, and have described 
three species. Thus, the nine species included in Shuck- 
ard's monograph, and forming his genus Pison, will now 
be increased to forty-three. 

Nothing has been published on the habits of these 
insects that I am aware of, but a paper by Mr. Home 
will shortly be read at the Zoological Society in which 
an ample history of them will appear ; I can only here 
state that these insects are nest-builders, and that they 
construct cells similar to those of Pemphredon, and store 
them with spiders for their young. 

Fam. NYSSONID^, Leach. 
Genus Pison, Jurine. 

1, Pison ater, Spinola. 

Alyson ater, Spin. Ins. Ligur. ii. 253; Pison ater, 
Shuck. Trans. Ent. Soc. ii. 75. ? . 

Pison Jurinii, Spin. Ins. Ligur. ii. 256. 

Taehyhulus niger, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. 75. 
Hah. — Europe. In F. Smith's collection. 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART IV. (aUGUST) . Z 



290 Mr. F. Smith on 

2. Pison punctifrons, Shuck. Trans. Ent. Soc. ii. 

77. ?. 

Hah. — India, or St. Helena. In the British Museum. 

3. Pisofi regalis, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. New Series, 

ii. 34, pi. viii. fig. 9. ? . 
Hah. — China. In the British Museum. 

4. Pison xanthopus, BruUe. 

Nepliridia xantliopus, BruUe, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 

ii. 403; Pison xanthopus, Shuck. Tr. Ent. Soc. 

ii. 75. 
Pison ohscurus, Shuck. I. c. 
Hah. — Cape of Good Hope. In F. Smithes collection. 

6. Pison Spinolce, Shuck. Trans. Ent. Soc. ii. 76, ? j 
Sauss. Reise der Novara, Zool. Hym. QQ. 

P. australis, Sauss. Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve, 
xiv. 11. 

Pison tasmanicus, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 
p. 316, c?. 
Hah. — Sydney and Tasmania. In the British Museum. 

6. Pison auratus, Shuck. Trans. Ent. Soc. ii. 78. ? . 

Hah. — Australia. (Not C. G. Hope, vide Shuckard's 
Monograph.) In the British Museum. 

7. Pison marginatus, Smith, Cat, Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 

p. 314. ? . 

Hah. — Australia (Hunter River) . In the British 
Museum. 

8. Pison perplexus, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 

p. 314. S. 
Hah. — Australia. In the British Museum. 

9. Pison vestitus, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 

p. 315'. ? . 
Hah. — Australia. In the British Museum. 

10. Pison Westwoodii, Shuck. Trans. Ent. Soc, ii. 
77. ?. 
Hah. — Tasmania. In F. Smithes collection. 



the Genus Pison. 291 

11. Pison ohliquus, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 

p. 316. ?. 

Hah. — Tasmania. In F. Smithes collection. 

12. Pison morosus, (White, Voy. Erebus and Terror, 

not published) , Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 
p. 317. 
Hab. — ^New Zealand. In the British Museum. 

13. Pison suspiciosus, Smith, Journ. Proc. Linn. See. 

Zool. ii. 104. ? . 

Hab. — Singapore. In W. W. Saunders' collection. 

14. Pison nitidus, Smith, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 

iii. 160. $ . 

Hah. — Aru and Ke Islands, Mysol. In W. W. 
Saunders' collection. 

15. Pison pallidipalpis, Smith, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. 

Zool. vii. 35. 9 . 

Hah. — Ceram. In W. W. Saunders' collection. 

16. Pison fenestratus, Smith. 

P. nitidus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1868, p. 248. $ . 

Hab. — Champion Bay. In F. Smith's collection. 

17. Pison paraensis, Spin. Mem. Accad. Torino, xiii. 

58. 

Hah. — Para. 

18. Pison chiliensis, Spin. Gay's Chili, vi. 326. 
B'a&.— Chili. 

19. Pison areolatus, Spin. Gay's Chili, vi. 327. 
Hab.— ChWi. 

20. Pison Icevis, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. p. 317. ? . 
Hah. — Georgia. In the British Museum. 

21. Pison maculipennis, Smith, Journ. of Ent. i. 80. ? . 
Hah. — Brazil. In F. Smith's collection. 

22. Pison tahitensis, (P. tahitense) , Saussure, Reise 

der No vara, Zool. Hym. 65. ? . 
ifa6.— Tahiti. 

z2 



292 Mr. F. Smith on 

23. Pison tibialis, n. sp. 

Male. Length 4 lines. Blacky punctured, abdomen 
with golden fascige, the tibiae ferruginous. 

Head and thorax very closely and strongly punctured, 
semi-opaque; the face covered with griseous pubes- 
cence ; the anterior margin of the clypeus produced into 
a central acute tooth. The metathorax truncate, short 
and punctate, with a slight channel above, which has a 
longitudinal carina ; the wings subhyaline, the tegulse 
piceous ; the tarsi, tibias, and apex of the posterior 
femora ferruginous. Abdomen closely and finely punc- 
tured, the apical margins of the segments of a testaceous 
yellow, and covered with a pale golden pubescence. 

Hah. — West Australia. 

In the British Museum. 

24. Pison hasalis, n. sp. 

Female. Length 5 lines. Black; the face with 
golden pubescence, the tibiae, tarsi, and two basal seg- 
ments of the abdomen ferruginous. 

Head opaque ; the clypeus and sides of the face as high 
as the sinus of the eyes, with pale golden pubescence, that 
on the cheeks silvery ; the tips of the mandibles and the 
four basal joints of the antennae ferruginous. Thorax: 
the collar with golden pubescence, that on the sides of 
the thorax silvery, but only perceptible in certain lights, 
except at the sides of the metathorax, where it is dense ; 
the metathorax channelled, obliquely striate above, and 
coarsely transversely so behind; the tegulge and legs 
ferruginous, the intermediate and the posterior coxae 
and trochanters, the intermediate femora above, and 
the posterior pair, excepting at their apex, black; the 
wings subhyaline, with their apical margins clouded. Ab- 
domen : the two basal segments ferruginous, with the basal 
half of the first black ; the margins of the segments rufo- 
testaceous, and covered with bright silvery pile. 

Hah. — Australia. 

In F. Smithes collection. 

This species is most closely allied to Pison auratus. 

25. Pison simillimus, n. sp. 
Male. Length 4| lines. Black, very finely and closely 



the Genus Pison. 293 

punctured, the face with golden pubescence, and the ab- 
domen with golden fasciae. 

Head : the face, as high as the emargination of the 
eyes, covered with golden pubescence ; the clypeus with 
an acute tooth in the centre of its anterior margin. 
Thorax: the collar and mesothorax posteriorly with 
golden pubescence ; the metathorax with a central longi- 
tudinal channel, which widens into a deep elongate 
fossulet down the truncate portion, which is transversely 
rugose-striate ; the upper portion of the metathorax is 
obliquely rugose-striate, much more finely so than the 
truncation ; the tegulae rufo-testaceous ; the wings hya- 
line, with their apical margins clouded, the nervures 
black ; the posterior tibiae, the apex of the anterior and 
posterior pair, and the tarsi, ferruginous. The apical 
margins of the segments of the abdomen rufo-testaceous, 
and covered with golden pubescence ; the four apical 
segments have a changeable thin golden pile. 

Hab . — Australia. 

In F. Smithes collection. 

This species is very like P. tibialis, but it is distinct ; 
the mesothorax is much more finely punctured ; the 
metathorax is longer, and so is also the basal segment of 
the abdomen. 



26. Pison aurifex, n. sp. 

Female. Length 6 lines. Black, opaque, splendidly 
ornamented with golden pubescence. 

Head : the mandibles and four or five of the basal 
joints of the antennee ferruginous, the latter more or less 
dusky above, and the extreme base and apex of the 
former black; the clypeus and sides of the face as high 
as the sinus of the eyes clothed with golden pubescence, 
the cheeks are similarly adorned. Thorax : the collar, 
the central portion of the posterior margin of the meso- 
thorax, and the metathorax above, covered with a brilliant 
changeable golden pubescence ; the pectus and femora 
also, in certain lights, have a golden effulgence ; the tips 
of the femora, the tibi^ and tarsi, ferruginous ; the 
wings subhyaline and iridescent, their apical margins 
clouded, the nervures testaceous. Abdomen: the apical 
margins of the segments rufo-testaceous, and covered 



294 Mr. F. Smith on 

with a brilliant golden pile, the entire abdomen, in cer- 
tain lights, has a golden lustre. 

The male resembles the female ; the clypeus has a 
central tooth on its anterior margin. 

Hah. — Australia. 

In F. Smith's collection. 



27. Piso7i separatus, n. sp. 

Male. Length 4 lines. Black, punctured, the meta- 
thorax not striate, abdomen with silver fasciaj. 

Head finely and closely punctured, opaque; the cly- 
peus with a central tooth on its anterior margin, the face 
with silvery pubescence as high as the sinus of the eyes ; 
tips of the mandibles rufo-piceous, the palpi rufo-testa- 
ceous. Thorax slightly shining, closely and rather finely 
punctured; the metathorax with a central longitudinal 
channel, the upper portion of which has a slight carina ; 
the collar and sides with short sparing silvery pubes- 
cence ; the wings smoky and iridescent ; the tarsi 
obscurely rufescent. Abdomen shining, very finely and 
closely punctured ; the apical margins of the segments 
depressed, and with silvery fasciae. 

Hab. — Western Australia (Champion Bay). 
In the British Museum. 



28. Pison fuscipennis, n. sp. 

Female. Length 7 lines. Black, slightly shining, 
adorned with silvery spots and bands. 

Head : the face covered with bright silvery pile, the 
cheeks with a similar brilliant clothing. Thorax: the 
collar, sides of the mesothorax, of the metathorax, as 
well as the pectus, with a bright changeable silvery pile; 
the mesothorax above, and the scutellum, finely and 
closely punctured; the anterior wings, excepting their 
base, and the apex of the posterior pair, fuscous ; a semi- 
transparent nebula crosses the anterior wings a little beyond 
the second submarginal cell ; the metathorax obliquely 
and finely rugulose above, and transversely and coarsely 
striate behind. Abdomen: all the segments with bril- 
liant silvery fasciee on their apical margins ; beneath, 
shining and delicately punctured. 



the Gemis Pison. 295 

Hab. — Australia (Champion Bay) . 
In the British Museum. 

This species is like P. 8pinolce, but is separated from 
it by its punctured mesothorax and fuscous wings. 

29. Pison dec'ipiens, n. sp. 

Male. Length 3 lines. Black, the legs red. 

Head: the tips of the mandibles, the four basal joints 
of the antennse, and the legs, ferruginous; the apical 
margins of the segments of the abdomen rufo-testaceous ; 
the pul villus of the claw-joints of the legs black; the 
second joint of the antennae black at the base, and the 
fourth joint more or less black above ; the face covered 
with silvery pubescence as high as the emargination of 
the eyes ; the clypeus with an acute tooth in the middle 
of its anterior margin ; the cheeks silvery. Thorax very 
closely and rather finely punctured, the mesothorax 
shining above; the metathorax with a central channel, 
semi-opaque, and with a little silvery pubescence at 
the sides and behind ; the wings subhyaline and irides- 
cent, the nervures black, slightly clouded at their apical 
margins. Abdomen : very closely and finely punctured, 
slightly shining; the apical margin with silvery fasciaa 
above ; beneath shining. 

Hah. — Australia (Champion Bay). 

In the British Museum. 

This species has precisely the aspect of a Tachytes. 

30. Pison dimidiatus, n. sp. 

Male. Length 2| lines. Head and thorax black, ab- 
domen red. 

Head : clothed as high as the insertion of the antennas 
with silvery pubescence, above which, nearly as high as 
the anterior ocellus, it has a golden lustre ; the mandibles, 
and scape of the antennae beneath, ferruginous, as are 
also two or three of the basal joints of the flagellum. 
Thorax : the mesotHorax and scutellum closely and finely 
punctured; the metathorax punctured above, coarsely 
so behind ; the collar and sides of the metathorax with 
silvery pubescence; the tegulee and legs ferruginous, 
with the anterior coxee black ; wings subhyaline, irides- 
cent, with the nervures black. Abdomen ferruginous, 



296 Mr. F. Smith on 

with the margins of the segments depressed^ and having 
bright silvery fasciae ; beneath, the extreme base of the 
abdomen is black. 

Hah. — Australia (Champion Bay) . 

In the British Museum, 

31. Pison festivus , n. sp. 

Female. Length 5| lines. Black, the wings fusco- 
hyaline, the apical segments of the abdomen with bright 
golden fascige. 

Head : the face with a thin silvery pubescence below 
the insertion of the antennae, a thin hoary pubescence on 
the cheeks and vertex. Thorax : the mesothorax shining, 
and, as well as the scutellum, strongly punctured; the 
metathorax obliquely rugulos« above, on each side of a 
central impressed line; behind it is strongly punctured ; 
the sides and beneath with a thin hoary pubescence; 
wings fusco-hyaline. Abdomen shining; the first seg- 
ment rather strongly punctured, and its apical margin 
with a little silvery pubescence laterally ; the following 
segments are very finely and very closely punctured, 
their apical margins with bright golden fasciae; beneath 
shining and impunctate. 

JTah. — Australia (Champion Bay) . 

In the British Museum. 

32. Pison tuherculafus, n. sp. 

Male. Length 3 lines. Head and thorax opaque 
black, the abdomen shining. 

Head : the face below the insertion of the antennae 
with silvery pubescence, the anterior margin of the cly- 
peus produced into a central acute tooth. Thorax : a 
thin silvery pubescence on the sides and beneath; the 
metathorax rounded, obliquely rugulose above, and trans- 
versely, more coarsely so behind; wings fusco-hyaline, 
darkest at their apical margins. Abdomen smooth and 
shining, the apical margins of the segments depressed ; 
the silveiy fasciae probably obliterated; beneath, the 
second, third, and fourth segments have two minute 
tubercles in the middle near their apical margins ; those 
on the third segment are most prominent. 

Hcob. — New Zealand. 

In the British Museum. 



the Genus Fison. 297 

33. Pison insularis, n, sp. 

Female. Length 4| lines. Blacky shining^ and finely 
punctured ; the abdomen with silvery bands. 

Head semi-opaque^ with the face as high as the sinus 
of the eyes densely clothed with bright silvery pubes- 
cence ; the cheeks and vertex behind with a thin change- 
able silvery pubescence; tips of the mandibles rufo- 
piceous, and the palpi pale testaceous. Thorax : covered 
with a short thin silvery pubescence^ most sparing on the 
mesothorax; the thorax is very finely punctured; the 
metathorax oblique, and rounded at the apex, which is 
transversely striate; a longitudinal channel runs from 
the base to the apex; wings subhyaline, the nervures 
black, the outer margin of the tegulee rufo-piceous. Ab- 
domen shining, and very delicately punctured, the 
margins of the segments depressed, and with bright 
changeable silvery bands, not continued beneath. 

Hah. — New Hebrides, 

In the British Museum. 

34. Pison fabricator , n. sp. 

Female. Length 3^ lines. Black, head and thorax 
strongly punctured, the abdomen smooth and shining. 

Head closely and strongly punctured, the vertex 
slightly shining, and not so closely punctured as the 
face ; the clypeus and sides of the face as high as the 
sinus of the eyes covered with bright silvery pubes- 
cence; the palpi testaceous. The pro- and meso-thorax 
strongly punctured ; the metathorax truncate, with a 
deep fossulet at the verge of the truncation above ; the 
upper surface obliquely and strongly striate; the trun- 
cation coarsely rugose ; the outer margins of the tegulae 
testaceous, the wings subhyaline, with their apical mar- 
gins clouded, the nervures black; the thorax has a thin 
griseous pubescence. Abdomen smooth and shining, 
with very delicate scattered punctures. 

Hah. — Hong Kong. 

In the British Museum. 

35. Pison conformis, n. sp. 

Male. Length 3 lines. Head and thorax punctured 
and semi-opaque ; abdomen shining. 



298 Mr. F. Smith on 

Head : the clypeus and sides of the face as high as the 
sinus of the eyes with a dense silvery pubescence, the 
cheeks thinly covered with the same. The mesothorax 
closely punctured; the metathorax obliquely truncate, 
smooth, and finely punctured above, but transversely and 
coarsely striate at the sides and behind, the sides have 
also some silvery pubescence ; a deep longitudinal channel 
runs from the base to the margin of the truncation, in 
which is a longitudinal carina ; down the truncation runs 
another deep channel; the wings hyaline and iridescent, 
the nervures black. Abdomen: the margins of the three 
basal segments much depi-essed ; the abdomen has a fine 
hoary pubescent pile, only observable in certain lights. 

Hab. — Mexico. 

In the British Museum. 

Genus Pisonitus, Shuck, 
(See Plate VI. fig. 7, for wing of Pisonitus rugosus) . 

1. Pisonitus rufipes, Shuck. Trans. Ent. Soc. ii. 

79. ?. 
Hah. — Tasmania. 
In the British Museum. 

2. Pisonitus argentatus, Shuck, Trans. Ent. Soc, ii. 

79. ?. 
Hah. — Mauritius. 
In the British Museum. 

3. Pisonitus rugos^is, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 

p. 313. ?. 
Hab. — India. 
In the British Museum. 

4. Pisonitus ruficornis, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins, pt, iv. 

p. 315. $. 
Hab. — Australia (Maclntyre River) . 
In the British Museum. 

Genus Paeapison, n. g. 
(See PI. VI. fig. 6. for wing of Parapison rufipes) , 

Head as wide as the thorax, occasionally wider; eyes 
large, reniform, ocelli in an equilateral triangle on the 



the Genus Pison. 299 

vertex. Thorax sub-ovate^ the collar transverse ; the 
metathorax with a central longitudinal channel ; the an- 
terior and intermediate tibiee with a single spine at the 
apex ; the anterior wings ivith one elongate marginal cell, 
and tivo submarginal ones, the first suhmarginal receiving 
the first recurrent nervure toivards the apex, the second re- 
current nervure uniting unth the first transverso-medial 
nervure. Abdomen oblong-ovate^ the margins of the 
first and second segments depressed. 

It will be seen that this genus is established solely 
upon the absence of the second submarginal cell which, 
in the genus Pison, and also in Pisonitus, is petiolate ; 
in some species the cell is very minute, in the present 
genus it is obliterated, and that this is a constant cha- 
racter there can be no doubt, as a large number of speci- 
mens of P. agilis and of P. rifipes have been examined. 

1. Parapison obliteratus. Smith. 

Pisonoides obliteratus. Smith, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. 
Zool. ii. 104. 

Hab. — Borneo (Sarawak) . 

In the collection of W. W. Saunders. 

2. Parapison rufipes, n. sp. 

Female. Length 3j lines. Black and shining, the 
legs ferruginous, abdomen with silvery bands. 

Head : very finely and closely punctured, the clypeus, 
inner orbits of the eyes, and the cheeks, with bright 
silvery pile; the mandibles ferruginous. Thorax punc- 
tured like the head; the mesothorax with a central 
longitudinal depression, and an abbreviated line on each 
side opposite the tegulse; the metathorax with a deep 
central longitudinal channel ; the collar and sides of the 
thorax with silvery pubescence, most dense and long at 
the sides of the metathorax ; the legs ferruginous, with 
the coxae black above ; wings hyaline and iridescent, the 
nervures and stigma black. Abdomen; the apical mar- 
gins of the segments pale testaceous, and covered with 
silvery pile ; the entire abdomen has a thin changeable 
silvery pile above. 

Hob. — India. 

In the British Museum. 



300 Mr. F. Smith 'on the Genus Pison. 

3. Parapison rtificornis, n. sp. 

Female. Length 3 lines. Blacky legs and antennae 
red, the latter with three or four of the apical joints 
dusky. 

Head semi-opaque, finely and very closely punctured; 
the face with silvery pubescence, which is dense below 
the insertion of the antennae, and only observable in cer- 
tain lights above; the palpi and mandibles rufo-testaceous, 
the latter rufo-piceous at their apex. Thorax opaque, the 
metathorax with a central channel, and obliquely rugulose 
above; the wings hyaline and iridescent, the nervures 
testaceous. Abdomen slightly shining, the apical mar- 
gins of the segments narrowly testaceous ; the four apical 
segments with a changeable golden pubescence. 

The male closely resembles the female, but has the 
basal portion of the legs more or less blackish, the tarsi 
also are dusky; the apical joints of the antennae are darker 
than in the other sex. 

Hab . — Australia . 

In F. Smith's collection. 



4. Parapison agilis, n. sp. 

Female. Length 3 lines. Black, shining and delicately 
punctured, abdomen with silvery fasciae. 

Head: the face below the insertion of the antennae 
with a fine changeable silvery pile ; the mandibles pale 
rufo-testaceous, the palpi paler. Thorax : the collar, sides 
of the thorax, and mietathorax, with silvery pubescence ; 
the mesothorax with one abbreviated deeply-impressed 
line on each side opposite the tegulae, the latter rufo- 
testaceous; the wings hyaline and iridescent, the ner- 
vures black, the apical margins slightly clouded ; the 
metathorax obliquely truncate, with an impressed central 
channel, which runs into a deep fossulet towards the apex ; 
the knees and anterior tibiae testaceous ; the calcaria 
testaceous. Abdomen with a changeable pile ; the mar- 
gins of the three basal segments depressed, the first deeply 
so; all the margins with a narrow silvery fasciae. 

Hah. — Ceylon. 

In the British Museum. 



( 301 ) 



XVIII. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Exotic 
Hymenoptera. By Frederick Smith, V.-P. and 
late Pres. Ent. Soc. 

[Bead 7th June, 1869.] 

The majority of the insects described in the present paper 
are in the British Museum; all are of great rarity, and 
some present such new combinations of characters that I 
have found it necessary to construct four new genera for 
their reception ; several of the species described are in 
Mr. Du Boulay^s private collection of Hymenoptera, lately 
purchased for the National Museum. I hope shortly to 
offer to the Society descriptions of some of the Apidce in 
the same collection, which contains several insects which 
will form types of new genera. 



Fam. MUTILLID^. 

Genus Methoca. 
Methoca mandihularis. 

Male. Length 1\ lines. Black, shining and punctured, 
the mandibles yellow. 

Head : shining, and strongly punctured ; the face and 
mandibles with long white hairs, those on the rest of the 
head are shorter and thinner; the antennae as long as the 
thorax and first segment of the abdomen ; the anterior 
margin of the clypeus rounded, and with a notch in the 
middle; the mandibles yellow, with their apex nigro- 
piceous. Thorax coarsely punctured, the punctures close 
and more or less confluent on the metathorax, on the 
pro- and meso-thorax they are wider apart, but coarse, 
and here and there confluent ; the metathorax with a 
central longitudinal channel, and, as well as the thorax 
beneath, thinly clothed with hoary pubescence ; the legs 
obscurely rufo-piceous ; wings subhyaline, darkest towards 
the apex of the wings, a fuscous cloud occupies the mar- 
ginal cell; the nervures black. Abdomen: finely and 
distantly punctured, the punctures strongest towards the 
apex; the petiole of the abdomen compressed, and with a 
thin sharp edge ; the first segment globose at the apex, the 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART IV. (aUGUST) . 



302 Mr. F. Smith's Descriptions 

rest of the segments with their margins constricted ; the 
apical mucro stout and curving upwards beyond the 
apical segment. 

Hab. — Shanghai. 

This insect was presented to me by H. De Rivaz, Esq. 

Fam. SCOLIID^. 

Genus Ptekombeus. 

Head wider than the thorax^ subglobose ; eyes lateral 
and oblong-ovate ; antennae filiform, inserted on each side 
of a bituberculate prominence in the middle of the face; 
the scape obconic, the first joint of the flagellum globose, 
and inserted in a cavity at the apex of the scape, the 
following three joints of about equal length, the remaining 
ones slightly decreasing in length to the apical one. 
Thorax elongate, the prothorax produced anteriorly into 
a short neck, its posterior margin extending backwards 
to the insertion of the wings; the metathorax oblong, 
its apex rounded ; the anterior wings with one elongate 
marginal cell pointed at its apex; three submarginal cells, 
the first nearly as long as the two following, the second 
quadrangidar, and, narrowed towards the marginal; the 
third obliquely quadrate ; legs moderately stout, with the 
tarsi long and slender. Abdomen elongate, petiolate, 
its apex pointed and terminated by an acute style, the 
aculeus exserted. 

This genus is founded upon the characters of one sex, 
and those characters are so anomalous, as to leave upon 
my mind considerable doubt as to the correctness of 
determining it to be the female ; the antennae are twelve- 
jointed, and the abdomen is furnished with a sting, these 
are, no doubt, the normal characteristics of the female, but 
the abdomen is composed apparently of seven segments ; 
it has undoubtedly seven distinct plates above, whilst 
beneath the number is only six ; I have therefore regarded 
the apical dorsal plate as a sheath or component part of 
the exserted aculeus. That the insect belongs to the 
Scoliidce, I think is certain ; the prolongation of the thorax 
to the insertion of the wings, and a similarity of the 
neuration of the latter to that of Myzine, induce me to 
place it next to that genus. 



of Exotic Hymenoptera. 303 

Pterombrus cenigmaticus . 
(PL VI. fig. 1^ and details la and Ih.) 

Female. Length 5 lines. Head and thorax black, the 
abdomen red. 

Head closely punctured, with the middle of the 
vertex, and a space around the ocelli, shining, and 
having a few scattered punctures; the face and cheeks 
with a thin griseous pubescence; the mandibles rufo- 
piceous, with a pale spot at their base ; the palpi pale 
testaceous. Thorax : the mesothorax and scutellum 
shining, with a few deep punctures; the metathorax 
transversely and coarsely rugose, the apex obliquely 
truncate; wings subhyaline, with a fuscous cloud at the 
base of the first and second discoidal cells; another cloud 
occupies the marginal cell, and crosses the wing as far as 
the inferior margin of the third discoidal cell ; the nervures 
black; the tarsi as long as the legs, the spurs at the apex 
of the tibife pale testaceous. Abdomen ferruginous, 
smooth and shining. 

Hab. — Brazil. 

In the Collections of W. W. Saunders and F. Smith. 

I have only seen two examples of this insect. 

Fam. POMPILID^. 

Genus Dolichueus. 

1. DoUchurus carbonarius. 

Female. Length 3 lines. Shining black, with the 
metathorax subopaque. 

Head: the face longitudinally and coarsely sculp- 
tured, the vertex smooth and shining; the antennae 
inserted on each side of a concave tubercle situate 
at the base of the clypeus, the latter with a sharp 
carina down the middle. The prothorax transverse- 
quadrate, with a shining tuberculate process on each 
side, and a few transverse striae in front; the meso- 
thorax and scutellum smooth and shining; the meta- 
thorax above nearly quadrate, margined by an elevated 
carina, transversely and coarsely sculptured, and having 
three longitudinal caringe scarcely extending to the pos- 
terior margin; the truncation rugose, a minute tooth 
at the lateral margins a little beyond the middle. The 
abdomen smooth and shining, and the margins of the 
first and second segments depressed. 

Hab. — Australia (Champion Bay) . 

In the British Museum. 



304 Mr. F. Smith's Descrifptions 

2. DoUchurus ignitus. 

Female. Length 3| lines. Black and shining^ the 
tip of the abdomen red. 

Head: black, shining, and strongly punctured, the 
vertex most sparingly so; the clypeus smooth and shining, 
its anterior margin truncate and rufo-piceous ; the man- 
dibles ferruginous, their extreme base and apex black. 
The pro- and meso-thorax shining ; the metathorax with 
the margins above carinate, with a central and two lateral 
carinas, between which is a series of transverse elevations 
irregular and ill-defined ; the truncate portion is coarsely 
rugose, and the lateral margins have a minute tooth 
beyond the middle; the wings hyaline and iridescent; 
the outer margin of the tegulae piceous ; the tarsi, and 
the anterior tibiae obscurely ferruginous. Abdomen 
shining and impunctate; the margins of the two basal 
segments constricted; the two apical segments ferru- 
ginous. 

Hab. — Port Natal. ■ 

In F. Smith's Collection. 

3. DoUchurus taprobdncB. 

Male. Length 4^ lines. Black, smooth, and shining. 

Head : the face longitudinally rugulose, a few scattered 
punctures before the ocelli, with the vertex impunctate; 
the clypeus with a central elevated carina ; the palpi pale 
testaceous ; the tubercle in the middle of the face deeply 
concave. Thorax: the mesothorax with a few fine shal- 
low punctures ; the metathorax margined above, with 
two approximate carinae in the centre, and another on 
each side, the interspaces rugose ; the truncation rugose, 
with a stout tooth in the middle of the lateral margins ; 
the wings hyaline and iridescent, the nervures black; 
the thorax is strongly and closely punctured at the sides 
and beneath. Abdomen smooth, shining, and impunctate. 

Hab. — Ceylon. 

In F. Smith's Collection. 

Fam. LAKRID^. 

Genus Laerada. 
Larrada chrysonota. 

Female. Length 6j lines. Black, and adorned with sil- 
very pile, the mesothorax clothed above with golden pile. 



of Exotic JTymenoptera. 305 

Head : the face, as high as the insertion of the 
antennas, with silvery pubescent pile, above with golden ; 
the cheeks and base of the mandibles silvery. Thorax : 
a dense golden pubescent pile on the mesothorax, and a 
changeable thin silvery one on other parts, on the apex of 
the sides of the metathorax it is dense and brilliant ; the 
legs have a glittering changeable silvery pile -, the anterior 
wings and apex of the posterior pair fusco-hyaline. The 
abdomen has a chequered brilliant silveiy pile above and 
beneath ; the apical margins of the segments above, and 
the middle of the segments, are splendidly brilliant and 
glittering. 

Hah. — Australia (Champion Bay) . 
In the British Museum. 



Genus Aulacophilus, n. g. 

Head as wide as the thorax; eyes large, their inner 
orbit deeply emarginate ; the ocelli in an equilateral 
triangle on the vertex ; the antennae inserted at the base 
of the clypeus, at an equal distance from each other and 
the inner margin of the eyes; the anterior margin of the 
clypeus rounded ; the mandibles arcuate, edentate, acute 
at their apex ; the antennae thickened towards their apex, 
the scape obconic, the second joint subglobose. Thorax 
oblong-ovate, the collar transverse, the posterior margin 
arcuate ; the metathorax oblong, rounded behind ; legs 
simple, the anterior and intermediate tibise with a single 
spine at their apex; the anterior wings vnth one elongate 
tnargiyial, and tivo submarginal cells, the first twice the 
le^igth of the second; the first recurrent nervure uniting 
with the first transverso-medial nervure ; the second received 
a little within the second submarginal cell. Abdomen heart- 
shaped ; the first segment formed into an elongate petiole 
terminating in a clavus at its apex. 

Aulacophilus vespoides. 
(Plate VI. fig. 4, and details 4a and 46.) 

Female. Length 5 lines. Black, and ornamented with 
golden pubescence. 

Head : the clypeus and the sides of the face, as high aa 
the emargination of the eyes, with dense golden pubes- 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART IV. (AUGUSt) . 2 A 



306 Mr. F. Smith's Descriptions 

cence; the tips of the mandibles, and the three basal 
joints of the antennae, ferruginous. Thorax : the posterior 
margin of the collar and of the scutellum, the post-scu- 
tellum and the m eta thorax, with golden pubescence; the 
anterior coxas with golden pubescence in front; the sides 
of the thorax obliquely striate beneath the wings; the 
metathorax with a longitudinal central channel, most 
deeply impressed towards the apex; the legs obscurely 
ferruginous, the anterior pair brightest ; the wings hya- 
line, with the anterior margin of the superior pair fuscous. 
Abdomen : the petiole deeply channelled above, and also 
at the sides; the channel above with golden pubescence, 
the apical margin of the club as well as the apical margins 
of the other segments bordered with golden pubescence; 
beneath, smooth and shining, with the margins of the 
segments rufo-piceous. 

Hah. — Brazil. 

In F. Smith's collection. 

This insect has the general aspect of a species of the 
genus Polybia belonging to the Vespidce. 

Fam. NYSSONID^. 

Genus Acanthostethus, n. g. 

Head scarcely as wide as the thorax ; eyes lateral, large 
and ovate; ocelli placed in a curve on the vertex, the 
posterior pair in a line with the summit of the eyes; 
antennas approximate at the base, inserted at the base of 
the clypeus; the scape obconic, the second joint sub- 
globose, the flagellum slightly increasing in thickness 
towards the apex ; the clypeus transverse, its anterior 
margin nearly straight, its lateral angles sub-dentate; 
mandibles arcuate, edentate, and acute at their apex ; the 
labrum concealed, transverse. Thorax ovate; the collar 
transverse; the scutellum subquadrate; the metathorax 
having on each side at its posterior extremity a stout 
acute spine; superior wings ivith one marginal and two 
complete suhmarginal cells ; the marginal cell elongate, ex- 
tending more than half-iuay towards the extremity of the 
wing ; the first suhmarginal longer than the marginal, and 
more than twice the length of the second suhmarginal cell, 
which is triangular ; the first recurrent nervure entering the 
first suhmarginal cell towards its apex, the second recurrent 



of Exotic Hymeiioptera. 307 

nervure uniting with the first transver so- cubital nervure. 
Abdomen subsessile, ovoido-conic; the first ventral seg- 
ment produced at the base, forming an obtuse angle. 
(Female.) 



Acanthostethus hasalis. 
(Plate VI. fig. 3, and details '6a and Sh.) 

Female. Length 4 lines. Black, with the collar and 
base of the abdomen red. 

Head, thorax, and base of the abdomen coarsely and 
deeply punctured, the rest of the abdomen more finely 
and distantly punctured, and slightly shining. The man- 
dibles, the scape, and the three following joints of the 
antennae ferruginous beneath; the tips of the mandibles 
black. The collar, tubercles, tegulge, and the margins of 
the mesothorax opposite to them, the tips of the meta- 
thoracic spines, and the legs, ferruginous; the wings 
subhyaline, the nervures black. Abdomen : the base 
rounded, the segment short, ferruginous, with the apical 
margin pale yellow; the second segment black, with its 
apical margin yellow, the sides of the segment are suffused 
with obscure ferruginous, as well as the edge of the nar- 
row yellow margin ; the following segments are obscure 
ferruginous, the third segment as well as the apical one 
black at the basal margin, in the apical one the black 
forms an elongated spot. 

Hab. — Australia. 

In the British Museum. 

The general appearance of this insect is that of a very 
large example of the Nysson dimidiatus of Europe. 



Genus Miscothyris, n. g. 

Head transverse, about the width of the thorax, eyes 
ovate, very large and occupying the larger part of the 
head ; the ocelli placed in a triangle on the vertex ; the 
antennae inserted a little above the base of the clypeus, 
approximate at their base, the flagellum sub-clavate ; the 
mandibles arcuate, bidentate at their apex; the clypeus 
triangular, its anterior margin slightly rounded; the 

2 A 2 



308 Mr. F. Smith's Descriptions 

labrum concealed. The thorax oval; the collar transverse 
and linear; the scutellum transverse; the metathorax 
short, and truncate posteriorly ; the superior wings with 
one elongate marginal cell tapering to a point at the apex ; 
three submarginal cells, the first being three-fourths of 
the length of the second and third, the second oblong- 
quadrate, and narrowed towards the marginal cell, the 
third oblique, and widest at its extremity; the legs of 
moderate length ; the posterior tibiae incrassate, slightly 
curved and denticulate on their outer margin. Abdomen 
subtruncate at the base, incurved and tapering to its 
apex; in the male, the second segment is produced into 
a compressed tubercle beneath. 



Miscothyris thoracicus. 

(Plate YI. fig. 5, and details 5a and 5b.) 

Male. Length 4^ lines. Black, an interrupted line on 
the collar, the post- scutellum, two large spots on the 
second segment of the abdomen, and a transverse one on 
the apical margins of the fifth and sixth segments in the 
middle, all orange. 

Head : the clypeus with the basal half yellowish- white, 
a minute spot above the clypeus, the scape in front, and 
a narrow line at the inner margin of the eyes not running 
quite so high as the anterior ocellus, of the same colour 
as the clypeus ; the head is finely shagreen ed and semi- 
opaque. Thorax: sculptured similarly to the head, with 
the scutellum shining, and sparingly punctured at its base ; 
the post-scutellum is smooth shining orange ; the wings 
fusco-hyaline, with their base and apex clear hyaline; a 
central small shining triangular space at the margin of 
the truncation of the metathorax, which is obliquely and 
finely striate ; the tibige, tarsi and knees ferruginous ; 
the anterior tibi^ yellow at their apex beneath, the basal 
joint of the posterior tarsi white. Abdomen finely sha- 
greened, two large oblong orange spots on the second 
segment, pointed inwardly, and nearly meeting in the 
centre; a transverse orange lunate spot on the centre 
of the apical margin of the fifth and sixth segments. 

Hah. — Australia (Champion Bay) . 

In the British Museum. 



of Exotic Hymenoptera. 309 

Fam. MASARID^. 

Genus Paragia. 
1. Paragia excellens. 

Female. Length 7 lines. Black ; the head and thorax 
ornamented with orange, the legs of the same colour ; the 
three basal segments of the abdomen orange. 

Head : very closely punctured ; the clypeus produced, 
its anterior margin slightly arched ; the mandibles longi- 
tudinally grooved and punctured, ferruginous, with their 
margins and teeth black ; the clypeus and a semi-ovate 
spot above, orange, the anterior margin of the former 
black. The thorax rugose ; the prothorax, a subquadrate 
spot beneath the wings, the scutellum, an oblong- quadrate 
spot before it on the mesothorax, a narrow line at the 
sides passing beyond the tegulee to the impressed line 
that runs backwards to the scutellum, a minute spot on 
each side beyond the line, the spine and lateral margins 
of the metathorax, and a central elongate spot, bright 
orange; the legs pale orange-red; the wings hyaline, 
with a dark fuscous line occupying the marginal and first 
submarginal cells, and running from thence half-way 
towards the base of the wing; the tegulae pale orange. 
Abdomen : the first segment orange, with its base black, 
the second orange, with its extreme lateral and basal 
margins black ; the third segment orange, with a minute 
triangular central black spot at its base ; the other seg- 
ments black, with the extreme apex of the terminal one 
orange; beneath, the second segment has a tri-furcate 
orange apical margin, the third segment orange, with 
its basal margin narrowly black. 

Male. This sex differs only in having the clypeus 
entirely yellow, a yellow line at the inner orbits of the eyes. 

Hah. — Australia (Champion Bay) . 

In the British Museum. 



2. Paragia sohrina. 

Female. Length 7 lines. The head and thorax orna- 
mented with orange spots, the first and third segments 
of the abdomen orange. 

This species is very like P. excellens ; the head is the 
same in colour and sculpture ; the thorax is also very 



310 Mr. F. Smith's Descriptions 

similar, but the two minute orange spots on the meso- 
thorax are wanting ; the scutellum is broader and more 
quadrate, the posterior angles rounded, and it is not nar- 
rowed posteriorly as in P. excellens ; the abdomen has the 
first, third, and apical segments yellow; in other respects 
the two species agree in colour, sculpture and form, and 
possibly one is a variety of the other. 

Hah. — Australia (Champion Bay) . 

In the British Museum. 

In the Transactions of this Society (third series, vol. 
ii. p. 393) I described three new species of Paragia; of 
one of these, P. vespiformis, only the female was then 
known to me; subsequently, however, both sexes were 
taken by Mr. Du Boulay, and the male was described in 
the Transactions for 1868 (p. 250) ; this sex is remarkable 
for the extraordinary form of the basal segment of the 
abdomen, I have therefore given a figure of that sex in 
the plate that illustrates this paper (PI. YI. fig. 2) . 

Since I published the last consecutive list of the species 
of the genus Paragia, numbering thirteen, I have added 
three in the volume for 1868, two others are described in 
the present paper, making the number of known species 
to be eighteen. 

Fam. EUMENID^. 

Genus Rhynchium. 

Rhynchium magmficum. 

Female. Length 10^ lines. Black; head, thorax an- 
teriorly, scutellum, and apical half of the abdomen, orange. 

Head: orange, with the tips of the antennas fuscous; 
the mandibles ferruginous, armed with five teeth, which 
are black, as well as the outer margin at the base; the 
prothorax, a spot beneath the wings, the mesothorax 
above, and the scutellum, bright orange ; the metathorax 
black, its lateral margins serrate, concave behind, the 
concavity obliquely striate ; the tegulae orange, the wings 
flavo-hyaline, but dark fuscous with a violet or purple 
iridescence from the base of the marginal cell to their 
apex; the anterior legs, except their cox£e, the interme- 
diate femora in front towards their apex, and the tibige be- 
neath, orange ; the posterior tibiae more or less orange-red 
beneath ; the apical joints of the tarsi reddish. Abdomen : 



of Exotic Hymenoptera. 311 

the basal segment, and basal half of the second segment, 
black, both entirely so beneath; the rest of the segments 
orange. 

Hah. — Australia (Nicol Bay) . 

In the British Museum. 



Explanation of Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. Pteromhrus cBnigmaticus, and details. 

2. Paragia vespiformis, $ . 

3. Acanthostethus hasalis, and details. 

4. AulacopMlus vespoides, and details. 

5. Miscothyris thoracicus, and details. 

6. Anterior wing of Parapison rufipes. 

7. „ ,, Pisonitus ritgosus. 



( 313 ) 

XIX. Notes on Chalcididse ; and Description of a new 
species o/^ Megastigmus. By F. Walker, F.L.S. 

[Read 7th June, 1869.] 

A PEW species of Megastigntus inhabit England. M. 
giganteus, the largest species of the genus hitherto 
described, is a native of S. Europe. M. Pistacice, so 
named by Haliday, and presented by him to the British 
Museum, is a very elegant Italian species. The known 
Australian species are smaller than most of those of 
Europe. M. Pinus of Parfitt, and the species here de- 
scribed, are natives of California, and are both of large 
size. There is an affinity in structure, colour, and mark- 
ings between some species of this genus and some of 
Decatoma. The latter genus is one of the Eurytomidce, 
and, like Megastigmus and Eurytoma, is parasitic, on gall- 
making insects. A North-American species of the 
Eurytomidce was described many years ago as Eurytoma 
hordei. Harris, the original describer. Fitch, and Walsh, 
at first supposed it to be parasitic, but were afterwards 
convinced that the larva is herbivorous. Walsh has 
recently observed that it is not a Eurytoma, but an Iso- 
soma, and that it is very injurious to the corn in the 
Eastern States from Virginia to Canada. He supposes 
that all the species of Isosoma are herbivorous, and that 
Eurytoma hordei, Harris ; E. tritici, Fitch ; E. secalis, 
Fitch; and E.fulvipes, Fitch, are one species. I have 
reared several species of Eurytoma from various kinds of 
galls, but never had an opportunity of observing the 
transformation of Isosoma. The British species of the 
latter genus are numerous, and various in structure, and 
some of them are yet undescribed. Giraud reared in 
Austria three species of Isosoma and Pimpla graminellcp., 
Grav., from Triticum repens, and believed them to be all 
parasitic on a Dipterous insect. If these species of Iso- 
soma are herbivorous, it would seem that Pimpla grami- 
nellce, an ichneumon-fly, which much exceeds them in 
size, and is very abundant in England, is their parasite. 
Walsh observes that one of the Pteromalidce, which he 
names Semiotellus chalcidiphagus , is parasitic on Isosoma 
Jiordei. He also describes Antigaster mirabilis, a new 
genus, allied to Eiipehnus and to Notanisus. Chiropa- 
chys colon, of vfhich the natural history was lately noticed 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART IV. (aUGUST) . 



314 Mr. F. V/alker's Notes 07i Ohalcididce. 

by Dr. Algernon Chapman^ is allied to the Eupelmidce, 
and the earliest descriptions of it are here mentioned : — 

Sphex colon, Linn. Faun. Suec. 1656; Syst. Nat. 945. 

Ichneumon quadrum, Fabr. Ent. Syst. ii. 186. 

Megastigmus albifrons. 

Mas. Luteus ; capite thoraceque dense punctatis; 
capite thorace latiore, plaga transversa nigra, fronte 
facieque albidis, antennis nigris, basi luteis; thorace 
vitta nigra, prothorace magna quadra ta, mesothorace 
nigro-bimaculato, metathorace nigro; abdomine nigro, 
valde compresso, subtus luteo; alis diaphanis nigro- 
venosis, anticis gutta nigricante maculaque nigra. 

Male. Luteous. Head and thorax thickly punctured. 
Head broader than the thorax; a large transverse 
black patch on the vertex, extending nearly to the eyes ; 
front and face whitish; eyes piceous; antennae black, 
filiform, rather shorter than the thorax, first joint luteous, 
joints of the flagellum successively decreasing in length; 
club fusiform, a little broader than the preceding joint. 
Thorax with a black stripe, which is attenuate in the 
middle, and extends from the fore-border of the pro- 
thorax nearly to the tip of the scutellum; prothorax 
quadrate, much developed; mesothorax with a black 
spot on each side of the scutum, sutures of the parap- 
sides very distinct; metathorax black. Abdomen black, 
much compressed, luteous beneath, nearly as long as the 
thorax. Legs slender; tarsi black towards the tips. 
Wings pellucid; veins black; fore-wings with an in- 
definite blackish dot adjoining the hind side of the 
humerus, near the end of the latter, and with a deter- 
minate black spot at the end of the cubitus, as is usual 
in this genus ; humerus about four times the length of 
the ulna, emitting a transverse veinlet to the hind border, 
near the inner side of the dot before-mentioned ; radius 
more than twice the length of the ulna; cubitus about 
half the length of the ulna. 

Length of the body, 2 lines ; of the fore- wings, 3| 
lines. 

" Found alive, in a glass-topped box, containing a fir 
cone, from California." March 10th, 1869. 

British Museum. 



315 



XX. RemarJcs on the Genus Ectrephes^ and Descriptions 
of new Exotic Coleoptera. By J. O. Westwood, 
M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

[Read 7tli June, 1869.] 

Genus Ectrephes, Pascoe. 

E ctrephes, F&acoe, Proc. Ent. Soc, Lond. 1866, p. xvi; 
Zoologist, ser. 2, vol. i. p. 322. 

Anapestus, King, Trans. Ent. Soc, N. S. Wales, i. 316. 

Mr. Pascoe^s description of this curious genus was read 
at the meeting of this Society, on the 4th June, 1866, 
and was published in the following month. Mr. King's 
memoir was read before the Entomological Society of 
New South Wales on the 5th March, 1866, but the sheet 
of the Transactions on which it is printed contains the 
commencement of Mr. McLeay's paper on Amycteridce, 
which was read on the 6th August, 1866, and Part V. of 
the Transactions, in which both papers appeared, con- 
tains the Journal of Proceedings for the 3rd September, 
1866. 

The genus has been considered to be allied to the 
Paussidce, as well as to the genus Gnostiis. But it pos- 
sesses no direct affinity with either of these groups; and 
is proved, by the analysis of the forms described below, 
to be most nearly related to the Ptinidce, especially to 
such groups as Mezium and Gihhium. 

Sp. 1. Ectrephes formicarum, Pascoe. 

E . formicarum, Pasc. (Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1866, 

p. xvi) = Anapestus Kreusleri, King, (Trans. Ent. 

Soc. N. S. W. i. 318). 

Sp. 2. Ectrephes Pascoei, n. sp. 

E. totus piceo-castaneus ; elytris nitidis, subsetigeris ; 
antennarum clava oblongo-ovali, depressa ; disco supero 
et infero transverse tri-impresso, marginibus pauUo un- 
dulatis et breviter spinulosis ; pronoto transverse, quad- 
rate, impressione transversa postica profunda notato; 

TRANS, ent. soc. 1869. PART IV. (aUGUST) . 



316 Prof. Westwood on EctrepUes 

tibiis 4 posticis valde curvatis^ margine externo ante 
medium bi-angulato^ ultra medium emarginato. Long. 
Corp. fere lin. 1. 

Hah. — Swan River^ Nov. Holl. ; sub corticibus arborum 
mortuarum. (Dom. Du Boulay.) 

In Mus. HojDoiano Oxoniae. 

Sp. 3. Ectrephes Kingii, n. sp. 

E. totus luteo-fulvusj subnitidus; capite brevi^ anten- 
narum clava magna, fere plana, ovali, apice vix angulato, 
marginibus subundulatis; prothorace antice striolato, 
postice profunde impresso, lateribus in medio angulatis 
et pone angulum cicatricosis ; elytris fere rotundatis, 
striato-punctatis ; tibiis omnibus ante medium subangu- 
latis. Long. corp. lin. |. 

Hah. — Swan River. (Dom. Du Boulay.) 

In Mus. Hopeiano Oxoniae. 

PoLTPLOCOTESj n. g. 

Genus Ectrephidem cum Ptinidis conjungens. Corpus 
parvum, nitidum ; pedibus longis, simplicibus, tarsis pen- 
tameris. Caput pronum, ante antennas subrostratum, 
pone antennas utrinque constrictum ; mandibulee magnae, 
conicae; maxillae, cum palpis, omnino ut in Ectrephide; 
antennge crassee, 9-articulat£e, articulo 8° incrassato, 
ultimo parvo, truncato. Prothorax margine antico elevate, 
pone medium impressione profunda curvata, in incisionem 
lateralem utrinque terminata. Elytra ovalia, basi sulcis 
profundis impressa. Pedes approximati, binis posticis 
inter se magis distantibus. 

This interesting genus satisfactorily solves the question 
of the affinity of Ectrephes with the Ptinidce. 

Sp. L Polyplocotes longicolUs, n. sp. 

P. niger, nitidus; antennis rugosis; prothorace ob- 
longo, sulco transverse prope marginem anticum, disco 
punctate, pone medium semicirculariter impresso, strio- 
lato ; elytris ad basin sulcis 6 profundis, dorso striato- 
punctatis. Long. Corp. fere lin. 1^. 

Hah. — Swan River. 

In Mus, Hopeiano Oxoniae. 



and other Exotic Coleoptera. 317 

Sp. 2. Polyplocotes nitidus, n. sp. 

P. piceo-niger^ glaberrimus ; antennis crassioribus^ lae- 
vibus, nitidis, setosis; prothorace subquadrato, nitido, 
impunctato, impressione tenuissima postica notato ; ely tris 
glabris, impunctatis, basi vix sulcatis. Long. corp. 
lin. 1. 

Hah. — Swan River. 

In Mus. Hopeiano Oxonise. 

DiPLOCOTES, n. g. 

Genus vel subgenus Ptinorum. Antennse crassaB, 
ll-articulatte; articulo 10°incrassato, et 3 antecedentibus 
simul sumptis gequante; ultimo parvo, fere rotundato. 
Caput et prothorax omnino ut in Polyplocote. Elytra 
ovalia, globosa, punctato-striata, et setosa. Pedes satis 
elongati, simplices; tarsis 5-articulatis, inermibus. 

This insect in its peculiar antennas connects Polyplo- 
cotes with Ptiniis, especially with such species as Ptinus 
hololeucus, &c. 

Sp. 1. Diplocotes Howittanus, n. sp. 

D. totus castaneuSj elytris magis fulvescentibus ; seto- 
sus; antennarum articulis 2-9 moniliformibus ; pronoto 
striolato, pone medium impressione curvata ad incisionem 
lateralem utrinque extensa et striolis profundioribus no- 
tata ; elytris punctato-striatis. Long. corp. lin. 1. 

Hah. — Gawler, Adelaide, Nov. Holl. (Dom. Odewahn.) 

In Mus. Hopeiano Oxonise. 

Chlamydopsis, n. g. 

Genus Chlamydem habitu et Ectrephidem certo mode 
simulans; sed inter Byrrhidas (praesertim Murmidium, 
lje?ich.=: Geutocerum, Schiipp.) et Histeridas intermedium. 
Corpus parvum, contractum, fere globosum ; pedibus con- 
tractilibus, contra latera corporis arete applicatis. Pro- 
thorax antice profunde incisus pro receptione capitis. 
Caput in prothorace fere omnino retractile (partes oris in 
individuis unicis haud examinatae) ; antennge 9-articulatae, 
articulo 1° magno subtrigono, 7 proximis gracilibus, 4-8 
minutis, 9° (vel clava) prsecedentibus 6 longitudine aequali 
vel longiore, exarticulato. Elytra humeris valde gibbosis, 



318 Prof. Westwood on Ectrephes 

gibbositate in medio intus luteo-setosa. Metasternum 
maximum, coxis pedum, posticorum baud prominulis. 
Pedes sub-elongati, tibiis depressis pro receptione tarso- 
rum simplicium et 5-articulatorum. Abdomen segmento 
basali maximo. 

Sp. 1. Chlamydopsis Duhoulaii, n. sp. 

C. tota castanea, nitida ; pronoto subcylindrico, an- 
guHs posticis lateraliter porrectis, disco punctis ovali- 
bus notato ; elytris sparsim granulato-tuberculatis, se- 
tosis. Long. Corp. lin. 1. 

Hah. — Champion Bay, Nov. HoU. (Dom. Du Boulay.) 

I have much pleasure in dedicating this species to a 
gentleman who has devoted a great share of his attention 
"whilst in Australia to the collection of minute and sin- 
gular species of Goleoptera, including also the following 
species (exhibited at the same Meeting of the Society by 
Mr. Pascoe ; see Proceedings, 1869, p. xv) . 

Sp. 2. Chlamydopsis striatella, n. sp. 

C. piceo-nigra, subnitida, pronoto transverse, margine 
antico acute elevate, angulis anticis auriculato-incisis, 
punctis longis setigeris obsito ; elytris subquadratis, 
dorso valde irregularibus, spatio medio antico fossulato, 
humeris acute elevatis et sinuatis, parte dimidia postica 
striolis numerosissimis obsita. Long. corp. lin. 1^. 
Hah. — Swan River. (Dom. Du Boulay.) 
This species seems to connect Ectrephes with certain 
Jlisteridoe, such as Hetcerius, and especially with Terapus 
(De Marseul, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1862, p. 680, 
pi. vii) . 

Genus Articerus. 

Sp. 1. Articerus tumidus, n. sp. 

A. castaneo-rufus, vix nitidus, punctatus, luteo-setosus ; 
capitis lateribus subparallelis, antennis ovalibus, basi 
anguste pedunculatis, apice subtruncatis ; prothorace 
breviter ovato, subdepresso, canali brevi centrali longi- 
tudinali instructo ; elytris sutura nigricante, absque linea 



and other Exotic Coleoptera. 319 

impressa longitudinali contigua; tarsis articulis 2 basali- 
bus brevissimis, longe setosis ; femoribus intermediis 
valde inflatis, prothoracem magnitudine aequantibus ; 
tibiis omnibus apicem versus latioribus, depressis ; abdo- 
mine postice paullo latiore. Long. corp. lin. |. 
Hab. — Swan River. (Dona. Du Boulay.) 
It is possible that this insect may be the male of A. 
setipes, Westw. 

Sp. 2. Artieerus Amazonicus, n. sp. 

A.- castaneo-rufus, subnitidus; capitis parte antica 
(ante oculos) angustiore, subquadrato, antice paullo 
latiore ; antennis capitis longitudine, subcylindricis, 
rectis, sensim ad apicem crassioribus setosis, apice ipso 
truncate; prothorace latiore quam longo, versus caput 
angustato, subrugoso, postice in medio impressione lasvi 
notato, marginibus lateralibus rotundatis ; elytris pro- 
thorace multo latioribus, preesertim postice, striola sub- 
suturali, alterisque 2 abbreviatis basalibus postice con- 
vergentibus ; pedibus gracilibus, tibiis simplicibus, 
sensim e basi attenuata crassioribus. Long. corp. lin. |. 

Hab. — Amazonia sup. (Dom. Bates.) 

In Mus. Hopeiano Oxoniae. 

Genus Paussus. 
Sp. 1. Paussus Burchellianus, n. sp. 

P. totus castaneo-fulvus, setosus, nitidus; capite antice 
emarginato, antennarum clava supra oblonge excavata, 
marginibus excavationis tuberculatis, tuberculis setigeris, 
angulo supero basali in spinam longam tenuem apice ob- 
tuse producto; prothorace bipartite, parte antica angus- 
tiore, hujus margine antico transversim carinato et ad 
latera utrinque spina tenui obtusa armato ; medio pronoti 
profunde impresso ; pedibus longis, gracilibus, simplici- 
bus. Long. corp. lin. 2. 

Hab. — Graham's Town, Afric. austr. 

In Mus. Hopeiano Oxoniae. 

Genus Aprostoma, Guerin. 
Aprostoma, Guerin-Meneville, Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 171. 
Sp. 1. Aprostoma filum, Guer., I. c. 
The type of this genus inhabits Madagascar, and is, I 



320 Prof. Westwood on Exotic Coleoptera. 

believe^ still unique in the collection of M, Guerin-Mene- 
ville^ who in 1842 allowed me to make a careful figure of 
it, and who considered it to be allied to Oalodromus among 
the Breyithidce, and to Colydium. The former relation- 
ship is due only to the very elongate and slender form of 
the insect. The latter is its genuine afl&nity, as is proved 
by the structure of the different parts of the mouth. 

Sp. 2. Aprostoma planifrons, n. sp. 

A. filiforme, cylindricum, nigrum, nitidum ; capite sub- 
quadrato, supra piano, glabro, margine omni verticis acute 
elevato; antennis apicem versus sensim sed paullo cras- 
sioribus, et prothorace e 4a parte brevioribus ; prothorace 
crebre punctate, linea media longitudinali impresso ; 
elytris striis impressis punctatis notatis, linea elevata e 
medio utriusque ad apicem extensa. Long. corp. lin. 5. 

iZa&.— River Niger, Africa. 

In Mus. Hopeiano Oxoniag. 



( 321 ) 

XXI. Notes on Eastern Butterflies; (continued). By 
Alfred R. Wallace, F.Z.S., V.-P. Ent. Soc, &c. 

[Read 7th June and 5th July, 1869.] 

Fam. EURYTELID^. 

Genus Elymnias, Hiibner. 

[Melanitis, part, Fabr.) 

I follow Mr. F. Moore in adopting Hiibner's name for 
this genus, in preference to Melanitis of Fabricius, 
which has been used by most authors down to Westwood 
and Felder, but which properly belongs to a genus of 
SatyridcB, of which Leda and Banhsia are the types. 

It contains a number of remarkable insects differing 
in style of colouration, but often resembling species of 
other families, especially Danaidce and Morphidce. It 
is somewhat widely distributed, ranging from West 
Africa to New Guinea; but the bulk of the species are 
found in the Malay Archipelago, where they are equally 
distributed between the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Ma- 
layan regions. None, however, are yet known from 
Australia. In the " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," 
twelve species are given as then known, two being from 
Africa, two from India, and eight from the Malayan 
Islands. Several species have since been described by 
Mr. Hewitson and others; to which I now add eight 
from my own collection and that of the British Museum, 
making a total of thirty-one Eastern species. 

It is interesting to observe, that the species from the 
Austro-Malayan Islands form a compact group, distin- 
guished by a regular and somewhat rounded outline of 
wings, and resembling in colouration some of the broad- 
winged Euploece, or the genus Drusilla ; while the species 
of India and the Indo-Malayan Islands, are almost 
always characterised by a more irregular outline, Avaved, 
toothed, or even caudate, and generally coloured like 
species of Danais, or the more elongate forms of 
Euploea. 

These are forest-haunting insects, frequenting chiefly 
damp places where there is a dense herbaceous vegeta- 
tion. Their flight is slow, resembling that of the Saty- 
ridcp. and Morphidce. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART IV. (AUGTJST) . 2 B 



322 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

1. Elymnias undularis. 

(^ . Papilio undtdaris, Fabr. Ent; Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 127 ; 
Cramer, 256. A. B.; Melanitis undularis, Horsf. 
Cat. Lep. E. I. C. pi. iii. f. 24, pi. viii. f. 8 ; 
Bihlis undularis, Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. 326. 

? . Papilio protogenia, Cramer, 189. F. C ; Fabr. 
Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 117 ; Elymnias protogenia, 
Hiibn. Verz. b. Schmett. n. 323; Bihlis proto- 
genia, Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. 327. 

Sab. — Singapore, Malacca, Borneo, Java, Lombock, 
Flores, Timor (Wall.) ; N. India (B. M.). 

The ferruginous band on the hind-wings is often 
obsolete, and in a specimen from Borneo, in the British 
Museum, the blue spots have also almost disappeared. 
Some females nearly resemble the males, but are more 
dusky ; others are rufous, as in protogenia, Cr. Speci- 
mens from Ceylon have the rufous band more intense, 
and in some extending on the margin of the anterior 
wings, where the blue spots are almost obsolete. This 
very variable species cannot be separated into its local 
forms, or races, without much more complete materials 
than at present exist. 

2. Elymnias Esaca. 

Melanitis Esaca, Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 405 ; 
Hewits. Ex. Butt. iii. pi. li. f. 5. 

ifafe.— N. W. Borneo (Coll. WaU.) . 

A species with remarkably rounded wings, but in its 
type of colouration allied to E. undularis. 

3. Elymnias Dusaea. 

Melanitis Dusara, Horsf. Cat. Lep. E. I. C. Mus. 
pi. V. f. 7. c?. 

Female. Like the male, but the pale bands are 
broader, and somewhat yellower, and contain three or four 
small pale spots on the hind-wings. 

.ffa&.— Java (Coll. Wall., B. M.) . 



071 Eastern Butterjiies. 323 

Mr. Butler identifies Dusara of Horsfield with Fan- 
thera, Fab. (Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 75) . The description, 
however, does not appear to me suflBciently precise to 
refer it with certainty to the present species ; I therefore 
retain Horsfield's name, identified by a good figure as 
well as by typical specimens. 

4. Elymnias lutescens. 

Elymnias lutescens, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd 
Ser. XX. 404, pi. iv. f. 10. ? . 

Hab. — Malacca, Sumatra (Wall.) ; Borneo (B. M.). 

The female from Sumatra has less red on the upper 
wings, one from Borneo has the pale bands almost obso- 
lete, while another has them more distinct, especially 
across the apex of the anterior wings. Males from Borneo 
are much darker than E. Dusara, with the pale band on 
the hind- wings narrower, and enclosing a row of four or 
five distinctly ocellate spots. 

I was at first disposed to class all these forms as 
variations of E. Dusara, but as that species seems to be 
very constant in both sexes, with little diflTerence be- 
tween them, I have thought it better to keep it distinct ; 
while the great variation that occurs in Bornean speci- 
mens, and their close approximation to those from 
Sumatra and Malacca, render it difficult to separate the 
forms of these islands. 

6. Elymnias Mehida. 

Melanitis Mehid'a, Hewits. Ex. Butt. iii. pi. li. 
f. 2, 3. (c?.) 

Sfl-?).— Singapore (Coll. Wall., type) . 

6. Elymnias Egialina. 

Melanitis Egialina, Feld. Nov. Voy, Lep. p. 452, 
pi. Ixi. f. 7, 8. 

Eah.— Luzon (Coll. Feld.) . 



7. Elymnias Thycana, n. s. 
Near E. Egialina, Felder; rather larger. 



2b 2 



324. Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

Male. Above, anterior wings like E. Egialina, but 
with less white, and the blue tint extending further on 
the disc ; hind- wings with a large ochreish-white patch 
covering the abdominal region and centre of the wing, 
the base slightly bluish. Beneath, the anterior wings 
irregularly blotched, and irrorated with white; hind- wings 
with a large patch of ochre-yellow, extending to the 
abdominal margin and continued by paler spots to the 
inner margin, above and attached to which are two or 
three dull red spots not extending into the discoidal 
cell. 

Female. Above, paler, with the bluish and white por- 
tions more diffused. Beneath, very much whiter, with 
finer irrorations, and the yellow patch more diftused. 

Hah.— India (Coll. B. M., type) . 

This, and its allies, resemble Pieridce, of the genus 
Thyca. 



8. Elymnias bokneensis, n. s. 

Allied to M. Egialina, Felder. 

Female. Above, dusky; anterior wings with a slaty 
transverse band, midway between the end of the 
discoidal cell and the apex, which is continued by 
spots to the outer angle ; from the lowest spot a stripe 
goes to the base of the wing, and within the next two 
spots are shorter yellowish stripes. Hind-wings with a 
broad yellowish-white band across the centre, from the 
abdominal margin to the first median nervure ; base 
bluish; a submarginal row of three or four small dusky 
spots ocellated with bluish. 

Beneath, dusky, irrorated with yellowish on the outer 
half; lower wings with two large reddish spots at the 
base, the broad central band ochre-yellow, the row of 
six ocellate spots very distinct, also one towards the 
base, near the inner margin, and two obscure spots near 
the apex of the upper wings. Antennae strongly ringed, 
dusky, yellow beneath. 

Expanse 2-| inches. 

Hah. — Sarawak, Borneo (Coll. Wall., type). 



on Eastern Butterflies. 825 

9. Elymnias penanga. 

Melanitis penanga, Westw. Gen. Diurn, Lep. p. 405. 
{nee Hewitson). 

Hab. — Penang (B. M., type) . 

10. Elymnias sumatrana. 

Melanitis penanga, He wits. Ex. Butt. iii. pi. li. f. 1, 4. 
(nee Westwood.) 

Hah. — Sumatra (Coll. "Wall., type). 

This species is remarkably like M. penanga, but as the 
conspicuous golden-yellow spot on the costal margin of 
the hind-wings (underside) is entirely absent, and as it 
also differs in the white patch on the hind-wings above, 
and in their somewhat more angular outline, I feel com- 
pelled to separate it. 

11. Elymnias Lais. 

Papilio Lais, Cram. 110. A. B.; Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 
pt. i. p. 58; Biblis Lais, Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. 326; 
Melanitis Lais, Doub. West. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lep.; 
Elymnias Lais, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 237. 

Hah. — Sumatra (Wall. cJ • ? Oj Java, Borneo (B. M. 
<^. ?). 

The Java specimens (Cramer*s types) agree very 
closely with those of Sumatra and Borneo in the males. 
The female is paler and yellower in colour, and rather 
larger. A female from Sumatra, collected by myself, 
difiers considerably ; the markings are much less distinct, 
of a pale yellowish colour, except at the apex, where 
they are bluish; and the ground colour is rich brown. 
This specimen, to some extent, connects this species 
with E. Casiphone. 

12. Elymnias Casiphone. 

Elymnias Casiphone, Hiibn. Samm. Exot. Schmett. iii. 

pi. 18 ? 

m&.— Java (Coll. Wall., B. M. c?) . 

A species closely allied to E. Lais, but of very different 
colouration. 



326 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

13, Elymnias Timandra, n. s. 

Like E. Lais; outline of wings more dentate, especially 
on the hind- wings. 

Male. Above, like E. Lais, but the markings broader, 
and of a rich verditer blue on the upper- wings ; beneath, 
the base of the wings is much darker. 

Female. Wings more elongate; markings pale ochre, 
tinged with bluish on the upper-wings, the tooth at the 
outer angle of the hind-wings forming a short tail. 

Hah. — Sylhet, Moulmein (Brit. Mus., type) . 

Very closely allied to E. Lais, but the different outline 
of the wings, and distinct colouring, render it necessary 
to separate it. 

14, Elymnias Kamara. 

Elymnias Kamara, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p, 239. 
Hah. — Java (B. M. $ .) . 

15, Elymnias Ceryx, 

Melanitis Ceryx, Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. pi. 56. f. 8. 

Male. Wings more elongate, with the costa less arched 
than in E. Lais; whitish ash colour, with the veins and 
the outer margin of all the wings blackish bordered, in 
the border is a row of white spots which on the upper- 
wings are larger, ovate, and disposed in a very sinuate 
line ; the anal angle is tinged with ferruginous. Beneath, 
ferruginous brown, the whitish portions more restricted 
than above, and the margins beyond the row of spots 
with coarse white irrorations. 

Female. Paler, and less distinctly marked. 

Expanse 3-3^ inches. 

Hah.— Java (Coll. Wall., B. M.). 

The underside of this species is well figured by Bois- 
duval. I obtained specimens in Java, but it appears to 
be rare. 

16. Elymnias leucocyma. 
Bihlis leucocyma, Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. 326. 
Hah.— ^orth India (B. M., Coll. Wall.) . 



on Eastern Butterflies. 327 

17. Elymnias patna. 

Melanitis patna, Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 405. 

i7a&.— India (B. M.) . 

A fine species, somewhat like E. leucocyma, but with 
spots beneath as in E. Hewitsoni. 

18. Elymnias Malelas. 

Melanitis malelas, Hewits. Ex. Butt. iii. pi. li. f. 6,7. 

Hab. — East India (Coll. Saunders and Hewitson) . 

Allied to E. leucocyma, but differing in the smooth 
outline of the wings, and the produced outer angle of 
the hind- wings. 

19. Elymnias Vasudeva. 

Elymnias Vasudeva, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 238. 
Hah. — Darjeeling (E. I. Museum) . 

20. Elymnias Hewitsoni. 

Melanitis leucocyma, Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 53, 
pi. ix. f. 34 [nee Biblis leucocyma, Godt.) . 

^a6.— Macassar, S. Celebes (Coll. Wall., B. M.) . 

Female. Brown, with a purple gloss on the upper- 
wings, and a white band from the middle of the costa 
towards the outer angle; under-wings with the white 
submarginal spots small, and above them a white band 
from the median vein to the abdominal margin. Beneath ; 
with the white bands less distinct, the spots as in Mr. 
Hewitson^s figure, but smaller. The irroration very coarse 
and whitish. 

This species does not at all agree with Godart's descrip- 
tion, which is of an insect closely allied to E. undularis. 
I have therefore named it after Mr. Hewitson, who has 
so carefully figured it. 

21. Elymnias Hicetas, n. s. 

Male. Form of M. Hewitsoni; the subcostal vein not 
so close to its second branch as in that species, and the 



328 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

lower disco-cellular circular instead of elliptical. Above, 
blackish-purple or brown, a curved band across the apex, 
continued along the costal and outer margins to the anal 
angle, pale bronzy-blue ; the spots on the hind- wing much 
smaller and nearer to the margin than in M, Hewitsoni, 
and the two next the outer angle wanting. Beneath, 
irrorated as in M. Heivitsoni, the submarginal spots of the 
anterior wings absent; on the hind- wings the costal spot 
much smaller, and the marginal spots as above. 
Hah. — Macassar, S. Celebes (Coll. Wall., type) . 

This fine species is very closely allied to M. Hewitsoni, 
and being from the same locality, was at first considered 
to be a variety, but a more close examination showed that 
it difi'ered slightly in many important points, and must 
be considered as perfectly distinct. 

22. Elymnias cum^a, 

Melanitis cmncea, Fold. Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 452, pi. Ixi. 
f. 9, 10. 
Hab.—Gilolo (Coll. Feld.) . 
A fine species, very near to 31. Hicetas. 

23. Elymnias Mimalon. 

Melanitis Mimalon, Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 52, 
pi. ix. f. 1,2 (c?). 
Sa6.— Menado, N. Celebes (Coll. Wall., B. M.) . 

24. Elymnias Vitellia. 

Papilio Vitellia, Cram. 349. E. F.; Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. 

397. 
Melanitis stellaris, Vollenh. Tijd. Ent. iv. 159, ? . 
Hah. — Amboyna, Ceram (Coll. Wall., B. M.) . 

25. Elymnias viminalis, n. s. 

Male. Form of ^. Vitellia; the second branch of the 
subcostal vein more divergent. 

Above, uniform brownish -black, a narrow margin on 
the anterior, a broad one on the posterior wings, earthy- 



on Eastern Butterflies. 329 

brown. Beneath, marked as in E. ViielUa, but the spots 
have a greenish-yellow tinge, and those on the hind-wings 
are placed nearer the posterior margin. 

Hah.— Bouvn (Coll. Wall., type). 

Very close to E. Vitellia, of which it may be considered 
to be a local modification. 

26. Elymnias Cybele. 

Melanitis Cyhele, Fold. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1860, p. 248. 
Hah. — Batchian, Kaioa Is., Ternate (Wall.) . 

27. Elymnias Melias. 

Melanitis Melias, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1863, 
p. 120; Nov. Voy. Lep. tab. Ixi. f. 11. 

Hah. — Bourias, Locban (Philippines) . 
A remarkable black and white species, resembling an 
Euploea. 

28. Elymnias papua, n. s. 

Male. Above, dusky purplish-black, the hind-wings 
paler towards the outer margin, towards the centre of 
which are a few groups of pale ochreish scales forming 
indistinct spots. Beneath, dusky, the margins paler, 
especially on the lower wings, which have also three 
bluish-white round spots parallel to the inner margin, and 
two very minute ones near the outer margin. 

Expanse 2f inches. 

Hah. — New Guinea (Coll. Wall., type) . 

This species closely resembles an Euploea. 

29. Elymnias Melane. 

Melanitis Melane, Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 465, 
pi. Iv. f. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Hah.—Axu Islands, Ke Islands (Coll. Wall., B. M.). 

Males. Mr. Hewitson's fig. 1, represents a male from 
the Aru Islands ; one from the Ke Islands has the whitish 
band on the hind-wings much broader, and the black 
spots without ocelli. 



330 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

Females. Mr. Hewitson's fig. 2, represents one from 
Ke Islands ; another from Aru is much darker, and has 
the white patch on the anterior wings reduced. Fig. 3 is 
from the Aru Islands. Fig. 4 is from the Ke Islands. 

It is difficult to determine whether the forms from 
these two islands should be separated. There are some 
difi'erences in neuration, but a close examination of all 
my specimens has shown that these are not constant in 
both sexes. It will, perhaps, be better therefore to leave 
them together till a more extensive series from both 
islands may enable us to determine if any constant dif- 
ferences exist. 

30. Elymnias Melantho, n. s. 

Rather smaller than E. Melane, the second branch of 
the subcostal vein arising further from the end of the cell 
in both sexes. 

Male. Above, purplish -brown-black, apex of the an- 
terior wings slaty-blue, hind-wings with a bluish border 
and ocelli, as in the less strongly marked specimens of E. 
Melane. Beneath, nearly as in the Aru form oiE. Melane, 
but the apex of the upper wings is less distinctly marked. 

Female. Dusky, a whitish patch towards the apex of 
each wing, with an obscure ocellus and one spot on each 
hind-wing ; beneath, as above, with three very dark large 
ocellate spots on a small patch of rufous-orange. 

Hah. — Gagie Is. (West of Waigiou) (Wall., type) . 

This seems to be an extreme form of E. Melane, the 
most obvious difference is in the whole basal and central 
portion of the hind- wings beneath in the female being 
dark, whereas the disc is white in all the forms of E. 
Melane which I have seen. 

31. Elymnias Agondas. 

^ . Dyctis Agondas, Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Ent. p. 138, 
pi. iii. f. 5. 

9 . Dyctis hioculattis, Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 354, 
pi. 54*, f. 4 {nee Morplio hioculatus, Guer.) . 

Hab.—New Guinea, Mysol (Wall.) . 
This species may be readily distinguished from E. Me- 
lane, by having only one or two ocelli near the anal angle ; 



on Eastern Butterflies. 331 

as well as by the form and position of the ocelli in the 
female. In some males, the pale bronze border is 
dilated on the hind-wings into a broad whitish band. 
The Morpho hioculatus of Guerin, with which the female 
has been confounded, is a Drusilla, which wonderfully 
resembles it above. 



Genus Euettela, Boisduval. 

This essentially African genus is represented in the 
Malayan Islands by two very well-marked species, both 
of which appear to be somewhat rare, while it has not yet 
been found in India, a peculiarity of distribution which 
is analagous to that of the anthropoid apes. 

1. EURYTBLA CaSTELNAVI. 

Eurytela Castelnaui, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1860, p. 
401; Nov. Voy. Lep. tab. Ixi. f. 5, 6. 

Hab. — Singapore, Borneo (Wall.); Malay Peninsula 
(Feld.) . 

A remarkable species, of a deep ultramarine blue, with- 
out gloss. 

2. Eurytela Horsfibldi. 

$ . Eurytela Horsfieldi, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madagasc. p. 54. 
? . E. Stephensi, Boisd. lib. cit. p. 55. 
Hab. — Java. 

Though so different in colour, there can be little doubt 
that these two insects are the sexes of one species, since 
the structure of the feet shows that the blue are males, 
and the brown females. 

As BoisduvaPs descriptions are given in a work where 
they would not be expected to occur, I repeat them here. 

'^ Eurytela Horsfieldi. Alis dentatis, supra nigro-cyanes- 
centibus, fascia commvmi discoidali evanescente dilutiori ; 
subtus fusco-grisea, lineis 4 undulatis fuscis, posticis 
rotundatis, anticis apice productis." 

''Eurytela Stephensi. Alis dentatis, fusco-ferrugineis, 
lineis 4 undulatis fuscis, fasciaque discoidali communi, in 
anticis interrupta, lutea; subtus pallidioribus, posticis 
rotundatis, anticis apice productis.^' 



332 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

Genus Eegolis, Boisduval, 

This genus has been placed by Mr. Moore among the 
Nymphalidce near Precis, some of the species of which are 
very similar in colouration. Its larva, as figured from 
Horsfield's drawings, also agrees with the Junonia type, 
but the perfect insect, in the details of its neuration and 
other characters, is unmistakeably allied to the rest of 
the Eurytelidce. It seems probable, therefore, that as we 
know sometimes happens, the larva alone has become 
modified, so as to resemble a group with which it has no 
direct affinity. 

These are smaller insects than Elymnias, and frequent 
more open situations, fluttering among herbage, and 
having much the habit of the more active Satyridce. They 
range from Africa through India to Timor and the Mo- 
luccas, and though tolerably abundant in individuals, do 
not comprise more than a dozen known sjiecies. 

1. Ergolis Aeiadne. 

Papilio Ariadne, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 778; Fabr. Syst. 
Ent. p. 507. 

Papilio Goryta, Cram. 86. E. F. ; Ariadne Coryta, Horsf. 
Cat. Lep. E. I. C. pi. vi. f. 2 ; Ergolis Coryta, Doubl. Gen. 
Diurn. Lep. p. 411. 

Hah. — Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Flores, Timor, Formosa 
(Wall.); Sylhet, Mysore (B. M.). 

The description of Linnseus, "alis angulatis,'' and his 
locality " Java,'' agrees with this species, rather than with 
the Merione of Cramer, with which it has sometimes been 
confounded. 

2. Ergolis Merione. 

Papilio Merione, Cram. 144. G. H. 

Ergolis Ariadne, Doubl. List Lep. B. Mus. pt. 1, p. 145; 
Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 411 {nee Linn.). 
Hah. — North and Central India. 

Distinguished from E. Ariadne by its less angular wings, 
and more zigzag markings. A variety in the British 
Museum has paler wings, variegated with some yellowish 
spots. 



on Eastern Butterflies. 333 

3. Ergolis luzonia. 

Ergolis luzonia, Felder, Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 450. 
Hah. — Luzon. 

This species seetns to be a local modification of E. 
Ariadne, rather larger^ with slight differences in the 
markings, and the subapical white spot nearly or quite 
obsolete. 

4. Ergolis Is^us, n. s. 

Outline of wings nearly even, with an angular lobe on 
the upper-wings, waved striae somewhat as in E. Coryta, 
but disposed in pairs, no white spot near the apex ; on 
the hind-wings a series of distinct sub-lunulate ring 
markings, each enclosing an obscure reddish spot. 

Beneath, upper wings dusky, the disc reddish-brown, 
the borders pale, a dusky streak parallel to the outer 
margin; lower wings pale brown, the markings as above, 
but the lunulate ring spots smaller, the outer border ashy 
brown. 

The female is like the male, but paler, especially beneath. 

Size of ^. Coryta. 

Hah. — Singapore, Sumatra (Coll. Wall., type) . 

This species has probably been confounded with E. 
Coryta, from which the even outline of the wings, and 
the absence of the white spot, at once distinguish it. 

5. Ergolis taprobana. 

Ergolis taprohana, Westw. Gen, Diurn. Lep. p. 410, pi. 

68, f. 4. 

Faft.— Ceylon (B. M.) . 

A dark rusty-coloured species, with the upper-wings 
less angular than in E. Isceus. 

6. Ergolis timora, n. s. 

Male. Above, rich orange-brown. ; the outer margins, 
and the base within a waved line, dusky ; the outer edge 
scallopped, as in E. Coryta, but not marked with white, a 
submarginal waved line bounding the dusky border 
within, blackish. Beneath, rich brown, the basal half 



334 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

concentrically marked with dusty white bands^ which 
colour appears also in patches on the outer margins; a 
distinct white spot near the apex of the upper- wings, as 
in E. Coryta. 

Expanse 2 inches. 

Hab.— Timor (Wall., type) . 

7. ErGOLIS TiENIATA. 

Ergolis tceniata, Feld. Wien. Eut. Monats. 1861, p. 303; 
Nov. Voy. Lep. pi. Ixi. f. 1, 2. ? . 

Bah. — Luzon (B. M.). 

A distinct and very handsome species, distinguished 
by a broad rufous-yellow band on a brown ground-colour. 

8. Ergolis adelpha. 
Ergolis adelpha, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1861, p. 303. 
Hah. — Mindanao. 

Closely allied to E. tceniata, but smaller, and the an- 
terior wings more angulate. 

2. Ergolis obscura. 

Ergolis ohscura, Feld. Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 450, pi. Ixi. f. 3, 4. 

Hah.—'' Halmaheira," Gilolo (Felder). 

This very distinct species may be at once distinguished 
from the rest of the genus by its uniformly rounded 
wings. It is of a dusky colour, and the usual markings 
are nearly obliterated. 

Fam. LIBYTHEID^. 
Genus Libtthba, Fabricius. 

This small group is of world-wide distribution, and 
like all such, is a frequenter of open grounds, plains, 
river-banks, and sea-shores, rather than the virgin 
forest. The species are all small, and in the activity of 
their motions resemble the lesser Nymphalidce. Dr. Felder 
places them between the Erycinidoi and Danaidce. 



on Eastern Butterflies. 335 

1. LiBYTHEA MyBEHA. 

Idbythea Myrrha, Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. 171; Hiibn. 
Zutrage, f. 789, 790; G. R. Gray, Lep. Ins. Nepaul, 
p. 15, pi. xii. f. 4. 

Hah. — N. and S. India ; Yar. Ceylon and S. India 
(B. M.) ; Var. Borneo (Coll. Wall.) ; Java (Godt.). 

Varies much in the width of the bands and the size of 
the spots ; specimens from Ceylon and S. India have 
these very much reduced and paler, the apical spots 
being nearly white. Specimens which have recently 
arrived from Borneo, have the wings somewhat less fal- 
cate, and less dentate behind, but as the species varies 
so much, these can hardly be separated. 

2. LiBYTHEA LePITA. 

Lihythea Lepita, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 240. 

" Differs from L. Myrrha in the ferruginous streak 
from the base of the fore-wings being divided into two 
portions" (Moore.). 

Hab.—N. India, Bootan (E. I. Mus.). 

3. LiBYTHEA NaRINA. 

Lihythea Narina, Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. 171. 
Lihythea Neratia, Feld. Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 313. 
Ba&.— Coram, Gilolo (Wall. $ .) . 
This resembles the African species L. Lahdaca ; 
Godart's locality, ^^ Java," is, probably, erroneous. 

4. LiBYTHEA GeOFFROYI. 

Lihythea Geofroyi, Godt. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, ii. 
Lep. pi. 2; Enc. Meth. ix. 813. 

Female. Above, blackish-brown, the basal and anal 
regions reddish-brown. Anterior wings with four white 
spots, two transverse near the apex, as in the male but 
larger, a small oval spot at the end of the cell, and a 
much larger one below it. Hind-wings with the trans- 
verse orange band more distinct than in the male. 

Beneath; the spots as above, a basal stripe of dull 
orange, the apex of the anterior wings and the whole 
surface of the hind-wings of a reddish-ash colour, with a 
few blackish irrorations, which form a very obscure in- 
terrupted band across the disc. 



336 Mr. A. R. Walkce's Notes 

Expanse 2' 2 inches. 

Eah.—mmoY, Floras (Wall. c?. ?). 

Godart gives " Java" as the locality of his species, 
but it is more probable that the specimens came from 
some of the islands east of it. 

5. LiBYTHEA ANTIPODA. 

Lihythea antipoda, Feld. Nov. Voy, Lep. p. 813, pi. xlii. 
fig. 9, 10. 

S . Var. ?. Apex of fore-wings narrow, and rounded aa 
in L. hatchiana, of hind-wings somewhat toothed at the anal 
angle, as in L. ceramensis and L. Geoffroyi ; middle 
disco-cellular vein curved, lower nearly straight. 

Above : fore-wings uniform violet, with four black 
veins, and a narrow dusky border ; hind-wings violet, 
with a broad posterior and abdominal border. 

Beneath: fore-wings ochreish-yellow, slightly irrorated 
at the apex, and with two subapical pale spots as in the 
allied species ; the lower submarginal spot very faintly 
indicated ; hind- wings earthy-brown, irrorated, the 
whitish bands not very distinct. 

Hob. — Macassar (Wall.) , Philippine Is. 

My Macassar specimen agrees with one from the Philip- 
pines, but diflFers somewhat from Felder's figure and 
description. 

6. LiBYTHEA CERAMENSIS, n. S. 

Male. Rather larger than L. Geoffroyi, upper-wings 
less abruptly notched. Above, the violet-blue tinge ex- 
tends over the disc of all the wings, leaving only a dusky 
border, the white spots and rufovis band wanting, the 
nervures rather broadly dusky. On the underside, the 
fore-wings have the apical spots as in L. Geofroyi, but 
the lower spots are replaced by an obscure pale band, 
and there is no white spot within the cell, which is entirely 
rufous : the hind-wings are irrorated, blackish-brown, with 
three curved white bands. 

Expanse 21 inches. 

Hab. — Ceram (Wall., type) . 

7. LiBYTHEA BATCHIANA, n. S. 

Male. Very close to L. ceramensis, apex of wing more 
elongate and rounded, and hind-wings less produced at 
anal angle; the middle and lower disco- cellular veins are 



on Eastern Butterjiies, 



337 



more curved. The dusky margins of the wings are much 
broader, the veins thicker, and the violet colour darker 
and confined to the basal portion of the wings. Beneath, 
the colour is rather paler and the bands on the hind-wings 
better defined. Rather smaller than L. ceramensis. 
Hah. — Batchian (Wall., type) . 

Fam. NYMPHALID^. 
Genus Cethosia, Fabricius. 

No less than fourteen species of this genus have been 
recently described by Felder, many of them discovered 
by myself. I now add one more, bringing up the number 
of described species to twenty-four, of which the follow- 
ing is a list. With the exception of three Indian and 
one Australian species, all are found in the Malay Archi- 
pelago, and are pretty equally distributed between the 
Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan divisions. 



List of the Species of Cethosia. 



1. Bihlis, Cr. 

2. Javana, Feld. 

3. Mcesta, Feld. 

4. Amboinensis, Feld. 

5. Eurymena, Feld. 

6. Picta, Feld. 

7. Myrina, Feld. 

8. Nicobarica, Feld. 

9. Cyame, Fabr. 

10. Nietneri, Feld. 

11. Penthesilea, Cr. 

12. Hypsea,Dh.&B.ew. 

{:=Mole, Moo.) 

13. Hypsina, Feld. 

14. Lueonica, Feld. 

15. Mindanen$is,Feld. 

16. CydAppe, Linn. 

17. Bernsteinii, Feld. 

18. Chrysippe, Don. 

19. Damasippe, Feld. 



175, A. B. 
Nov. Voy. p. 384. 
Nov. Voy. p. 383. 
Nov. Voy. p. 382. 
Nov. Voy. p. 384. 
Nov. Voy. p. 381. 
Nov. Voy. pi. xlviii. f. 

3, 4. 
Nov. Voy. pi. xlviii. f. 

7, 8. 
Syst. Ent. p. 503. 
Nov. Vov. p. 380. 
145, B. C. 

Gen. pi. XX. f. 4. 

Nov. Voy. p. 385. 

Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. 

p. 107. 
Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. 

p. 106. 
Clerck, Icon. pi. xxxvi. 

f. 1. 
Nov. Voy. p. 379. 



Ins. N. Holl. pi. xxiv 

f. 1. 
Nov. Voy. p. 379. 



N. India. 

Java. 

Ceram, Batchian (W.). 

Amboyna. 

Manilla. 

Macassar (W.). 

Macassar,Menado(W.). 

Nicobar Is. 

N. and S. India. 

Ceylon. 

Java, Lombock, Timor 

(W.), India, China. 
Java, Borneo (W.). 

Singapore, Sumatra 

(W.), Malacca. 
Luzon. 

Mindanao. 

Amboyna, Ceram (W.). 

Batchian, Gilolo, Mor- 

ty (W.). 
Australia (W.). 



TEANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART IV. 



N. Guinea, Aru, My- 
sol (W.). 

(august) . 2 C 



338 



20. Cydalina, Feld. 



Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

Cethosia — continued. 

Nov. Voy. p. 380. 



21. Cyrene, Wall. 

22. Lamar ckii, Godt. 

23. LeschenauUii, 

Godt. 

24. Ohscura, Qner. 



infrd. 

Enc. Meth. ix. p. 249. 

Enc. Meth. ix. p. 249. 

Voy. Coquille, pi. xv. 
f. 4. 



Goram, Matabello, 

Ke (W.). 
Waigiou (W.). 
Timor (W.), Australia 

(B. M.). 
Timor (W.). 

New Ireland. 



Cethosia Cyrene, n. s. 

Male. Near G. Cydalina and C. Damasippe j anterior 
wings rather more elongate. 

Above : blue-black, the basal red portion well-defined, 
as in 0. Damasippe, but browner ; the anterior wings 
with the marginal lunules more distinctly marked, the 
submarginal white spots largest between the first and 
second median nervules, decreasing towards the apex, the 
white patch rather smaller than in G. Gydalina, but larger 
than in G. Damasippe ; posterior wings with the marginal 
white lunules distinctly marked, and an inner band of six 
white quadrate-lunate spots, divided by fine nervures, and 
each enclosing a triangular black spot. Beneath: it differs 
from the allied species nearly as above. 

Hah . — Waigiou . 

This fine species differs at first sight from all its allies 
by the conspicuous white band on the hind- wings, which 
is sometimes faintly tinged with rufous. It is certainly 
as distinct as any others of the Gydippe and Ghrysippe 
group. 



Genus Cireochroa, Doubleday. 

This genus has increased since the date of publication 
of the " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera,'' from three 
species to sixteen, given in the following list, including 
three which I now describe as new. Two inhabit India, 
and fifteen the Malay Archipelago, nine being found in 
the Indo-Malay region, three in Celebes, and two in the 
Papuan Islands. They frequent sunny openings in the 
forests, and resemble in their flight the genus Argynnis. 



on Eastern Butterflies. 



3;39 





List 


q/" Species of CirrocI 


iroa . 


1. 


Aoris, Doubl. 


Gen. Diurn. Lep. pi. 
xxi. f. 2. 


N. India. 


2. 


Thais, Fabr. 


Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. 


Java (W.), Moulmeiu, 






p. 149. 


Ceylon. 


3. 


Bajadeta, Moore. 


Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 
150, pi. cxi a. f. 3. 


Java. 


4. 


Malmja, Feld. 


Wien. Ent. Mouats. iv. 


Singapore, Siimatra 






p. 399. 


(W.), Malay Penin- 
sula. 


5. 


Calypso, Wall. 


infrd. 


Borneo (Sarawak). 


6. 


Clagia, Godt. 


Enc. Meth. ix. p. 816. 


Java (W.), Singapore 
(B. M.). 


7. 


TycTie, Feld. 


Wien. Ent. Monats. 
V. p. 301. 


Mindoro. 


8. 


Tlmle, Feld. 


Nov. Voy. pi. xlix. f. 

1,2. 
Wien. Ent. Monats. iv. 


Macassar,Menado(W.). 


9. 


Fasciata, Feld. 


Mindoro, Siimatra. 






p. 236, V. p. 301, Nov. 








Voy. pi. xlix. f. 9, 10. 




10. 


Haetera, Feld. 


Nov. "Voy. p. 388. 


f 


11. 


Eo-vatia, Moore. 


Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 
150. 


Borneo (W.). 


12. 


Orissa, Feld. 


Wien. Ent. Monats. iv. 


Singapore (W.), Malay 






p. 399. 


Peninsula (Feld.). 


13. 


Satyrina, Feld. 


Nov. Voy. p. 389. 


Celebes (Feld.). 


14. 


Semiramis, Feld. 


Nov. Voy. pi. xlix. f. 

3, 4. 
Nov. Voy. pi. xlix. f. 

5,6. 
inM, p. 340. 


Macassar (W.). 


15. 


Regitia, Feld. 


Aru Is. (W.). 


16. 


BucaJis, Wall. 


New Guinea, Waigiou 








(W.). 



CiRROCHROA Calypso, n. s. 

Male. Like C. malaya, Feld., outline of wings more 
even, upper-wings not so much elongate. 

Above : the nervures not black on the outer half of 
the wings as in G. malaya, the subapical small yellow 
spot absent, the inner row of lunules on the hind-wings 
more distant from the margin and less regular than in 
0. malaya. 

Beneath : on the anterior wings near the apex are four 
or five bluish-white lunules, on the hind-wings the trans- 
verse band is whiter, narrower, and not suddenly nar- 
rowed above the cell as in G. malaya ; the whole under- 
surface is of a richer brown, with the lunulate markings 
yellowish-brown, not dusky edged. 

Expanse 2" 7 inches. 

Hah. — Borneo (Wallace) . 

2 c 2 



340 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

Although very close to G. tnalaya, this species is suffi- 
ciently distinct both in outline and in characteristic 
markings. 

CiREOCHROA OrISSA. 

S . Felder, Wien. Ent. Monats. I860, p. 399. 

Female. Differs from the male, above, in being of a 
more earthy-brown colour, and in the median portion of 
the upper-wing forming a transverse band of pale brown- 
ish-yellow. Beneath, as in the male, but a little paler, 
and the transverse band on the upper-wings yellowish 
instead of white. 

Hah. — Singapore (Wallace); Malay Peninsula (Feld.). 



Cirrochroa ducalis, n. s. 

Size and form of C. regina, colouration more like C. 
Semiramis. 

Male. Above : the purple border is narrower than in 
C. regina, and the basal orange portion of uniform tint 
as in 0. 8emirands. 

Beneath : the ground colour is more rufous than in 
C. regina, the basal half rufous-orange tinged with 
pearly-violet, the silvery-white band is straighter with 
more even edges, and the waved submarginal band is 
rufous-orange on all the wings, and narrower than in 
G. regina. 

Hob. — New Guinea, Waigiou (Wallace) . 

This is a well-marked local form, which it seems de- 
sirable to distinguish from G. regina, a species peculiar 
to the Aru Islands. 



Genus Terinos, Boisduval. 

This beautiful genus contained but a single species 
from its establishment in 1836 to 1862, when Mr. 
Hewitson described four new ones, two of which were 
collected by myself. Felder and Butler have since each 
described a species, and I now add two more, bringing 
the number up to nine, of which the following is a 
list:— 



on Eastern Butterjiies . 



34-1 



List of the species of Terinos. 
1. Clarissa, Boisd. Sp. Gen. pi. ix. f. 4. 



2. Nympha, Wall. 

3. Rohertsia, Butl. 

4. Viola, Wall. 

5. Terpander, Hewits. 



6. Taxiles, Hewits. 

7. Abisares, F eld. 

8. Tewthras, Hewits. 

9. Tethys, Hewits. 



infrA, p. 342. 

Ann. Nat. Hist. 3rd 
Ser. XX. pi. viii. f . 2-4. 
infra, p. 343. 



Java, Borneo, Singa- 
pore (W.). 
Borneo (W.). 

Malacca, Siiniatra(W.). 

Singapore, Sumatra 

(W.). 
Borneo. 



Batchian, Gilolo (W.). 
Celebes (W.). 
East India. 



Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, 

p. 90. 
I. c. p. 89, pi. X. f. 3, 4. 
Nov. Voy. p. 886. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, 

p. 89. I 

I. c. p. 88, pi. X. f. 1, 2. ' Mysol (W.). 

The most striking characteristics of these insects are 
the hairy eyeSj and the large plush-like scales which, in 
the males, form a large patch on both wings, but which 
are often replaced in the females by blue bands and 
patches, giving this sex the aspect of a distinct species. 
Still more remarkable, however, is the great difference 
of neuration presented by the sexes in some of the 
species. Mr. Hewitson pointed out the variation in the 
position of the lower disco-cellular vein in relation to the 
second branch of the median vein, whereby closely allied 
species may readily be distinguished. This is undoubtedly 
the case ; but by examination of four species of which I 
possess both sexes, I find that the difference between 
the neuration of the sexes is fully as great as between 
that of the most distant species. I find also by measure- 
ment and comparison, that the disco-cellular vein retains 
a constant position, so that the length of the cell does 
not vary, and that it is the branches of the median vein 
that alter their position, being, in some cases, very much 
further from the base of the wing than in others. In T. 
Clarissa the sexual difference is perceptible, but slight. 
In T. Eohertsia and T. Taxiles it is very easily seen, as in 
the male the second median branch springs from the 
same point as the lower disco-cellular, while in the female 
it comes almost exactly midway between the first and 
second branch. In T. Ahisares the difference is still 
more marked, since in the male the disco- cellular arises 
in advance of the second median branch, while in the 
female it is nearly midway between them. This is a re- 
markable illustration of Darwin's law, that when a parti- 
cular character varies sexually, it also varies specifically. 
As a rule, differences of neuration are generic, rarely 



342 Mr. A. K. Wallace's Notes 

varying much from closely-allied species to species. Here 
we have them as a sexual distinction ; and we also find 
them varying in an unusual degree from species to species. 
It is a] so very interesting to remark, that in the two species, 
T. Eobertsia and T. Viola, the Singapore variety is more 
highly coloured, and has the branches of the median 
veins more distant from the base of the wing than in the 
more rufous-tinged Sumatran specimens, showing a re- 
markable correlation between local modifications of tint, 
and what are usually important and stable structural 
characters. 

Terinos Nymph a, n. s. 

Male. Form nearly as in T. Clarissa, but the outer 
margin of the upper- wings rather less hollowed, and that 
of the lower-wings considerably less angulate. 

Above : colour as in T. Clarissa, but the velvety patch 
extends higher across the upper discoidal vein, while it 
does not extend so far towards the base of the wing ; 
position of the lower disco- cellular nervure as in T. 
T amies. The orange-rufous patch on the hind- wings 
contains no dark lunular markings, but has a bluish sub- 
marginal line, most distinct near the anal angle, and the 
velvety patch at the outer angle extends fully half-way 
up the inner margin. 

Beneath : the markings are very similar to those of 
T. Clarissa, but there is a broad terminal band of pearly- 
pinkish- white on the hind- wings. 

Expanse 2*9 inches. 

Hah. — Sarawak. 

Distinct in form, neuration and colouring from the 
closely-allied T. Clarissa. 

Tekinos Eobertsia. 

Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd Ser. vol. xx. p. 399, 
pi. viii. figs. 2, 3, 4. 

Hah. — Malacca (Roberts); Singapore (Wallace). 

In this form the disco-cellular meets the median vein 
a little nearer the base than the origin of its second 
branch. 

Local form. A. 

Hab. — Sumatra (Wallace). 

Browner, with the blue portions more violet, and the 
white posterior spots replaced by rufous. The disco-eel- 



on Eastern Biitterjiies. 343 

lular meets the median vein at the origin of its second 
branch. 

These two forms are so much alike that, notwith- 
standing the difference of neuration, I hardly like to 
separate them. 

Terinos Viola, n. s. 

Male. Form of T. Clarissa, but the apex of the an- 
terior wings rather broader and more angulate, the hind- 
wings a little more caudate. 

Above: violet or violet-brown, the velvety patch ex- 
tending over the upper discoidal vein on the anterior 
wings. Hind- wings rich violet-blue, or brown tinged 
with violet, a velvety patch at the outer angle as in T. 
Clarissa, a pale white or brownish patch on the outer 
margin, and a submarginal dusky or bluish waved line. 

Beneath : rufous-brown, with waved brown markings 
on the basal portion of the wings, the hind-wings with a 
pale submarginal band enclosing a broad zigzag rufous- 
yellow line, within which are four rufous spots. 

Expanse 3*5 inches. 

Ba6.— Singapore, Sumatra (Wallace) . 

Distinguished at once by its angular form and peculiar 
colouration. The Sumatra specimen is less deeply 
coloured than that from Singapore, and the lower disco- 
cellular meets the median vein a little beyond the origin 
of its second branch, while in the darker Singapore form 
the two meet at the same point. The two forms are, in 
other respects, so much alike, that I hesitate to separate 
them. 

Genus Atella, Doubleday. 

I describe one new species of this small and simply- 
coloured genus, which now contains nine Eastern 
species, as in the following list : — 

1. Phalanta, Drury. India, Java, Timor, Macassar. 

2. AJcippe, Cram. 

3. Celebensis, Wallace. 

4. Aruana, Feld. 

5. Sinha, KoUar. 



6. Egista, Cram. 

7. Fasciata, Feld. 

8. Gaherti, Guer. 

9. Egestina, Quoy and Gaim. 



Ceram, Batchian, Gilolo. 

Celebes. 

Aru Is., Mysol. 

Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Timor, 

N. India. 
Amboyna, Bouru, Batchian, Morty, 

N. Guinea. 
Sumatra. 
Taiti. 
Guam. 



344 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notrs 

These insects frequent sunny open places^ and resemble 
in appearance and habits the genus Melitcea. 

Atella celebensis, n. s. 

Near A. Alcippe ; costa rather more curved, and outer 
edge straighter. 

Male. Above : on the anterior wings the submarginal 
lunules are less defined and thicker, that at the outer 
angle forming an elongate spot ; the inner band of spots 
is farther from the margin and less regular, and there is 
a third row of small lunulate marks which is barely indi- 
cated or altogether wanting in A. Alcippe ; the basal 
markings are also more distinct. On the hind-wings the 
black costal margin is divided throughout by a rufous 
line, the transverse line across the disc and the basal 
markings are more distinct. 

Beneath : the spots and black markings are paler than 
in A. Alcippe, and the pale submarginal band enclosing 
the row of spots is a little broader. 

Female. The spots and markings rather broader and 
less defined than in the male, the median band edged 
with a line of violet-pink, somewhat as in Messaras 
Mceonides. 

Expanse 2"1 — 2*4 inches. 

Hah. — Macassar (Wallace) . 

This species appears sufiiciently distinct from A. 
Alcippe, and the appearance in the female of the fine 
violet colour of a Celebesian species of the allied genus 
Messaras, is very remarkable. 

Genus Laogona, Boisduval. 

I possess two new species of this small genus, which 
brings up the number to six, ranging from India to New 
Guinea. These are strong and active insects, frequent- 
ing sunny places on the skirts of the forests. 



List of Species. 



1. Hippocla, Cram. 

2. HylcBus, WaU. 

3. Hypatia, Wall. 

4. Hypselis, Godt. 

5. Lilcea, Hewits. 

6. Hippalus, Feld. 



Java, Celebes, Moluccas. 

New Guinea. 

Java. 

India. 

India. 

Gilolo. 



on Eastern Butterflies. 3i5 

Cramer's type of L. Hippoda is from Amboyna. The 
specimens from Celebes differ considerably in marking, 
and may be distinct. The females of these are brown, 
but paler than the males. The Indian form, with a white 
female, is probably distinct, and has not yet been 
named. 

Laogona Hyl^us, n. s. 

Male. Allied to L. Hippocla; outline of wings more 
even, except the portion between the short tail and the 
anal angle, which is more regularly scallopped. 

Above: nearly as in L. Kippoda, but the apical and 
upper marginal spot wanting on the anterior wings ; on 
the hind-wings the two transverse rufous bands are con- 
fluent, leaving a broad black margin without any sub- 
marginal line. 

Beneath: the markings are similar to L. Hippoda, 
but rather more diffused. 
Expanse 1*8 inch. 
Hah. — Dorey, New Guinea (Wall.) . 

Laogona Hypatia, n. s. 

Male. Form of wings nearly as in L. Hippoda, the 
outline a little more even. 

Above : the markings are nearly as in L. Hippoda, but 
the rufous band and markings are all enlarged, and have 
a very irregular outline, especially on the anterior wings. 

Beneath : quite distinct from L. Hippoda : the ground 
colour whitish ochre, veined in a complicated net-work 
with deep rusty brown; near the middle of the outer 
margin on the upper- wings is an elongate blackish spot 
with a blue centre, enclosed on its inner side with a 
horseshoe and a lunule of the ground colour; on the outer 
margin of the hind-wings is a row of brown spots enclosed 
by a double row of lunules on each side, the two central 
spots are violet-ash powdered with black, while the lateral 
ones consist of a brown ring with a whitish centre. 

Expanse 1"9 inch. 

Hah. — Java (Wallace) . 

On the under side this insect is somewhat intermediate 
between L. Hippoda and L. Hypselis. 



346 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

Genus Junonia, Hiibner. 

The Eastern species of tliis genus are often variable. 
The common /. Orithyia appears to vary on the islands 
from the continental form^ the females differing much 
more markedly from the males. An extreme form of the 
female from the Moluccas is that figured by Vollenhoven 
as Junonia Royeri. The following species from the island 
of Timor is very distinct, 

Junonia timorensis, n. s. 

Outline of /. Aonis, but the anterior wings a little more 
sinuate and more prominently dentate. 

Male. Above : rich fuscous-brown^ the base and outer 
margins rufous^ a narrow band of three ochre-yellow spots 
across the apex of the anterior wings^ the markings in 
the cell and the submarginal ocelli as in /. Aonis, but much 
less distinct; hind-wings with a triple ocellus towards 
the outer angle, the middle one large, next to this a small 
one, and another of medium size next the anal angle. 

Beneath : dark bronzy-brown, the band of four spots 
and one nearer the apex white, the ocelli nearly as above, 
but more distinct; on the hind- wing these are placed on 
a band of a more bronzy colour, beyond which is a pale 
ash coloured margin with two narrow dusky lines. 

Female. Like the male, but paler, and the white band 
across the apex wanting beneath. 

Expanse 2*3 to 2*5 inches. 

Hah. — Timor (Wallace) . 

Genus Cyrestis, Boisduval. 

This is one of the most elegant genera of butterflies, 
and the species are remarkable for their habit of settling 
frequently on the bare earth and rocks, with the wings 
spread out flat, so as fully to display their beautifully 
pencilled markings. I obtained seven new species in the 
Malay Archipelago, five of which have been already de- 
scribed by Felder and Butler. I now ofl"er descriptions 
of the other two, one closely allied to G. nivea, and the 
other to G. Faulinus, but sufliciently distinct. This brings 
the number of described species to twenty, ranging from 
India to New Guinea. 



on Eastern Butterflies. 347 

Cykestis 'Nais, n. s. 

Very near G. nivea, but distinguished from it by many 
minute differences of form and marking. On the upper 
wings the median vein is more abruptly arched beyond 
its second branch ; on the hind-wingSj the outer angle is 
more prominent, and the tails are vertical instead of 
divergent. 

Male. Upper side : the space between the two first 
cellular strigge is blue instead of brown, the orange spot 
at the outer angle is margined on the inuer side with 
blue lunules, and the inner marginal streak coincides on 
the two wings, forming a regular curved unbroken line, 
just within which is a streak of slaty-blue, with a metallic 
gloss. 

Beneath: the markings are much darker than in C. 
nivea, and the ground colour is of a more bluish-pearly 
tint; a rufous tinge extends more or less along the mid- 
dle of the marginal band on both wings. 

Expanse 2-1 inch. 

JSa6.— Timor (Wallace). 

The continuous marginal strigte on both wings, and 
the less divergent tails, at once distinguish this species 
from its very close ally C. nivea. 

Cyrestis Seneca, n. s. 

Very near C. Paulinus, compared with a female of which 
the differences are as follows : 

Female. Above: the dusky border is much wider, 
having a very narrow oblique white band, which is still 
further reduced by a faint dusky line just within it ; all 
the wings have a very fine submarginal black line, which 
is finely edged with white on the anterior wings, while on 
the hind-wings it is placed on a narrow white border, 
with a dusky edge within the white fringe ; there is an in- 
terrupted white line, very faint on the upper- wings, just 
beyond the row of dusky ovate white-ringed spots. 

Beneath : the dusky margin is much paler than in G. 
Paulinus, the black submarginal line is equally defined 
as above, and the two central lunules of the posterior 
band are considerably smaller than the others. The tails 
are long-er than in G. Patilimis. 



348 Mr. A. R. Wallace's Notes 

Expanse 2*6 inches. 

Hab. — Sula Island, Celebes group (Wallace) . 

A local form of C. Paulinus, but differs in characters 
which in that species seem constant in a large number of 
specimens. 



Genus Parthenos^ Hiibner. 

This genus consists of three large and handsome but- 
terflies of the Malay Archipelago, all tolerably abundant 
in the islands they inhabit^ but not easy to obtain in fine 
condition. 



1. P. Gamhrisius, Fabr. 

2. P. Sylvia, Cram. 

3. P. tigrina, Voll. 



ludia, Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo 

(Wall.). 
Java, Celebes, Sula Is., Batchian, 

Ceram, Ke Islands (Wall.); Pe- 

naug (Cantor). 
New Guinea, Mysol, Waigiou 

(Wall.). 



Parthenos tigrina. 
c? . Vollenh. Tijd. Ent. 1866, p. 210, pi. x. fig. 2. 

Female. Differs only in having the submarginal lines 
and longitudinal stripes faintly indicated on the black 
ground. In one specimen from New Guinea, the pearly 
white spots are obsolete, while the markings on the outer 
half of the wings are a little more distinct. 

Expanse 3' 9 inches. 

Hab. — New Guinea, Mysol, Waigiou (Wallace) . 

Genus Euripus, Doubleday. 

EURIPUS ROBUSTUS, n. s. 

Much larger than E. Halitherses, the median tooth of 
the hind-wings shorter and more oblique, the anal tooth 
wanting. 

Male. Above : brown-black, on the anterior wings a 
marginal and submarginal row of elongate spots, in pairs, 
dusky and indistinct, basal and discal spots arranged as 
in E. Halitherses, but less defined. Hind- wings with the 



on Eastern Butterflies. 349 

basal half white^ divided by narrower black veins than in 
E. Halitherses ; a row of very small white spots in pairs 
close to the margin, and an inner row of linear spots also 
in pairs. 

Beneath ; dusky, the markings nearly as in E. Hali- 
therses, a large elongate blackish patch parallel to the 
inner margin of the anterior wings, the spots on and near 
which are bluish and violet. 

Expanse 3"1 inch. 

Hah. — Tondano, N. Celebes (Wallace). 

A very distinct species of this curious little genus. 



Genus Apatura, Fabricius. 

Apatura macae, n. s. 

Near A. Parisatis, but larger, and the anal angle less 
produced. 

Male. Above : deep bronzy-brown, paler towards the 
margin, which is regularly dentate, the intervals white- 
edged ; a brown-black submarginal line, within which 
is a row of lunulate markings, more distinct on the 
hind-wings, which have an oval black spot, orange- 
ringed, near the anal angle; on the anterior wing is a 
row of five or six white points parallel to the outer 
margin. 

Beneath : bronzy-reddish-brown, spots in the discoidal 
cells nearly as in A. Parisatis, the median transverse 
band pale brown, the anal and submarginal spots as 
above, but the third and sixth white points are enclosed 
in black spots, the latter the largest. 

Female. Dark brown, the outer half paler, more or 
less tinged with rusty-orange ; an irregular band of 
white spots well-defined on the inner edge, begins about 
the middle of the costa at the subcostal vein, and form- 
ing a broken curve on the anterior wings, passes in a 
straight line to about the middle of the abdominal mar- 
gin; the other spots and markings are the same as on 
the underside of the male. 

Beneath, nearly as above, but paler. 

Expanse, ,^ , 2-4 inches; ? , 2-5 inches. 

Hah. — Macassar (Wallace) . 



( 351 ) 



XXII. On the Australian species q/^ Tetracha. By Edwin 
Beown. 

[Read 5th July, 1869.] 

Specimens of the Australian species of the genus Tetra- 
cha have hitherto been very rare in European collections. 
Baron Chaudoir in his ''Catalogue de la Collection de 
Cicindeletes," published in 1865, only mentions one 
species which he possessed from Australia. A recent 
importation, however, of specimens, has afforded me the 
opportunity of examining several species, which were 
previously unknown in this country. Gemminger and 
Harold, in Vol. i of their " Catalogus Coleopterorum," 
issued . in 1868, notice the following species of Tetraclia 
as from Australia. 



Australasice, Hope 
australis, Chaud. 
hasalis, McLeay 
Bostockii, Castel. 
crucigera, McLeay 
Hopei, Castel. . 
humeralis, McLeay 
scapularis, McLeay 
Waterhousei, Castel. 



Port Essington. 
Nov. Holl. 
Port Denison. 
Nov. Holl. 
Port Denison. 
Nov. Holl. 
Port Denison. 
Port Denison. 
Nov. Holl. 



McLeay remarks that of these species, T. humeralis, 
scapularis, crucigera, and Australasice, resemble each 
other in being more or less margined with yellow. To 
this group may also be added, as they are margined in 
like manner, T. Hopei and BostocMi, and probably also 
T. hasalis, but of the last-mentioned species I have not 
yet seen the description. 

The species mentioned in the paragraph, as above, 
will, therefore, stand as follows : — 



Section I. Elytra margined with yellow. 
Tetraclia humeralis, . . McLeay. 



T. Hopei, 


, , 


Castel. 


T. scapularis. 


. 


McLeay 


T. Bostochii, 


, 


Castel. 


T. crucigera. 


• 


McLeay 


TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. 


— PART IV. 


(august) . 



352 Mr. E. Brown 07i Australian 

The identity of Australasioe, of Hope, has still to be 
ascertained, as, apparently, specimens do not exist under 
that name in Australia. Count de Castelnau suggests 
that Australasice, of Hope, is identical with crucigera, of 
McLeay ; but he remarks that the insect figured by 
White under the name Anstralasioe, in the Voyage of the 
' Beagle,^ is certainly the humeralis of McLeay. Unfor- 
tunately, Hope's description of Australasice is so imper- 
fect, that the question cannot be decided from that alone. 
The specimens under the name of Australasice in the 
British Museum, are, I believe, from recollection, iden- 
tical with humeralis. An examination of the original 
Hopeian specimen, now at Oxford, is requisite to set the 
matter at rest. The name, however, had better be drop- 
ped altogether. 

Of the Australian species of Tetraclia, mentioned by 
Gemminger and Harold, there remain the australis, of 
Chaudoir, and Waterhousei, of Castelnau, neither of 
which is margined with yellow; but these are undoubt- 
edly two names for one and the same species; and as 
Baron Chaudoir's name has priority of date, it must be 
used in preference to the other. The second section 
will stand thus: — 

Section II. Elytra tipped , hut not margined, with 
yellow. 

Tetracha australis, ChR.ud. zzWaterhotisei, Castel. 

The recorded species are consequently reduced to 
seven. I have now, however, to mention an eighth, and 
new species, said to be from Champion Bay, in Western 
Australia, of which I possess two male specimens. 

The characters are as follow: — 

Section III. Elytra wholly green. 

Tetracha p^dchra, n. sp. 

$ . Length 7-8 lines ; breadth of elytra 3 lines. 

In shape, more cylindrical than any of the other Aus- 
tralian species with which I am acquainted. 

Elytra brilliant golden-green, the sutures metallic blue ; 
coarsely punctured at the base, the punctures gradually 



8-pecies of Tetracha. 353 

reduced in size until near the apex, where they become 
obsolete; the usual subapical line of pits well defined. 
Thorax wholly golden-green, with blue and purple re- 
flections on the disc and sides. Head the same in colour. 
The abdomen has the basal segments green, the apical 
segment yellow at the tip, pitchy at the base, the second, 
third, and fourth from the apex, pitchy, the last mentioned 
green at the sides. Legs: thighs chesnut brown; tibiae 
and tarsi obscure yellow, with the tips of all the joints 
stained with brown. Antennge yellow. Jaws long and 
powerful, yellow; teeth black. 

I may remark that all the Australian species of Tetra- 
cJia have a peculiar fades, which at once distinguishes 
them from the species from America. They are broader, 
and more robust insects ; and they all possess a well de- 
fined longitudinal subsutural line of pits, situate at about 
one-fourth of the width of the elytron from the suture, 
curving outwardly as it approaches the apex. This line 
of pits does not exist at all in those American species 
which I possess, or if there be any trace of it, it is only 
in very close proximity to the suture. The Old World 
species T. quadrisignata and eiiphratica, both possess the 
line of pits above mentioned, and they further agree in 
shape with their Australian relations. Sooner or later the 
Old World species must be arranged in a genus by them- 
selves, throwing T. Boccandei into the genus Megacephala, 
to which it more properly belongs. The generic limits 
will then accord with geographical habitats, as ought 
always to be the case where nature will permit. 



2 D 



■ ( 355 ) 

XXIII. On the Diurnal Lepidoptera described in Omelin's 
Edition of the Systema Naturae. By W. F. 

KlEBT. 

[Bead ,1st November, 1869.] 

Gmelin's edition of Linnaeus* 8ystema Naturce contains a 
considerable number of new species of Diurnal Lepidoptera, 
most of which were preyiously described at greater length 
(but without names) by Zschach, in the Entomological 
portion of the Museum Lesheantim. These names and 
descriptions are never quoted, and therefore it may not 
be useless to give full descriptions of all such species as 
have not yet been satisfactorily identified, and indications 
of the others. The remains of Leske^s collection are in 
the Museum of the Royal Dublin Society, but the greater 
.number of the specimens have succumbed to the ravages 
of time and neglect. Nevertheless I have succeeded in 
recovering several of the types, most of which I have 
been able to identify, with the kind assistance of Mr. 
Hewitson. A few of the more obscure or damaged types 
I had not time to work out when in the neighbourhood 
of London ; and one or two types which I had overlooked 
were detected after my return to Dublin. These latter, 
however, are of slight importance. Most of the types 
are numlDcred, and are therefore certain ; but a few were 
incorrectly numbered, or not marked at all; wherever 
the smallest doubt about a type exists, it is indicated in 
the following pages. 

Our collection is not sufficiently large for me to attempt 
to identify those species of which no types exist ; but I 
quote Gmelin's names and Zschach's descriptions in full, 
hoping that if publicity is given to them, others may be 
enabled to do so. Unfortunately Zschach gives no local- 
ities, simply noting "'europaeus" or "exoticus," which 
will increase the difficulty of applying his descriptions. 

It will be seen that in most cases Gmelin's names are 
; merely synonyms, but in some instances they have 
priority, and a full claim to be restored. 

I take the species in the order in which they occur in 
Gmelin, and where they have been satisfactorily identified, 
the names by which they will henceforth, in accordance 
with the law of priority, be known, are printed in capitals, 
and referred to the modern genex'a. 

TRAKS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART V. (DECEMBER.) 2 E 



356 Mr. W. F. Kirby on 

The references for Gmelin are to Linn. Syst. Nat. I. v. 
(ed. 13; 1788-1791): for Zschach to " Musei Leskeani 
Pars Entomologica/^ (Leipsic; 1788; three coloured 
plates) 

PAPILIO. 

* Equites. 

1 1 Achivi. 

1. P. Argyrios, Gmel. p. 2248. 

P. E. A. alls dentatis, supra nigris, anticis fasciis dua- 
bus argenteisj postica nebulosa, subtus coeruleo-argenteis 
fasciis duabus, apice margineque postico unitis, fuscis, 
striae transversae^ coeruleo-argenteae versus basin, utrinque 
ad marginem crassiorem, alis posticis dentatis, dente in- 
termedio reliquis longiore, supra fascia latiori argentea, 
maculisque 7 coeruleo-argenteis^ lineola transversa inter- 
ruptis ad marginem posticum ; subtus ccEruleo-argentese, 
in medio maculis tribus transversis Eeneis, unaque remota 
ad marginem internum, fasciisque duabus nigris, prima 
undata, altera dentata, margineque postico nigro, albo 
maculate, inter fasciam posticam et marginem maculae 
coeruleo-argenteas, anticis lineolis nigris interruptae, macu- 
lae tres dentatae, nigrae, ad marginem internum versus 
angulum ani; abdomen subtus luteum. Exoticus, 
(Zschach, p. 87, n. 6.) 

* * Heliconii. 

2. P. 8ectator, Gmel. p. 2250. 

P. alis primoribus supra fuscis, fascia dilatiore trans- 
versa, posterioribus nigris, posterius albo caeruleoque 
punctatis. 

Meerb. Afb. t. 10. 

Habitat (Gmel.) 

A reference to Meerburgh (Afbeeldingen van zeld- 
zaame gewassen ; Leyden; 1775) would probably fix this 
species. 

* * * Parnassii. 

3. P. hyalinus, Gmel. p. 2259. 

P. Par. alis rotundatis, posticis caudatis, fusco-hyalinis, 
anticis fascia lineari, obsoleta, subtus alba ; posticis supra 



Diwrnal Lepidoptera. 857 

basi coerulescente^ stria undata, nigra, terminata ocellis 
duobus nigris, pupilla alba, adjacente utrinque macula 
alba, aliisque dispersis circiter 15 albis, coeruleo-insiden- 
tibus; subtus fascia dimidia, annexa circulo macularuin 
6 albarum, punctulisque duobus; ocelli duo vividiores, 
antico majore. Exoticus. (Zschach, p. 88, n. 26.) 

Probably a species of Hcetera, or of one of the allied 
genera. 

* * * * Danai. 

t Candidi. 

4. PlERIS IssE. 

Pajnlio Isse, Cram. Pap. Ex. pi. 55, E. F. (1779), 

pi. 339, C. D. (1782). 
Papilio hicolor, Gmel. p. 2261 =Pap. No. 31, 

Zschach, p. 88. 

5. PlEEIS DISCORS. 

Papilio discors, Gmel. p. 2261 = Pap. No. 32, 

Zschach, p. 88. 
Papilio Plexaris, Donov. Ins. N. Holl. (1805). 
Catlicemia Anthypa.rete, Hlibn. Verz. p. 92 (1816) . 
Pieris Philyra, Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. 159 (1819). 

6. PlERIS DORIMENE. 

Papilio Dorimene, Cram. Pap. Ex. pi. 387, C. D-. 

(1782). 
Papilio fuliginosus, Gmel. p. 2261=Pap.No. 34, 

Zschach, p. 88. 

7. Papilio chrysopterus, Gmel. p. 2261. 

P. D. C. alis rotundatis, utrinque flavis, anticis mar- 
gine antico, postico latius nigris, intus sinuato ; posticis 
margine postico nigris, subtus omnibus totis flavis. 
Exoticus. (Zschach, p. 89, n. 35.) 

Almost certainly a species of Terias; but impossible to 
identify by the description. 

2e 2 



358 Mr. W. F. Kirby on 

t t Festivi. 
7. EUPLCEA Ph^nareta. 

Papilio Phcenareta, Schaller, Naturf. xxi. 177, 

pi. V (1785). 
Papilio affinis, Gmel. p. 2289= Pap. No. 46, 

Zschach, p. 89. 
Terpsiclirois Alea, Hiibn. Verz. p. 16 (1816) . 
JDanais Frothoe, Godt. Enc.Meth. ix. 177 (1819) . 

The type of Zschach, No. 46, is evidently the Frothoe 
of Godart; but Gmelin's name affinis cannot stand, as 
Mr. Butler and I have independently discovered that the 
Fhcenareta of Schaller is identical with Frothoe, and Schal- 
ler's description was prior to Gmelin^s. 

■ 8. Danaus Limniace. 

Fapilio Limniace, Cram. Pap. Ex. pi. 59, D. E. 

(1779). 
Fapilio exoticus, Gmel. p. 2289 =Pap. No. 46b, 
Zschach, p. 89. 

9. Fapilio claviger, Gmel. p. 2289. 

P. D. F. alis subintegris, fuscis, maculis punctisque 
albis, hyalinis, basi anticis longis, posticis radiatis, cla- 
vatis, marginibus posticis duplici serie punctorum alborum, 
subtus concolores. Exoticus. (Zschach, p. 89, n. 46c.) 

The apparent type of this insect is very similar to, but 
not quite identical with, our specimen of Danaus Juventa, 
Cram. 

10. Drusilla Ukania. 

Fapilio Urania, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 225 

(1764). 
Fapilio marinus (misprint for murinus), Gmel. 

p. 2289 = Paj^. No. 47, Zschach, p. 89. 

The type agrees with the figure [Fapilio Jairus) in 
Donovan's Insects of China. 

11. EuPLCEA LEUCOSTICTOS. 

Fapilio leucostictos, Gmel. p. 2289= Pap. No. 
48, Zschach, p. 90. 



Diurnal Lepidoptera. 359 

Limnas mutahilis Nemertes, Hiibn. Samml. Ex. 

Schmett. i. (1806-1816). 
Danais Eunice, Godt. Enc. Meth. is. 177 

(1819). 

12. Papilio hexophthalmos, Gmel. p. 2289. 

P, D. F. alis subcaudatis, integerrimis^ basi fulvis, 
anticis margine antico^ pr aster basin, posticoque late 
nigro, maculis duabus fulvis, arcuque 5 punctorum albo- 
rum, subtus cinereo griseoque variae, striga transversa, 
fasca, antice dentata, serieque punctorum, quorum sex 
ocelli obsoleti, alis posticis margine postico late nigris, 
ad angulum ani cauda brevi instructis, subtus striga 
fusca, et utrinque ocellis duobus nictitantibus. Exoticus. 
(Zschach, p. 90, n. 49.) 

This belongs to the genus Doleschallia, of Felder, and 
Mr. Hewitson thinks that it may possibly be a female 
variety of D. Bisalticle {Papilio Bisaltide, Cram. pi. 102, 
C. D.) ; but it is much larger than the ordinary form of 
that species. 

13. SiDEKONE STRIGOSA. 

Papilio strigosus, Gmel. p. 2290 =Pap. No. 55, 

Zschach, p. 90. 
8iderone Zethus, Westw. in Dbl. & Hew. Gen. 

Di. Lep. p. 321, note (1850). 

***** Nymphales. 
f Gemmati. 

14. DiADEMA PaNDAEUS. 

Papilio Pandarus, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 198 
(1764). 

$ Papilio lacteolus, Gmel. p. 2290 =Pap. No. 
58b, Zschach, p. 90. 

15. Papilio hifasciatus, Gmel. p. 2290. 

N. G. alis angulatis, fuscis, subtus cinereis, strigis 
duabus communibus, fuscis, fasciaque lata, cinerea, com- 
muni, postice dentata, in qua series ocellorum fundo 
fusco, priorum 5 intermediis majoribus, posticarum sex, 
pupilla alba, iride lutea. Exoticus. (Zschach, p. 91, n. 59) . 



360 Mr. W. F. Kirby on 

One of the Satyrince. A fragment of one of the types 
is still in existence ; but I have not yet succeeded in 
identifying it. 

t t Phalerati. 

16. Papilio 8ulfitia, Gmel. p. 2336. 

N. P. alis dentatis, concoloribus, atris, subtus 
fuscis, anticis disco punctulis duobus albis, uno pone 
alterum, pone discum duo paria macularum albidarum, 
punctaque 7 ad margineui posticum, subtus basi linea 
alba, bis interrupta, ad marginem posticum series gemina 
lunularum albaruni ; alae posticae fascia e maculis 7 albis 
punctulisque tribus, postice versus marginem anticum, 
subtus eadem fascia serieque triplici lunularum albarum 
ad marginem posticum. Exoticus. (Zschach, p. 92, 
n. 88.) 



17. Papilio Vidua, Gmel. p. 2336. 

N. P. alis dentatis, nigris, anticis macula magna, 
ovata, oblique posita, ad apicem minore alba, pellucida, 
subtus basi luteae, punctis tribus albis, ad marginem 
anticum, margo posticus bis lunulatus ; alis posticis disco 
albo, pellucido, lunula rufa, tribusque coeruleis ad angu- 
lum ani, subtus basi luteo-fuscis, puncto nigro, in medio 
fascia lata, alba, lunula nigra, ad marginem anticum dein 
fascia lutea, punctis ferrugineis, margo posticus coeruleus, 
striis duabus nigris, undulatis, extrema albo-sinuata. 
Exoticus. (Zschach, p. 92, n. 89.) 

****** Plebeji, 
t Rurales. 

18. Papilio Barharus, Gmel. p. 2352. 

P. alis ecaudatis cserulescentibus, subtus undique fusco 
maculatis; ocellis posterioribus duobus. 

Habitat Algiriae, Argiolo minor. (Gmel.) 

A species of Polyonimatus, which the locality will 
perhaps aid in identifying. 



Diurnal Lepidoptera. 361 

19. Papilio anmdatus, Gmel. p. 2359. 

P. R. alls caudatis, coerulescentibus, anticis ma- 
cula fusca, annulo cceruleo, margineque postico fusco, 
posticis margine antico, subtus cinerascentibus, lineis 
tribus transversis, undatis, albis ad marginem posticum, 
punctoque ani gemino, jfulvo, disco nigro. Exoticus, 
(Zschach, p.93, n. 123.) 

A species of Thecla. The type has not yet been iden- 
tified. 

20. Papilio oculatus, Gmel. p. 2359. 

P. R. alis ecaudatis, supra fuscis, disco coeruleis, 
maculis obsoletis, atris, subtus fusco-canis, punctis ocel- 
laribus, disco lunula, area primoribus 5-6, posticis 8, ad 
basin unico, marginalibus 6 plerumque obsoletis. Euro- 
pceus. (Zschach, p. 93, n. 131.) 

21. Papilio liinulatus, Gmel. p. 2359. 

P. R. alis ecaudatis, fuscis, disco coerulescentibus, 
obsolete maculatis, subtus fusco-cinereis, disco lunula 
arcuque punctorum ocellarium, priorum 5, posticarum 7. 
Europceus. (Zschach, p. 93, n. 132.) 

If the expressions "maculis obsoletis" and ''obsolete 
maculatis," occurring in this and the preceding descrip- 
tion, may be considered to indicate that these two species 
belong to the A7-ion group, their identification will be easy ; 
otherwise I fear we can hardly expect to recognize them 
among the mass of Em-opean species of Polyommatus. 

t t Urbicolae. 

22. Pajnlio ^tUops, Gmel. p. 2360. 

P. U. alis integris atris, prioribus supra fasciis tri- 
bus fenestratis albis, maculisque coeruleis, ad angulum 
posticum, posticis basi striis duabus longitudinalibus, 
pallidis, strigaque transversa 5 punctorum coeruleorum, 
sinus externus internusque apicis albi, subtus basi fasciae 
duse transversge, pallidse, antica communi, dein duse 
coerulege, sinus albidae; collare punctis 4 albis, thorax 
fasciis 4 longitudinalibus, internis coeruleis, externis palli- 
dis; abdomen nigro luteoque annulatum, linea dorsali 
nigra. Exoticus. (Zschach, p. 94, n. 154.) 



362 Mr. W. F. Kirby on Diurnal Lepidojptera. 

A species unknown to Mr. Hewitson. The type 
liaving lost its antennas, the genus cannot be ascertained 
from it with absolute certainty; probably it is a 

Tyrrhopyga. 

23. Papilio bipunctatus, Gmel. p. 2360. 

P. U. alis integris, fuscis, anticis utrinque fascia 
obliqua, argentea, punctisque duobus minimis ad mar- 
ginem anticum, posticis subtus basi fascia striaque lutes- 
cente. Exoticus. (Zschach, p. 94, n. 160.) 

The type of this species is in existence, and I hope to 
be able to verify it. 

24. Papilio fenestratus , Gmel. p. 2360. 

P. U. alis integris, fusco-luteis, disco punctis fenes- 
tratis tribus, versus apicem ad marginem anticum tribus 
minoribus. Exoticus. (Zschach, p. 95, n. 161.) 

The type of this is so broken that there is but little 
chance of verifying the species. ' 

Zschach quotes Linnaeus and Fabricius, but not Cramer 
or any other authors; in fact, he would seem to have 
been quite unacquainted with Cramer's work, as it will 
be noticed that he redescribes several species figured in 
Pap. Exot. 

I may add that Leske's collection was purchased for 
the Royal Dublin Society at the end of last century. The 
Lepidoptera Heterocera are all destroyed or seem unrecog- 
nizable. There are, however,- a good many Coleopteraf 
&c., still in existence. 



( 363 ) 

XXIV. Descriptions of New Oenera and Species of Hispi- 
dae; with notes on some previously described 
species. By J. S. Baly, F.L.S. 

[Bead 15th November, 1869.] 



List of new species. 



1. 


Leptispo 


I Godwini 


Shanghai. 


2. 


Callispa proxima 


Siam. 


3. 


}) 


brevicornis . 


Penang. 


4. 


)} 


Brettinghami 


India. 


5. 


)} 


tarsata 


India. 


6. 


}) 


Mouhoti 


Cambodia. 


7. 


Gephalo 


leia approximata 


Upper Amazons 


8. 


)) 


laticollis 


Peru. 


9. 


)} 


Amazona 


Upper Amazons 


10. 


}> 


dimidiaticornis 


Peru. 


11. 


)i 


nigriceps 


Peru. 


12. 


)) 


truncatipennis 


Upper Amazons 


13. 


)> 


cognata . 


Bahia. 


14. 


)) 


apicicornis 


Eio Janeiro. 


15. 


}) 


flavipennis 


Ecuador. 


16. 


Hispodonta elegantula 


Amboyna. 


17. 


Promecotheca Eeichii 


Vavao. 


18. 


JBotryonopa cyanoptera 


Borneo. 


19. 


}) 


imperialis 


Philippine Isles. 


20. 


Esticjmena terminalis 


Tondano. 


21. 


Doivnesia atrata 


India. 


22. 


>) 


tarsata 


Hongkong. 


23. 


Aspidispa (n. g.) tibialis 


Gilolo. 


24. 


Gonophc 


wa nigriceps . 


Penang. 


25. 


a 


apicipennis 


Ceylon. 


26. 


Chceridiona (n. g.) metallic 


a India. 


27. 


}} 


picea 


India. 



Note. The numbers appended to the insects described 
in the present paper^ refer to the " Catalogue of Hispidas," 
and indicate the position that the species now described 
ought to take in relation to those contained in that work. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART V. (DECEMBER.) 



364 Mr. J. S. Baly ooi Neiv Genera 

Genus Leptispa, Baly. 

(Sp. 5.) Leptispa Godiuini. 

FiliformiSj subcylindrica, nigra, nitida, thorace sub- 
quadrato, disco utrinque excavate, ad latera confertim, 
dorse remote, foveolato-punctato, punctis irregulariter 
congregatis et minoribus interspersis ; elytris thorace 
vix latioribus, parallelis, pauUo ante apicem angus- 
tatis, apice ipso rotundato, sat fortiter punctato-striatis, 
striis leviter sulcatis, interspatiis nonnullis ad latera 
costatis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. — Shanghai. 

Antennae equal in length to the head and thorax, 
moderately robust, very slightly thickened towards the 
apex. Thorax subquadrate, scarcely broader than long, 
sides straight and parallel from the base to beyond the 
middle, thence rounded and converging to the apex ', 
above transversely convex, irregularly but not very closely 
punctured. Elytra scarcely broader than the thorax, 
sides parallel, apical border dilated, slightly reflexed. 

The species above described agrees closely in size and 
form with Leptispa abdominalis ; it may be known by its 
much coarser punctuation, and its entirely black colour. 

Genus Callispa, Baly. 
(Sp. 2a.) Callispa proxima. 

Anguste oblonga, subdepressa, nigra, nitida, supra 
nigro-caerulea, pedibus nigro-piceis, tarsis fulvis ; thorace 
disco subremote et tenuiter punctato, ad latera subcrebre 
varioloso, lateribus a basi ad apicem rotundato-angustatis ; 
elytris antice sat profunde, postice minus fortiter punc- 
tato-striatis, striis ad apicem sulcatis, interspatiis ad 
latera convexiusculis; fronte antrorsum angulato-producta. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hah. — Siam, Mountains of Laos; collected by the late 
M. Mouhot. 

This species stands very close to Callispa Bowringii; 
its antennae are rather more slender, their first and third 
joints being also shorter with relation to the second ; the 
sides of the thorax are more regularly rounded; and 
lastly, the colour of the surface of the body is much more 
obscure, the blue being strongly tinged with black. 



and Species of Hisjndce. 365 

(Sp. 2b.) Callispa brevicornis. 

Anguste oblonga, fere parallela, subdepressa, nigra, 
nitida, abdomine fulvo, supra metallico-casrulea; thorace 
lateribus a basi ultra medium oblique convergentibus, hinc 
ad apicem rotundato-angustatis, dorso transversim con- 
vexo, disco distincte, ad latera variolose punctate ; elytris 
ante medium minus fortiter, pone medium subtenuiter 
punctato-striatis, striis ad apicem vix sulcatis, margine 
laterali confuse punctato; fronte obtusa, antrorsum non 
productaj an tennis brevibus. 

Long. 2| lin. 

Rah. — Penang. 

Very similar in colour and punctuation to Callispa 
Boivringii, but the legs are entirely black ; it may be easily 
known by the short antennae, which do not exceed the 
head and thorax in length; the sides of the thorax are 
also rather less rounded; in other respects it is almost 
entirely similar. 

(Sp. 5a.) Callispa Brettinghami. 

Anguste oblonga, subdepressa, rufo-testacea, nitida, 
antennis nigris ; thorace ad latera foveolato-punctato ; 
elytris cyaneis, profunde punctato-striatis, striis apicem 
versus et ad latera sulcatis, interspatiis ad latera con- 
vexiusculis ; fronte antrorsum angulato-producta. 

Long. 3^ lin. 

Hab. — India; collected by Mr. Brettingham. 

Antenna about one-third the length of the body, taper- 
ing from base to apex, third joint distinctly longer than the 
first two united ; three lower joints sometimes obscure 
rufous; frontal projection acute. Thorax twice as broad at 
the base as long, sides straight and slightly converg- 
ing from the base to the middle, thence broadly rounded 
and converging to the apex; upper surface broadly ex- 
cavated on either side, coarsely variolose-punctate, disc 
less closely and less strongly punctured ; scutellum trans- 
verse, its apex obtuse ; elytra scarcely broader than the 
thorax, oblong, obtusely rounded at the apex, deep 
metallic blue with a purplish reflection, frequently stained 
at the base with rufous. 



366 Mr. J. S. Baly on New Genera 

■ (Sp. 5b.) Callispa tarsata. 

Anguste oblonga, subdepressa, sanguinea, nitida, an- 
tennis nigris, tarsis fuscis; thorace utrinque ad latera 
late excavate, varioloso-punctato, punctis disci medio 
minoribus, sparse hie illic congregatis, lateribus a basi 
longe ultra medium rectis ; elytris sat profunde punctato- 
striatis, punctis apicem versus minus fortiter impressis, 
striis ad apicem sulcatis, interspatiis ad latera convexius- 
culis; fronte antice truncata, medio in cretam brevem 
abrupte producta. 

Long 3 1 lin. 

Hah. — India; collected by Mr. Brettingham. 

Very nearly allied to Callispa Brettinghami, of which 
species I at first considered it a variety; but on closer 
examination, I find it differs in the following structural 
characters ; third joint of the antennee not longer than the 
first two united ; front obtuse, abruptly produced in the 
middle into a short longitudinal ridge, which runs down- 
wards on the face; sides of the thorax straight from the 
base to far beyond the middle, thence abruptly narrowed 
and rounded to the apex; scutellum not broader than 
long, pentagonal. It is possible that, coming from the 
same locality, it may be the ? of C. Brettinghami, but 
not knowing the sexual characters of the present genus 
and the tarsi being equally broad in both forms, I am, 
for the present, obliged to consider it distinct. 

(Sp. 5c.) Callispa Mouhoti. 

Subelongata, subdepressa, parallela, rufo-fulva, nitida, 
antennis rufo-fuscis ; thorace utrinque ad latera depresso, 
disco remote et tenuiter, lateribus variolose punctato, 
lateribus a basi vix ultra medium rectis, hinc ad apicem 
rotundato-angustatis ; elytris rufo-fuscis, ceeruleo-nitenti- 
bus, antice sat profunde, postice minus fortiter puncta- 
to-striatis, striis ad apicem sulcatis, interspatiis ad latera 
leviter convexiusculis ; fronte obtuse angulata. 

Long. 3 Hn. 

Hab. — Cambodia ; collected by the late M. Mouhot. 

Closely allied to the two preceding ; the third joint of the 
antennae not longer than the two basal joints united; 
front produced into an obtuse angle ; thorax less coarsely 



and Species of Hispidce. 367 

punctured ; intermediate in form between the two species, 
the sides being straighter than in 0. Brettinghami, but 
more broadly rounded in front than in 0. tarsata ; elytra 
less coarsely punctured than in either species ; scutellum 
scarcely longer than broad, pentagonal. 

Genus Aluenus, Fabr. 

Alurnus Batesii, Baly. 

A specimen of this beautiful species, until now unique 
in the collection of Mr. Bates, has been brought to this 
country from Ecuador by Mr. Buckley ; it is now in my 
cabinet. 

Alurnus Saundersii, Baly. 

A single specimen of this insect was also taken by Mr. 
Buckley ; it differs from the type in wanting the narrow 
black border at the apical margin of the elytra. 

Alurnus Cupido, Thomson. 

Since the publication of my " Catalogue of Hispidce," 
I have seen many specimens of this insect ; they all 
agree both in the persistence of the strong coloration of 
the elytra, and also in having these latter relatively 
shorter and broader than in A. hipunctatus, under which 
species I had placed Cupido as a variety ; I have now no 
hesitation in considering it a good species. I have re- 
ceived a specimen, agreeing in all respects with those 
from the Amazons, collected at Bahia by Mr. Reed. 

Alurnus Cassideus, Westwood. 

Several specimens of this species have been received 
from the Upper Amazons (Pebas) ; Prof. Westwood gives 
Mexico as the locality of his insect. The black markings 
on the elytra appear to vary considerably. 

Genus Cephaloleia, Blanch. 
(Sp. 7a.) Cephaloleia approximata. 

Elongata, subdepressa, flavo-fulva, nitida, oculis an- 
tennisque (his basi excepta) nigris ; thorace subcrebre 



368 Mr. J. S. Baly on New Qenera 

punctato, lateribus a basi paullo ultra medium rectis', 
parallelis ; elytris thorace paullo latioribus, parallelis, 
apice rotundatis, tenuiter punctato-striatis, striis apicem 
versus leviter sulcatis, interspatiis ad latera leviter con- 
vexiusculis, punctis ad apicem fere deletis. 

Fern.: abdominis segmento anali apice bisinuato; 
pygidii apice obtuse angulato. 

Long. 2^ lin. 

Sab. — Upper Amazons. 

AntennEe rather longer than the head and thorax, 
moderately robust, seven upper joints black, the apices 
of the third and fourth also remotely edged with the 
same colour; second joint equal in length to the third. 
Thorax about one-fifth broader than long, sides straight 
and parallel from their base to a short distance beyond 
the middle, thence rounded and converging to the apex ; 
upper surface transversely convex, sides distinctly but 
narrowly reflexed, disc remotely, sides and base more 
closely impressed with distinct round punctures. Elytra 
broader than the thorax, parallel, finely but distinctly 
punctate-striate, the striae on the sides and hinder half 
of the elytra slightly sulcate. 

C. 8allei is the only previously described species with 
which the present insect can be confounded ; it may be 
however at once known by the shorter third joint of 
the antennee, the somewhat narrow and more closely 
punctured thorax, and by the more finely punctured 
elytra ; in C. Sallei the elytra are much more strongly 
punctured, the punctures being of equal size, and equally 
impressed over the whole surface of the elytra. 

(Sp. 9a.) Cephaloleia laticollis. 

Oblonga, parallela, depressa, rufo-fulva, nitida; an- 
tennis apice, oculisque nigris, antennarum articulo se- 
cundo distincte tertio breviori ; thorace elytris sequilato, 
lateribus rectis, angulis anticis fere rectis, acutis, disco 
remote, lateribus subcrebre punctate; elytris tenuiter 
punctato-striatis, interspatiis tenuissime punctatis. 

Mas. : abdominis segmento anali medio modice rotun- 
dato-emarginato . 

Fem. : abdominis segmento anali apice leviter bisinuato. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Eab. — Upper Amazons, Peru. 



and Species of Hispidce. 369 

Very closely allied to Cephaloleia dilaticollis, the ^ 
being very difficult to separate from the S of that 
species; it may^ however, be known by its somewhat 
narrower and slightly less depressed form, by the more 
closely and distinctly punctured sides of the thorax, and 
by the more distinctly rounded apices of the elytra; the 
anal segment is also rather less deeply, but at the same 
time more broadly, rotundate-emarginate ; the ? may be 
at once separated by the bisinuate apex of the anal seg- 
ment of the abdomen. In both sexes the second joint of 
the antennae is distinctly shorter, taken in relation to 
the third joint, than in 0. dilaticollis. 

(Sp. 9b.) Cephaloleia Amazona. 

Elongata, parallela, subdepressa, nigra, nitida, ab- 
domine obscure fulvo-autnigro-piceo; thorace rufo-fulvo, 
elytris fere gequilato, lateribus fere rectis, angulis anticis 
rectangulis; elytris tenuiter punctato-striatis, punctis 
apicem versus fere deletis. 

Mas : abdominis segmento anali late subangulato- 
emarginato. 

Fern. : abdominis segmento anali bisinuato. 

Long. 21-3 lin. 

Hah. — Upper Amazons. 

Antennae less than half the length of the body, entirely 
black, basal joint slightly thickened, rather longer than 
the second. Thorax very similar in form to that of 
G. laticollis, nearly equal in width to the elytra, sides 
straight and slightly diverging along their hinder two- 
thirds, thence also straight but slightly converging to 
the anterior angles, the latter rectangular; the middle 
portion of the anterior margin distinctly produced ; upper 
surface transversely convex, concave on the sides, lateral 
margin reflexed ; surface impressed with distinct round 
punctures. Elytra scarcely broader than the thorax, 
parallel, obtusely rounded at the apex, finely punctate- 
striate, the whole surface very finely and irregularly 
wrinkled. 

The greater length of body, and entirely difi"erent 
coloration, will distinguish this insect from either dilati- 
collis or laticollis, the only two known species of the genus 
with which it agrees in form of thorax. 



370 Mr. J. S. Baly on New Oom-a 

(Sp. Ha.) Oeplialoleia dimidiaMcornis. 

Elongata, parallela, subdepressa, rufo-fulva, nitida, an- 
tennis extrorsum nigris ; thorace longitudine paullo la- 
tiorij lateribus parallelis^ disco remote, ad latera subre- 
mote punctato ; elytris thorace latioribus, parallelis, apice 
conjunctim rotundatis, tenuiter punctato-striatis, striis ad 
apicem fere deletis. 

Mas : abdominis segment© anali late sed leviter emar- 
ginato, medio sinuato. 

Fern. : abdominis segmento anali late sed leviter emar- 
ginato. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hah. — Peru. 

Antennae half the length of the body, five upper joints 
black, third joint distinctly longer than the second. 
Thorax about a fifth part broader than long, sides nar- 
rowly but strongly reflexed, straight and parallel, the 
extreme apex quickly rounded and converging, the an- 
terior angles obtuse ; above transversely convex, distinctly 
punctured, the puncturing distant on the disc, rather 
more crowded at the sides. Elytra parallel, conjointly 
rounded at the apex, finely but distinctly punctate-striate, 
the punctures nearly obsolete towards the apex of the 
elytra. 

The smaller size and narrower form will distinguish 
this species from its allies C. nigricornis and proxima. 

(Sp. lib.) Cephaloleia nigriecps. 

Elongata, subparallela, subdepressa, rufo-fulva, nitida, 
capite nigro ; thorace longitudine vix latiori, ad latera 
subcrebre, disco remote punctato ; elytris parallelis, apice 
rotundatis, tenuiter punctato-striatis. 

Mas : abdominis segmento anali late quadrate- emar- 
ginato, medio sinuato. 

Long. 24 lin. 

Hah. — Peru. 

Head and antennae black, the latter moderately robust, 
nearly half the length of the body, the third joint very 
slightly longer than the second. Thorax rather broader 
than long, sides slightly diverging forwards, straight 
from the base nearly to the apex, thence quickly rounded 



and /S^)^^'/^^ of Hisindce. 371 

and converging to the anterior angles, the latter ob- 
tuse: upper surtace transversely convex, sub-variolose- 
punctate on the sides, more finely and remotely punctured 
on the disc, a central space on the latter nearly free from 
punctures ; lateral border reflexed. Elytra broader than 
the thorax, narrowly sub-ovate, their apices conjointly 
rounded, above finely punctate-striate, the puncturing 
near the apex nearly obsolete, interspaces flat ; on the 
outer disc below the shoulder is a broad but ill-defined 
longitudinal groove. Knees indistinctly stained with 
piceous. 

G. nigriceps may be at once known, from all similarly 
coloured species, by its black head. 

(Sp. lie.) Oephaloleia truncatipennis. 

Elongata, parallela, dorso depressa, rufo-fulva, nitida, 
antennis (basi excepta) nigris ; thorace transverse, re- 
mote et subtenuiter punctate; elytris thorace paullo la- 
tioribus, fere paraAlelis, apice truncatis, dorso depressis, 
tenuiter punctato-striatis. 

Fern. : abdominis segmento anali obtuse truncato. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hah. — Upper Amazons: collected by Mr. Bates. 

Antennge rather more than a third the length of the 
body, black, the first three joints rufo-fulvous, third joint 
slightly longer than the second. Thorax distinctly trans- 
verse, sides strongly reflexed, straight and slightly con- 
verging from the base nearly to the apex, thence quickly 
rounded and converging to the antei-ior angles, the latter 
obtuse ; above transversely convex, excavated on the 
sides just within the reflexed lateral border ; remotely but 
distinctly punctate, the punctures rather closer at the base 
and sides. Elytra broader than the thorax, sides sub- 
parallel, obliquely rounded and converging near the apex, 
the latter broadly truncate ; upper surface broadly flat- 
tened along the sature, sides obliquely excavated below 
the humeral callus; finely punctate-striate, punctures 
entirely obsolete near the o] ox of the elytra; the middle 
third of the outer disc impressed near the outer border 
with a broad ill-defined longitudinal fossa. 

The truncate apices of the elytra, together with the 
obtuse anal segment in the ? (the only sex known to me), 
without difficulty separate this species from its congeners. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PAET V. (DECEMBER.) 2 F 



372 Mr. J. S. Baly on New Genera 

(Sp. lid.) Gephaloleia cognata. 

Elongata, depressa, pallide fulva, nitida, antennis (basi 
excepta) nigris ; thorace subquadi-ato, remote punctato, 
lateribus rectis ; elytris thorace latioribus^ parallelis, apice 
obtuse rotundatis, sat fortiter punctato-striatis, punctis 
apicem versus minus fortiter impressis, interspatiis planis, 
lis ad latera obsolete convexis, uno infra callum humerale 
costato. 

Fern. : abdominis segmento anali apice bisinuato. 

Long. 2^-3 lines. 

Hah. — Bahia. 

Antenna3 half the length of the body, basal joint nearly 
as long as the second and third united, the third half as 
long again as the second, the two lower joints rufous, the 
following two nigro-piceous, the rest entirely black. 
Thorax scarcely broader than long", sides straight and 
parallel, rounded and converging at the extreme apex; 
disc transversely convex, remotely impressed with round 
punctures, sides narrowly but strongly margined, re- 
flexed. Elytra broader than the thorax, parallel, obtusely 
rounded at the apex, rather more broadly margined than 
in the allied species ; upper surface slightly flattened at 
the extreme base between the shoulders ; sides oblique 
and excavated below the humeral callus ; distinctly punc- 
tate-striate in front, the punctures smaller and less strong- 
ly impressed behind the middle ; interspaces on the inner 
disc plane, those near the outer border slightly convex, 
the interspace below the humeral callus distinctly costate 
for nearly half its length ; fourth and fifth, stride from the 
outer border rather deeply impressed along their middle 
third. 



(Sp. He.) Cephaloleia apicicornis. 

Elongata, parallela, subdepressa, sordide flava, sub- 
nitida, subtus nitida; antennis apice oculisque nigris ; 
thorace longitudine distincte latiori, lateribus rectis, 
dorso hie illic punctis rotundatis fortiter impresso ; 
elytris thorace latioribus, parallelis, apice rotundatis, 
dorso prope suturam complanatis, punctato-striatis, 
punctis apicem versus minus distincte impressis, inter- 
spatiis ad latera convexiusculis. 



and Species of Hispidce. 373 

Mas : abdominis segmento anali apice concavo-emar- 
ginato. 

Fern. : abdominis segmento anali apice late sed le- 
viter emarginato^ bisinuato. 

Long. 2^ lin. 

Hub. — Rio Janeiro, New Friburg. 

Antennse half the length of the body, slender, basal 
joint moderately thickened, more than half as long again 
as the second, three upper joints black. Thorax slightly 
broader than long, sides straight and parallel, rounded 
at the extreme apex, anterior angles slightly produced, 
obtuse; upper surface transversely convex, lateral mar- 
gin strongly reflexed; surface impressed with deep 
round punctures. Elytra broader than the thorax, 
parallel, conjointly rounded at the apex; upper sur- 
face flattened along the suture, sides obliquely exca- 
vated below 'the humeral callus, causing it to appear 
laterally prominent; distinctly punctate-striate, the 
punctures near the apex less strongly impressed ; inter- 
spaces near the lateral margin indistinctly convex, the 
third from the outer border more strongly raised than 
the rest. 

C apic'icorms is very closely allied to C. cognata, but 
may be known by the much paler colour and more closely 
punctured thorax ; from G. nigricornis, Fabr., both 
species are separated by the diJ0Ferent emargination of 
the anal segment. 

(Sp. 13a.) Cephaloleia flavipennis. 

Elongata, parallela, nigra, nitida; thorace transverso, 
fortiter punctate; elytris flavis, thorace latioribus, fere 
parallelis, apice obtusis, distincte punctate - striatis, 
punctis piceis. 

Fern. : abdominis segmento anali apice truncate. 

Long. 3 J lin. 

Hab. — Ecuador ; collected by Mr. Buckley. 

Antennae moderately robust, scarcely half the length 
of the body, basal joint moderately thickened, about a 
third part longer than the second. Thorax one-fifth 
broader than long, sides straight and parallel, rounded 
and converging at the apex ; upper surface transversely 
convex, deeply but not very closely punctured on the 

2 F 2 



374 Mr. J. S. Baly on New Genera 

disc, a longitudinal space thereon being free from punc- 
tures ; the sides more closely punctured, lateral border 
reflexed. Elytra moderately convex, nearly parallel, 
distinctly but not strongly punctate-striate, the punctarea 
piceous; interspaces plane, obsoletely convex near the 
lateral margin. 

Genus Hispodonta, Baly. 
(Sp. 3.) Hispodonta elegantula. 

Elongato-ovata, subdepressa, nigra, nitida, femoribus 
anticia (dorso excepto) elytrisque l^te fulvis; his ad 
suturam striatim, disco exteriori confuse punctatis, 
vitta suturali (basi abbreviata) apiceque nigris ; thorace 
subremote sed for titer punctate. 

Long 4-5 lin. 

Hah. — Amboyna. 

Antennas half the length of the body. Thorax not 
broader at the base than long, sides slightly converging 
from the base towards the apex, the extreme apex 
abruptly rounded ; above, transversely convex, disc 
slightly excavated just in front of the basal margin ; sur- 
face subremotely impressed with large deep round 
punctures. Elytra broader than the thorax, narrowly 
ovate ; sides distinctly margined, the apex of each elytron 
obliquely truncate ; surface rather strongly punctured ; a 
common sutural stripe, and a large patch at the apex, 
black ; this latter covers nearly the hinder fourth of the 
surface, and sends a branch upwards on the outer disc, 
which is abbreviated anteriorly some distance below the 
middle of the disc. 

Genus Peomecotheca, Blanch. 

(Sp. 6a.) Promecotheca Reichii. 

Angustata, subcylindrica flava, nitida, tarsis pallide 
piceis, abdomine, mandibulis, oculis antennisque (harum 
articulo basali excepto) nigris ; elytris fortiter punctato- 
striatis, metallico-ceeruleis, tertia parte antica flava. 

Long. 3^-4^ lin. 
Hah. — Vavao. 

Antennee two-thirds the length of the body in the S , 
rather shorter in the ? , slender, filiform, blacky the basal 



and Species of Hispidce. 375 

joint flavous, the second and third, in the c?, pale 
piceous. Thorax much longer than broad, moderately 
constricted at the base, sides slightly but distinctly 
swollen in front of the constriction ; surface smooth and 
shining, impunctate. Elytra parallel, regularly rounded 
at the apex, their anterior third flavous, the remaining 
portion metallic blue. 

This insect may possibly be a variety of P. ccerulei- 
pennis, Blanch. 

Genus Botryonopa, Blanch. 
(Sp. 5.) Botryonopa cyanoptera. 

Elongata, parallela, dorso depressa, rufa, nitida ; anten- 
nis (basi excepta) nigris ; thorace opaco, foveolato-punc- 
tato, ante apicem declivi, leevi ; elytris cyaneis, sat pro- 
funde punctato-striatis, interspatiis subrugoso-reticulatis. 

Long. 7^ lin. 

Hah. — Borneo. 

Antennae more than half the length of the body; 
shining black, one or two basal joints rufous. Thorax 
rather broader than long, sides narrowly margined, 
parallel from the base to beyond the middle, thence 
obliquely converging and slightly rounded to the apex ; 
above opaque, moderately convex, deflexed in front, im- 
pressed just in front of the base with a short broad 
transverse fossa, from the anterior edge of which a faint 
longitudinal groove runs forwards in the medial line as 
far as the base of the deflexed portion; hinder three- 
fourths of the disc covered (the medial line excepted) 
with large oblong punctures. Elytra parallel, acutely 
rounded at the apex, each notched at the sutural angle, 
and armed with an acute tooth. Thighs obsoletely 
toothed beneath. 

(Sp. 6.) Botryonopa imperialis. 

Anguste elongata, parallela, dorso depressa, nigra, ni- 
tida ; thorace foveolato-punctato, ante medium declivi, 
Igevi, disco medio longitudinaliter carinato, utrinque trans- 
versim svdcato; elytris apice conjunctim subacutis, pro- 
funde punctato-striatis, cyaneis; femoribus unispinosis, 
anticis pauUo incrassatis ; tibiis anticis extus ante apicem 
dente parvo armatis. 



376 Mr, J. S. Baly on New Genera 

Long. 101 lin. 

Hob. — Philippine Islands. 

Front impressed with a deep groove, which ends on 
the vertex in a transverse sulcation. Thorax at the base 
not broader than long, sides narrowly margined, nearly 
parallel from the base to just beyond the middle, thence 
obliquely converging to the apex ; immediately in front 
of the base is a small indistinct tooth ; upper surface 
sub-opaque, its anterior third deflexed, impunctate, hinder 
two-thirds transversely convex, impressed on either side 
in front with a broad transverse depression, which ex- 
tends laterally as far as the outer margin; on the 
medial line is a faint longitudinal groove, terminated 
anteriorly at the base of the deflexed portion by a small 
shining tubercle ; hinder part of the thorax (with the ex- 
ception of a broad longitudinal space on the middle) deeply 
punctured. Elytra elongate, parallel, sides obliquely 
converging near the apex, the latter conjointly subacu- 
minate; each elytron emarginate at the sutural angle, 
and armed with a short acute tooth. 



Genus EsTiGMENA, Hope. 

(Sp. 2.) Estigriiena U-rminalis. 

Elongata, parallela, convexa, dorso depressa, fulvo- 
flava, nitida ; oculis, antennis (basi excepta) , elytrorumque 
dimidio postico, nigris; elytris fortiter punctato-striatis, 
interspatiis costatis. 

Long. 4| lin. 

Hah. — Tondano; collected by Mr. Wallace. 

Antennae scarcely more than a third the length of the 
body, basal joint flavous, the apical one obscure nigro- 
fuscous. Thorax longer than broad, sides straight and 
parallel, rounded at the extreme apex; upper surface 
smooth and shining, deeply excavated on either side 
close to the lateral border, impressed in front of the 
basal margin with a large round fovea; the excavated 
portions coarsely punctured. Elytra broader than the 
thorax, sides parallel ; apex subacutely rounded ; upper 
surface flattened along the suture, deeply punctate- 
striate; stri^ sulcate, their interspaces costate. 



and Species of Hispidce. 377 

Genus Downesia, Baly. 
(Sp. 2.) Downesia atrata. 

Filiformis, subcylindrica, nigra^ nitida ; thorace latitu- 
dine paullo longiori^ modice transversim convexo, sparse 
sed distincte punctato ; elytris profunde punctato-striatis, 
utrisque tricostatis. 

Long. 3 J lin. 

Hah. — India; collected by Mr. Brettingham. 

Antennae scarcely longer than the head and thorax, 
slightly increasing in thickness towards the apex. Thorax 
narrowly margined, sides straight and parallel, obliquely 
narrowed at their extreme apex, apical margin slightly 
produced. Elytra scarcely broader than the thorax ; 
sides straight and parallel, their apex regularly rounded ; 
upper surface of each with three strongly raised lon- 
gitudinal costae, the sutural and lateral borders also 
costate, interspaces each with a double row of large 
deeply-impressed punctures ; on the middle portion of the 
outer, the anterior four-fifths of the inner, and on the 
extreme base of the middle interspaces, the double rows 
of punctures become single. 

(Sp. 3.) JDownesia tarsata. 

Filiformis, subcylindrica, flava, nitida; antennis, oculis 
tarsisque nigris ; thorace latitudine paullo longiore, 
tenuiter punctato, modice transversim convexo; elytris 
sat profunde punctato-striatis, utrisque tricostatis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hah. — Hong Kong. 

Thorax slightly longer than in the preceding, sides 
straight, obsoletely sinuate, nearly parallel, only slightly 
converging from the base to within a short distance of 
the apex, where they suddenly converge to the apex itself; 
apical margin slightly produced ; upper surface finely 
and subremotely punctured. Elytra sculptured as in the 
last species. 

The two insects now described differ from the type of 
the genus {Downesia insignis, Cat. Hisp. p. 107) in having 
the fourth joint of the tarsus of normal length, and not 
elongate ; there is also a slight difference in the length of 
the joints of their antennee; but I do not consider these 
characters of sufficient importance to authorize the forma- 
tion of a new genus ; in habit, and in all other respects, 
they agree entirely with the typical form. 



378 Mr. J. S. Baly on Neiv Oenera 

Genus Aspidispa. 

Corpus sub-ovatum, postice paullo subdepressum. Caput 
obtusum, inter antennas in cretam elevatam antrorsum 
productum ; antennis filiformibus, corporis dimidio longi- 
tudine fere gequalibus, ad apicem vix attenuatis, articulo 
primo incrassato, ob-ovato^ secundo ovato, prime vix 
breviorij tertio paullo elongate; mandihulis apice obtusis ; 
ojiento oblongo; liguld segmento basali integro. Thorax 
transversus. Elytra thorace multo latiora, subcordata, 
lateribus basi rotundato-ampliatis, bine apicem versus 
oblique angustatis, apice conjunctim rotundatis ; dorso 
subdepressa^ hie illic profunde excavata ; utraque bicostata, 
costis valde interruptis^ interspatiis profunde biseriatim 
punctatis, interstitiis transversim costatis. Pedes breves, 
antici (^ valde incrassati ; tihiis anticis trigonatis ; tarsis 
quatuor anticis latis, anticis (^ transversim ampliatis; 
unguihus articulo penultimo sequilongis, illo fere occultis. 

This very singular form resembles closely the genus 
Hoplionota, and at first I had considerable doubt whether 
it really belonged to the present family; but M. Boheman, 
to whom I showed it, at once pronounced it to be one 
of the group of Hispidw. It must stand close to Go- 
iiophora. 

The mentum differs in form in the two sexes ; in the ^ 
its anterior surface is deeply concave ; in the ? it is plane 
and raised towards the apex into a longitudinal ridge. 

Aspidispa tibialis. 

Sub-ovata, subdepressa, fulva, nitida, supra (facie an- 
tennisque exceptis) nigro-cserulea, vertice utrinque, tho- 
racis lateribus vitta submarginali, scutelloque rufo-piceis ; 
thorace transverse, hie illic rude punctate, basi arcuatim 
sulcato, lateribus obtuse rotundatis, minute serratis; 
elytris subcordatis, thorace multo latioribus, basi rotun- 
dato-ampliatis, hinc apicem versus rotundato-angustatis, 
apice conjunctim rotundatis, dorso hie illic late et pro- 
funde excavatis, utrisque tricostatis, costis interruptis, 
interspatiis profunde biseriatim punctatis, interstitiis hie 
illic transversim elevatis. 

Mas : pedibus anticis valde incrassatis. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hub.— Gilolo. 



and Species of Hisjjidce. 379 

Antennje not quite half the length of the body, 
slender, filiform. Thorax nearly twice as broad as long, 
sides distinctly margined, nearly straight and slightly 
diverging from the base to beyond the middle, then 
broadly rounded to the apex, outer edge finely serrate ; 
disc convex, excavated on the sides, base impressed with 
a broad semilunate sulcation ; scattered irregularly over 
the disc are some large deeply impressed punctures. 
Elytra much broader at the base than the thorax, 
shoulders rotundate-ampliate, sides converging thence 
towards the apex, the apex itself regularly rounded ; upper 
surface of each elytron with three raised longitudinal 
costEe ; their interspaces each with a double row of punc- 
tures ; the interstices between the punctures are also 
thickened, and form irregular transverse costae ; on the 
surface of the disc are a number of large irregular exca- 
vations, which obliterate not only the costee, but to 
a great extent the punctures themselves; lateral border 
moderately dilated at the shoulders, gradually narrowed 
towards the apex of the elytra, outer border very finely 
serrulate, the serrations being only visible under a lens. 

Genus Gonophoka, Baly. 
(Sp. 3a.) Gonophora nigriceps. 

Elongata, subparallela, nigra, nitida ; antennis robustis, 
subfusiformibus ; femoribus anticis quatuor basi fa- 
cieique macula pallide fulvis, thorace dorso elytrisque 
rufo-fulvis, illo vitta elevata interrupta lateribusque ante 
medium nigris ; elytris utrisque tricostatis, interspatiis 
profunde biseriatim punctatis, margine laterali modice 
dilatato, medio vix ampliato. 

Long. 5-6 lin. 

Hab . — Penang . 

Very close to Gonophora Saundersii, separated from 
that species by the narrower and more parallel lateral 
margin of the elytra, and also by the interspaces on the 
disc having each (the middle one at the base excepted) 
a double row of punctures. 

(Sp. 5a.) Gonophora apicipennis. 

Elongata, postice vix ampliata, dorso subdepressa, fulva, 
subnitida, subtus nitida; oculis, antennis, metathorace. 



380 Mr, J. S. Baly on New Genera 

abdoroine pedibusque nigris ; thorace rugoso, basi trans- 
versim sulcato^ disco vittis brevibus elevatis tribus^ duabus 
exterioribus obliquis, instructor elytris apice nigris, 
utrisque tricostatis, interspatiis triseriatim punctatis. 

Long. 5i lin. 

Hah. — Ceylon. 

Antennas nearly half the length of the body, third 
joint slender, elongate; head shining, forehead impressed 
with a deep fovea; eyes and mandibles black. Thorax 
rather broader at the base than long; sides straight, 
converging from base to apex, feebly bisinuate, notched 
at the apex, hinder angles acute ; surface closely rugose, 
deeply impressed at the base with a transverse groove ; 
on the middle of the disc are placed three short shining 
elevated vittas, the two outer ones oblique. Elytra 
broader than the thorax, slightly dilated posteriorly, the 
apex regularly rounded ; upper surface flattened along 
the suture, the apical third entirely black ; each elytron 
strongly tricostate, the basal margin also thickened ; 
three inner interspaces, as well as the hinder half of 
the fourth, each with a treble row of punctures; anterior 
half of the fourth inters])ace impressed with a double 
row only. Thorax stained on either side beneath with 
an oblong black vitta; anterior pair of thighs each with 
a-n oblong fulvous patch in front. 

Genus CniERiDioNA. 

Corpus oblongum aut subcuneiforme. Caput inter oculos 
productum, antice angulatum ; antennis dimidio corporis 
longioribus, robustis, 1 1-articulatis, articulis cylindricis, 
duobus basalibus brevibus, longitudine fere gequalibus, 
prime paullo incrassato ; palpis maxillaribus articulo pri- 
mo minuto, duobus sequentibus brevibus, gequalibus, 
ultimo casteris longitudine asquali ; inento oblongo, lateri- 
bus constricto; Zt'gruZdmentidorso inserta, segmento basali 
obsolete, segmento apicali magno, subquadrato, mento 
latiori; ^a?p/slabialibus obsoletis. Thorax subcylindricus, 
anguste marginatus, angulis anticis in dentem productis. 
Elytra thorace multo latiora, postice paullo ampliata, utra- 
que apice oblique truncata, sutura conjunctim emarginata, 
angulis posticis distinctis ; dorso profunde striato-punc- 
tata, cretis interruptis, hie illic inter se ramulis interdum 
convexis instructa. Pedes mediocres, mutici. 



and Species of His p idee. 381 

The present remarkable genus stands^ as far as my 
knowledge extends, alone amongst the great tribe of 
Phytopkaga, in wanting the labial palpi. I myself possess 
two species of the genus which both agree entirely in 
habit and external characters, but although I have sub- 
jected the specimens to a most careful examination under 
a powerful lens (the two-thirds of Ross) , I cannot detect 
the slightest trace, either of the palpi themselves, or of 
their points of insertion; in fact, the basal segment of 
the ligula, on which the labial palpi are always inserted, 
appears itself to be obsolete, its place being occupied by 
the large apical segment. The genus ought to follow 
Nepius. 

1. Chceridiona vtetallica. 

Anguste cuneiformis, convexa, subtus picea, nitida, 
Eeneo-micans, supra cupreo-aurea ; thorace profunde et 
rude rugoso-foveolato, disco viridi-metallico ; ely tris api- 
cem versus paullo ampliatis, angulo postico obtuso, utris- 
que quadricostatis, costa secunda ante apicem tertiaque 
in medio et ante apicem interrupta, interspatiis profunde 
biseriatim foveolatis, vitta lata communi a basi fere ad 
apicem exteusa viridi-metallica, margine apicali fulvo; 
antennis rufo-fulvis, apice nigris; pedibus fulvis, tarsis 
piceis. 

Long. 2^ lin. 

Hah. — India. 

Head coarsely and deeply punctured ; front produced 
anteriorly between the eyes into an angular projection, 
the apex of which is extended downwards to form a lon- 
gitudinal ridge, which runs along the face as far as the 
upper border of the clypeus ; four outer joints of the an- 
tennae black. Thorax subcylindrical, scarcely longer than 
broad, sides parallel, bisinuate, anterior angles notched, 
bidentate, surface very deeply and coarsely punctured, 
rugose. Elytra broader than the thorax, sides naiTOwly 
margined, slightly dilated towards the posterior angles, 
the latter obtuse; each elytron with four strongly- raised 
longitudinal costee, the first and fourth entire, extending 
nearly to the apex, the second entire for the greater part 
of its course but interrupted some distance below its 
middle, the third, which arises on the humeral callus, 
broadly interrupted in the middle and again just before 
reaching the apex. 



382 Mr. J. S. Baly ow Hispidce. 

2. Chceridiona picea. 

Anguste oblonga, convexa, picea, nitida, pedibus 
fulvis ; thorace subcylindrico, rude punctato, disco irre- 
gulariter excavate; elytris thorace latioribus, fere paral- 
lelisj'^angulo postico acuto, profunde seriatim foveolatis, 
vittis elevatis interruptis cretisque longitudinalibus, hie 
illic inter se connexis, instructis. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. — India. 

Head coarsely punctured, produced anteriorly in the 
same manner as in C. metallica. Thorax subcylindrical, 
subquadrate, sides more broadly margined than in the 
former species, lateral borders straight and parallel, 
slightly sinuate behind the middle, armed just in front 
of the base with a minute tooth ; anterior angles notched, 
produced anteriorly into a short tooth; upper surface 
coarsely rugose-punctate, deeply excavated on the disc. 
Elytra furnished each with four strongly-raised costae 
which from being much more interrupted than in S. me- 
tallica, are more difficult to trace; thus the first costa 
is to be seen just below the base, again at the middle of 
the elytron (where it stands a little out of the line, and is 
connected by short transverse ridges above to the third 
and below to the second costa) , thirdly, half-way between 
the middle and apex, and lastly, at the apex itself; the 
second is visible at the base, below the middle, and again 
a short distance before reaching the apex; the third, 
which commences on the humeral callus, is entire nearly 
to the middle of its course (where it is connected, as 
above stated, by a short oblique branch to the first costa) , 
then interrupted it again appears half-way between the 
middle and apex ; lastly, the fourth costa, which is nearly 
entii'e, is interrupted some distance below the middle of 
the elytron, but just below appears again, and forms a 
short oblique ridge, which runs inwards as far as, but a 
little below, the termination of the third costa. 



( 383 



XXV. New Species of Coleoptera /rom Chontales, Nicar- 
agua. By H. W. Bates, F.Z.S., Pres. Ent. Soc. 

During the past few months, three or four small col- 
lectioBS of Coleoptera have been received from the province 
of Chontales in Nicaragua, the product of the researches 
of Mr. T. Belt, and Mr. E. Janson, junr. These collections 
contained so large a proportion of new and handsome 
species of tropical American types, that they have attracted 
much attention among Coleopterists, and no apology is 
needed for the present attempt to make some of them 
better known. Further collections may be expected, and 
any general account of the Coleopterous Fauna must be 
deferred for the present. 

LONGICORNIA. 

Mallaspis paradoxa. 

Elongata, convexa, postice attenuata, subtiliter punc- 
tulata, fusco-asnea, elytris postice castaneis; capite an- 
gusto, longissimo; thorace spina laterali pone medium 
fortissima, antice valde attenuate, margine leevi carinaque 
marginali obsoleta ; antennis corpore tertia parte breviori- 
bus, leevibus, violaceis, apices versus gradatim rufescenti- 
bus, articulis 3-6 compressis, paululum dilatatis, caeteris 
subcompressis, angulis totis rotundatis ; pedibus violaceis, 
Isevibus; corpore subtus vix punctulato, lateribus aureo- 
pubescenti, prosterno transversim rugate. 

Long. 1 un. 9 lin. — 2 un. ( ? ?) . 

This singular species differs from all its allies by the 
absence of a lateral carina to the prothorax, a trace of which 
only remains near the anterior margin. In conjunction 
with this, the lateral spine stands out very prominently 
and is unusually stout and long, the thorax is rapidly 
narrowed from the spine to the front margin, and the disc 
has only a few fine scattered punctures. The brassy- 
fuscous colour gradually changes into castaneous, from 
near the base to the tip of the elytra. In colour and 
punctuation, as well as in the length of the head, the 
species approaches the Mexican ill. longiceps of White, 
but this has the usual crenate prothoracic carina, and the 
antennal joints are linear, with distinct angles. In M. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART V. (DECEMBER.) 



384 Mr. H. W. Bates on Neiv 

'paradoxa the joints have rounded angles, as in M. scutel- 
laris. I am uncertain about the sex of my two examples, 
but from the shortness and smoothness of the antennae, 
&c., I judge them to be females. 

Ophistomis picticornis. 

Flavo-testacea, capite utrinque vitta nigra usque ad 
marginem posticum thoracis continua; elytris (ad hu- 
meros latis) utrinque raaculis lateralibus tribus, quartaque 
discoidali prope scutellum, et marginibus anguste nigris, 
apicem versus litura indistincta fusca; antennis nigris, 
articulis 7-9 albis; prosterno utrinque vitta, ventroque 
annulis quatuor, nigris ; pedibus flavis, femoribus et 
tibiis apice, tarsis totis nigris. 

Long. 8-9 lin. ((?). 

Two examples. 

Agaone monostigma. 

A. molorchoicU afRnis ; angustata, rufo-testacea ; thorace 
cylindrico, confertim grosse punctate, vitta mediana pos- 
tice abbreviata nigra ; elytris abdomine multo brevioribus, 
truncatis, vix nitidis, punctatis, punctis lateralibus gros- 
sioribus, ibique vitta niarginali nigra ; antennis dimidium 
corporis superantibus, apice incrassatis, nigris, sparsim 
ciliatis; femoribus apice supra, tibiis et tarsis (partim) 
nigris, femoribus posticis apice bene distincte nigro- 
cinctis. 

Long. 3^ lin. ( ? ). 

One example. 

Crioprosopus rutilans. 

Angustatus, supra Ifevissimus, capite thorace et scu- 
tello nigris, elytris viridi-seneis politissimis, nitore cseruleo 
certo situ splendentibus ; metasterno et ventre obscure 
rufis, nigro variis, laevibus ; pedibus nigris, femoribus an- 
nulo Ifete rufo; thorace transverse, supra subeequali, 
sparsim punctulato, vitrinque tuberculo grosso mediano 
alteroque obtusiori anteriori ; antennis corpore paulo lon- 
gioribus ( ? ), articulis 4-11 albo-sericeis ; prosterno con- 
vexo, apice rotundato; metasterno triangulari, producto. 

Long. 1 un. 2 lin. ( ? ) . 



Coteoptera from Chovfalcs. 385 

One example. A second (male) specimen was also 
sent by Mr. Belt, but I do not know into whose collection 
it passed. 

Coelarthron quadrinotatum. 

0. hilineato forma simillimum ; nigerrimum, politum, 
sparse griseo-setosum ; thoracevittis duabus antice abbre- 
viatis albo-sericeis ; elytris pone medium fascia ad suturam 
interrupta, et litura prope basin e lineis tribus formata 
(duabus longitudinalibus unaque transversali) , testaceo- 
albis ; antennis ( c? et $ ) articulis 3-6 triquetris, apice 
valde dilatatis. 

Long. 9-104 lin. {S > ?)• 

Chalastinus ruhrocinctus . 

Niger^ opacus, elytris in medio fascia communi coc- 
cinea; antennis S corporeduplolongioribus, articuloprimo 
gradatim fortiter clavato, 3° apice intus dilatato et nigro- 
hirsuto, cseteris apice nodosis, medio pallide rufo-griseis, 
ultimo prsecedente multo breviori, obtuso; mesosterno 
simplici ; tarsis articulis basalibus griseis. 

Long. 7-9 lin. {S, ?)• 

The narrow crown with elevated approximate antenni- 
ferous tubercles, the nodulous tips of the antennal joints, 
and the slightly dilated front tarsi of the S , bring this 
handsome species within the genus GhaJastinus ; it differs 
in the non-tuberculate mesosternum and uncurved an- 
tennal joints, which appear, therefore, to be specific 
characters. Many examples were sent by Mr. Belt, and 
one of unusually large size by Mr. E. M. Janson. 

Anisocerus personahis. 

Oblongus, supra grosse sparsim punctatus, lateribus 
fuscus, in medio late albo-vittatus ; vitta elytrorum bis dila- 
tata, imprimis paulo ante medium, postea prope apicem, 
parte alba fusco-punctata, punctis majoribus duobus ante 
medium prope suturam, alteris duobus magis approximatis 
ante apicem ; corpore subtus nigro, cinereo-tomentoso ; 
antennis S corpore plus duplo longioribus, griseis, arti- 
culis apice nigris, articulo 3° apice globose et articulo 
ultimo brevi. 

Long. 6-7 lin. ((?, 9). 



386 Mr. H. W. Bates on Nctv 

The sides of the body above are blackish, varied with 
tawny-brown and dark punctures ; the central ashy white 
streak, which is confined to a broad vitta on the head and 
thorax, forms on the elytra a figure resembling an elon- 
gate mask, of which the two small black dots on the 
anterior dilated portion represent the eyes, the larger 
spots behind near the suture the nose, and the dark apex 
of the elytra the mouth. 

The insect is of a much more elongate figure than the 
other true Anisoceri, resembling in this respect much more 
the genus Caciomorpha of Thomson ; but the dilated third 
joint, and the very much abbreviated eleventh joint of 
the antennae, bring the species within the definition of 
AMisocerus. 

Lagocheirus rosaceus. 

L. araneiformi valde aflBnis; differt antennis, pedibus 
lineisque thoracis et elytrorum roseo-tomentosis ; thorace 
valde punctate, maculis quatuor bene discretis nigris, 
lineisque irregularibus roseis ; elytris lineis numerosis 
roseis fusco-punctatis, pone medium maculas utrinque 
duas fuscas includentibus, ante has macula marginali 
majori semicirculari fusca, parte apicali lineis utrinque 
quinque longitudinalibus roseis. 

Long. 9 lin. {S, 2). 

Many examples of this and the following species were 
sent. 

Lagocheirus V-alhum. 

L. araneiformi forma similis ; multo obscurior, fuscus ; 
thorace utrinque vitta abbreviata, a medio usque ad mar- 
ginem posticum, fusca ; elytris obscure fuscis, vix variega- 
tis, macula magna obscuriore laterali minus distincta, mox 
pone hanc litura alba literara v vel N simulante ; pedibus 
obscuris, tarsis pallidis, articulo unguiculari apice nigro 
excepto. 

Long. 8Uin. (c?, ?)• 

AmphAonyclia hifasciata. 

Robusta, nig-ra, griseo subtiliter tomentosa; capite 
thorace paulo angustiori, fronte supra macula fulva; 
thorace supra fulvo vel roseo, maculis 3 nigris; elytris 



Coleoptera from Ohontales. 887 

parallelis, apice flexuoso-truncatis et externe spinosia, 
fasciis duabus flavis vel roseis nigro-margiuatis, fascia 
prima flexuosa^ secunda obliqua ; antenuis uigris, sparsim 
subtus ciliatis. 

Long. 6-8 lin. (c?, ?). 

Many examples of both sexes. 

CarneadeSj nov. gen. Colobotheinarum. 

A Colobothea differt carina laterali elytrorum nulla vel 
indistincta, et articulo antennarum basali apice abrupte 
clavato, 

Carneades superha. 

Magna, crassa, elongata, antice posticeque attenuata, 
tomento ochraceo dense vestita ; thorace supra niaculis 
duabus, elytris fasciis quatuor, prima tertiaque maculari- 
bus, nigris, humeris antice curvatis, valde productis; 
antennis nigris, articulis basi gi-iseis; pedibus nigris, 
nitidis, femoribus et tibiis posticis rufo-annulatis, annulis 
e tomento denso formatis, tarsis flavo-tomentosis, articulo 
unguiculari nigro. 

Long, 11 lin. — 1 un. 

The design of the elytra in this fine insect consists of 
four transverse belts or rows of spots on a ground of 
dense yellowish tomentum ; the first belt includes a black 
spot covering each shoulder, and two round spots near 
the suture; the second, a little before the middle, is 
entire except near the suture and oblique; the third 
consists of four equidistant spots ; and the fourth, near the 
apex, is entire excepting the sutural interruption. The 
prothorax beneath has on each side a narrow black stripe, 
and a small round spot above it. The middle of the 
breast is black. 

Carneades delicia. 

Minor, minus elongata, postice valde attenuata, cinereo- 
subsericeo-tomentosa ; signaturis elytrorum ut in C. su- 
perha, fascia secunda apud suturam hand interrupta et 
minus obliqua excepta; tarsis rufis, articulis 3° et 4° 
nigris. 

Long. 6 1 lin. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART V. (DECEMBER.) 2 <3 



888 Mr. H. W. Bates on New 

Jamesia multivittata. 

J. glohiferce forma similis; fusca, subnitida; capite an- 
gusto, fronte vittis duabus ochraceis ; thorace transversim 
grosse rugato, laieribus baud tuberculato, ochraceo spar- 
sim tomentoso ; elytris humeris angulatis, postice paulo 
attenuatis, basi tuberculis rotvindis nigris sparsis, postice 
sparsim punctatis, basi et vittis, septem utrinque, in serie- 
bus duabus transversis ordinatis, ochraceis ; subtus ochra- 
ceo-tomentosa et nigro-punctata ; antennis pedibusque 
nigro-piceis. 

Long. 10^ lin. 

Two examples. 

Deliathis nivea. 

Elongata, tomento densissimo niveo induta ; capite su- 
pra vittulis quatuor, tborace vittis tribus, et elytris ma- 
culis numerosis, nigris, nitidis ; maculis elytrorum prope 
suturam et marginem condensis, disco multo rarioribus, 
apicibus mucronatis ; subtus medio corporis et ventris mar- 
ginibus nigris nitidis ; antennis pedibusque nigris, griseo 
tenuiter tomentosis. 

Long. 1 un. 5 lin. 

LAMELLICORmA. 

Allorrliina anomala. 

Oblongo-quadrata, angusta, supra nigro-purpureo-velu- 
tina; thorace limbo angusto, postice abbreviate; elytris 
limbo laterali, maculis duabus transversis discoidalibus, 
et duabus marginalibus rotundatis prope apicem, flavis; 
mesosterno triangulari, crasso, convexo. 

Mas : capite quadrato, lateribus utrinque cornu brevi 
elevato retrorsum spectante, thoraceque cornu antico- 
marginali brevi horizontali apice emarginato j tibiis an- 
ticis elongatis, linearibus, edentatis. 

Long. 11 lin.; lat. 5 lin. (c^). 

A remarkable species, agreeing with A. Lanshergii 
(Salle) in the peculiar armature of the head and anterior 
margin of the thorax, in which both differ greatly from 
all other known species o^ Allorrliina, or Gymnetinoi. The 
peculiarity seems to arise from the development into 



Coleoptera from Chontales. 389 

horns of tlie lateral carinse of the head, at the expense of 
the central horizontal horn, which is absent, as is also 
the horn at the edge of the clypeus. 

One example only, received from Mr. Belt. 

Oymnetis ramulosa. 

Ad sectionem G. Jiolosericece, etc. pertinens; processu 
mesosternali magno, crasso, deorsum curvato, et antice 
tuberculato ; supra olivacea, velutina ; elytris limbis late- 
rali et apicali angustis aequalibus, illo ramulos tenues duos 
vel tres emittente, uno pone medium in fasciam flexuosam 
prope ad suturam prolongate ; abdomine c? nigro, nitido, 
9 olivaceo, subopaco. 

Long. lOlin. {^, ?). 

A large number of specimens of this species were sent 
home by Mr. Belt. 



2 a 2 



( 391 ) 

XXVI. A Synojosis of the genus Clothilda. 
By OsBERT SalviNj M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

[Eead 15th November, 1869.] 

DuEiNG an examination of a small collection of Diurnal 
Lepidoptera which was sent to this country by Mr. 
Ramsden, from the Island of Cuba^ I discovered that 
errors have been made with respect to the identification 
of two members of the limited genus Clothilda, by all 
recent writers on Cuban Rhopalocera. In one case, the 
Haitian C. pantherata and its Cuban representative have 
been considered as one and the same species, though the 
latter received a different name from Hiibner, which was 
afterwards recognized by Klug. In the other case, I 
found that the second Cuban form of this genus usually 
stands in collections as G. jcegeri, from which, however, 
it differs materially, as will be seen below. Besides these 
additions to the Antillean species, I have another to add 
to C. euryale, hitherto known as the sole representative 
of the genus on the continent of America ; thus raising 
the whole number of species in this genus to six. 

As stated in Doubleday and Hewitson^s " Genera of 
Diurnal Lepidoptera,^' the genus Clothilda was first esta- 
blished by Blanchard, in 1840, upon Argynnis briarea, of 
Godart (C. pantherata). In all probability, Hlibner's 
genus Anicia is of prior date to Clothilda, but as much 
uncertainty prevails regarding the years when the 
various portions of Hlibner's great work were issued, 
and, moreover, as Anicia was never characterized, I think 
Hlibner's title had best be set aside, and the arrange- 
ment of the "Genera" adhered to. For the same reasons, 
Hlibner's name Anelia, applied in the third volume of 
the " Exotische Schmetterlinge " to C. euryale, must 
also be considered as a synonym. 

The genus bears a strong resemblance to Argynnis, but 
diS'ers chiefly in possessing a well-defined lower disco- 
cellular nervure to the posterior wing. Indeed, this 
feature is so well developed, that it renders the position 
of Clothilda, in the Nymphalince, somewhat anomalous, if 
the character of the open or closed cell be taken as of 
primary importance. 

In its distribution, Clothilda is one of the very few 
genera possessed in common by the Antilles and Central 

TBANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. PART V. (DECEMBER.) 



392 Mr. Osbert Salvin on 

America^ to the exclusion of the rest of America. Two 
species are peculiar to Haiti, and two to Cuba; whilst 
one inhabits the highlands of Mexico and Guatemala, 
and another the mountainous parts of Costa Rica. All 
the species are, I believe, inhabitants of the damp forests 
of the higher mountainous districts, where a temperate 
climate prevails. 

The following table will serve to separate the six 
species. 

Clavis specierum. 

A. Species alis ochraceis, nigro-maculatis. 

a. posticis, maculis nigris in serie duplici 

(margine excepto) positis, notatis. . . . 1. C. ;pantherata. 

b. posticis, maculis nigris in serie triplici (mar- 

gine excepto) positis, notatis 2. C. numida. 

B. Species alis fuscis, anticis supra aut subtus rubro-notatis. 

a. anticis supra et subtus distinct^ rubro- 

notatis. 

a. posticis fuscis, baud fasciatis 3. C. euryale. 

b. posticis fuscis, ochraceo late transfasciatis. 4. C. insignis. 

b. anticis supra fuscis, subtus rubro-notatis. 

a. anticis maculis albis, baud transfasciatis. 5. C. jmgeri, 

b. anticis maciilis albis distincte vittatis. . 6. C. cuhana. 

The following generic titles have been applied by the 
following authors, to members of the group. 

Clothilda, Blanch. Hist. Nat. Ins. iii. 440 (1840) . Type" 
C. pant/ierata. 

„ Doubl. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lep. vol. i. 

(1846-50) . 

„ Menet. Enum. Corp. An. Mus. Petrop. p. 21 

(1855). 

„ Herr.-Sch. Schm. Ins. Cuba, in Correspond- 
enz-blatt, Eegensburg (1863). 

A'iiicia, Hiibn. Exot. Schm. vol. ii. Type A. numida. 

Anelia, Hiibn. Exot. Schm. vol. iii. Type A. euryale. 

Argynnis, Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. 261 (1819). 

„ Klug, Neue Schm. Mus. Berl. p. 2 (1836). 

„ Menet. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. ix. 125 
(1840). 

Fajpilio, Martyn, Psyche, t. 12, f. 27; t. 14, f. 35 (1797). 



the genus Clothilda. 893 

1. Clothilda pantherata. 

Papilio pantherata, Martyn, Psyche, t. 12, f. 27 ; t. 14, 
f. 35 (1797). 

Clothilda pantherata, DouLl. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lap. 

i. 156. 

Argynnis briarea, Godt. Enc. Meth. is. 261 (1819). 

Hab. — Haiti {Jceger, Tiveedie) . In Mus. Salv. and 
Godm. 

This species has been long known to Entomologists, 
having been well figured by Martyu in the year 1797. 
Since that date, specimens appear to have been obtained 
by every collector who has visited the Island of San 
Domingo. The species was described by Godart in the 
year 1819, under the name briarea, and mention is made 
of it by Menetries in his list of Jaeger's collection. Spe- 
cimens were also procured in the neighbourhood of Port- 
au-Prince by the late Mr. Tweedie, from whose collection 
our specimens were derived. As Hiibner's figure of 
C. numida is, perhaps, the best known, and more acces- 
sible than that of Martyn, I will here shortly point out 
the diflferences between C. pantherata and its Cuban 
representative. The most noticeable difference on the 
upper surface is on the hind wings, which bear a double 
instead of a triple row of black spots inside the dark 
margin ; beneath, instead of a simple dark margin to the 
hind wings, there is a series of well-defined V-shaped 
black markings, bordered inwardly with white; the 
markings, too, of the posterior wings are much clearer, 
the row of black spots outside the cell being very con- 
spicuous. 

The sexes do not differ in coloration, but females are 
rather larger in size. 



2. Clothilda numida. 
Anicia numida, Hiibn. Ex. Schm. ii. pi. 22, 23. 
Clothilda pantherata, H.-Sch. Schm. Ins. Cuba, p. 4. 
Hab, — Cuba {Ramsden), 



394 Mr. Osbert Salvin on 

3. Clothilda euryale. 

Argynnis euryale, Klug, Neue Schm. Mus. Berl. p. 2, 
pi. ii. f. 1, 2 (1836). 

Clothilda euryale, Doubl. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lep. i. 156, 
pi. 21, f. 4. 

Anelia thirza, Hiibn. Ex. Schm. iii. pi. 24. 

Hah, — Mexico (Deppe; Fenochio) ; Guatemala {Salvin 
and Godman) . In Mus. Salv. and Godm. 

The specimens from which Klug took his original de- 
scription were collected by Deppe, through whose exer- 
tions the Berlin Museum owes, in a great measure, its 
extensive series of the natural productions of Mexico. 
Deppe^s discoveries, however, have so long remained 
unnoticed in the stores of that Institution, that the ma- 
jority of the species have since been rediscovered by 
more recent explorers, and thus the fruits of his expedi- 
tion have been fore-stalled. The present species, how- 
ever, escaped the fate of many others, and was described 
by Klug as long ago as 1836. 

The species is not uncommon in the highland districts 
of Guatemala. On one occasion, in the mouth of Sep- 
tember, I captured several specimens which were flying 
lazily about the foot of a precipice reeking with moisture 
in the high mountains above the old Indian town of 
Quiche. The altitude of this spot is about 8000 feet 
above the sea level. It also occurred in the ravines of 
the Volcan de Fuego, at an elevation of about 7000 feet; 
and in the mountains surrounding the Plain of Salama, 
in Yera Paz, at an elevation of 4000 feet. Specimens 
have also been forwarded to us from the northern slopes 
of the mountains of Alta Yera Paz, below the village of 
San Christobal. 

As in G. pantherata, the male of this species does not 
differ in coloration from the female ; it is, however, 
smaller, and has the anterior wings more pointed. 

4. Clothilda insignis, sp. n. 

C. alis fuscis, anticis supra et subtus rubro-maculatis; 
posticis fuscis, ochraceo late transfasciatis. 



the genus Clothilda. 895 

$ . AnteniiEe black ; palpi white, with a lateral black 
streak ; head black, with three minute white spots ; pro- 
thorax brown, thorax and abdomen very dark brown; 
wings rich brown, the posterior half of the cell of the 
anterior wings and outside the cell black, including rich 
red curved marks, just as in G. euryale; beyond this 
patch are ochre spots, two pairs on the costa^ others in 
pairs along the outer margin ; there are also others be- 
tween the median branches ; on the hind wings a broad 
curved ochre band, deeply sinuate on its outer edge, 
crosses the wing from the apical to the posterior angle, 
where it becomes almost white; the cilia of the hind 
wings bear white spots, inside which are other indis- 
tinct spots in pairs: beneath, rich ochre, with black and 
red spots corresponding to those of the upper surface, 
the latter being larger ; at the base of the wing are some 
transverse and longitudinal pale marks, and the ochre 
marks on the rest of the wing correspond with those of 
the upper surface ; on the hind wing there is a promi- 
nent red spot on the middle of the costa, an irregular 
black line, bordered with white, crosses the wing, three 
transverse white lines cross the cell to the submedian 
nervure, between which and the inner margin are longi- 
tudinal white lines; beyond the cell the nervures are 
black, and cut a deeply sinuate band of whitish; on the 
margin are large pale spots in pairs. 

Hab. — Highlands of Costa Rica [Arce) . In Mus. Salv. 
and Grodm. 

This species is closely allied to G. euryale, and evi- 
dently represents that species in the highlands of Costa 
Rica. For some time I considered this specimen to be 
a female of G. euryale, but having acquired true females 
of that species, I am now convinced that the Costa Rican 
Clothilda must be distinct. 

My reasons for separating it may be thus shortly 
given. Individuals of G. euryale do not vary from one 
another in any appreciable degree, nor do members of 
other species of the genus, as C.pantherata, or G. numida. 
The sexes also are alike, both in G. euryale and G. j?an- 
therata, and, moreover, species from the highlands of 
Costa Rica, though evidently closely allied to their repre- 
sentatives in the highlands of Guatemala and Mexico, 
very frequently are appreciably different. Hence the 



396 Mr. Osbert Salvin on 

Costa Rican Clothilda would, a priori, very probably 
differ from the more northern species. We find that it 
does,, and that the specimen does not represent the 
normal female of 0. euryale. As shown before, the 
species of this genus have no apparent tendency to vary; 
I have, therefore, though at present only a single speci- 
men has reached us, no further hesitation in considering 
that it belongs to a representative of the Mexican species, 
and is distinguishable by well-marked characters. 

These differences consist in the presence of a well- 
marked band on the hind wings, and in the absence of 
the red spots seen in G. euryale on the same wings; 
beneath, the ochi-aceous colouring is bright, and instead 
of being brownish and the light markings forming a 
band beyond the cell, are very much larger, and more 
clearly defined; the margin of the hind wing is not so 
deeply sinuate, and the curvature of the outer margin of 
the anterior wing not so deeply concave. 

5. Clothilda j^geei. 

Argynnis jcegeri, Menetr. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 
ix. 125, pi. X. f. 3,4 (1840). 

Clothilda jcegeri, Doubl. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lep. i. 157. 

Hah. — Haiti [Jceger, Tweedie) . In Mus. Salv. and 
Godm. 

This species is quite distinct from the preceding. It 
differs in being smaller in size, in having the costa of 
the anterior wings less abruptly arched, and in being 
destitute of the brilliant red spots on the upper surface 
of the same wings, which have only a reddish tinge at 
the base ; beneath, the markings are very indistinct com- 
pared with those of G. euryale. 

This species seems to be very rare. Our specimen 
formed part of Mr. Tweedie^s collection. 

6. Clothilda cubana, sp. n. 
Clothilda jcegeri, H.-Sch. Schm. Ins. Cuba, p. 4. 

C. alis fuscis; anticis maculis albis distincte transfas- 
ciatis, subtus rubro-notatis. 

? . Antennae black ; palpi white, with a longitudinal 
black stripe ; head, thorax, and abdomen, very dark 
brown; wings dark brown; anterior wings with a ma- 



the genus Clothilda. 397 

cular band of conspicuous white spots, extending from 
the costal margin to the posterior angle ; outside this 
band is another white spot, between the third median 
branch and the lower radial ; on the posterior wings a 
pale ochraceous band, cut by the nervures, stretches 
across the wing from the apical to the posterior angle: 
beneath, in addition to markings corresponding to those 
of the upper surface, there are faint blueish pencillings 
on the basal half of the cell, and red marks are situate 
one across the cell, others close to the median nervure, 
while others cross the interspaces between the median 
branches ; the hind wings are mottled with grayish about 
the apical angle, and near the transverse band, and very 
faint dark and light stripes are placed transversely 
nearer the base of the wing. 

Mab. — Cuba. 

The form of the wings in this species is much the same 
as in G. euryale, but the apex of the anterior wings is 
more produced. 

This species has been considered by Lepidopterists to 
be the female of G. jcegeri; but besides the very different 
character of the markings, the close relationship of both 
with G. euryale would lead us . to conclude that, as in 
that species, the sexes do not differ materially in outward 
form and markings. 

The specimen from which my description was taken 
is in the collection of Mr. Cornthwaite. 



( 399 ) 

XXVII. Note on Boreus hyemalis and B. Westwoodii. 
By Robert McLachlan, F.L.S., Sec. Ent. 
Soc. 

[Bead 6th December, 1869.] 

In tlie "Entomologist's Monthly Magazine/' Vol. iii. 
p. 132 (November, 1866) , Dr. Hagen in his " Synopsis 
of the Genus Boreus " first made known to Entomologists 
the existence in Europe of two species of this singular, 
and still somewhat rare, genus of Neuroptera. His short . 
descriptions are as follows : — 

'' B. Memalis, Linne." 

" Bronze-brown ; beak, antennge, legs, wings, appen- 
" dices of the male, and borer of the female, clear brown, 
" the antennge dark brown at the apex; wings of the 
" male long, acute, curved, and pectinated internally; 
" first abdominal segment of the male with an erect 
" transverse fold in the middle above, long, rather longer 
" than broad ; second segment with a similar fold, but 
" smaller, almost in the form of a tubercle ; lamina below 
" the appendices, long, triangular elliptic at the apex. 

" Habitat : Germany, Hanover, East Prussia. 

" B. Westwoodii, Hagen." 

" Bronzy-green ; beak, antennae, legs, wings, appen- 
" dices of the male, and borer of the female, yellow; 
" antennae and legs dark brown at the apex; first ab- 
" dominal segment of the male with a fold as in B. hie- 
" mails ; second segment with a quadrate fold, smaller ; 
" lamina broader, slightly grooved at the apex. 

*^ Habitat : Germany, Finland, England. 

" This is the species figured by Westwood in the 
" frontispiece to his ^Introduction,' and probably also 
*' that described by Curtis and Stephens." 

When working up the materials for my Monograph of 
the British Neuroptera-Planipennia, published in the 
Transactions of this Society, I felt compelled to ignore 
the existence of B. Westiuoodii in Britain (Tr. Ent. Soc. 
1868, p. 220), because I had never seen a male possess- 
ing the characters pointed out by Dr. Hagen, and the 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869. — PART V. (DECEMBER.) 



400 Mr. R. McLachlan on 

few Continental examples of tlie genus to wliicli T could 
refer, all seemed equally to pertain to B. hyemalis. Re- 
cently, however, my attention has again been called to 
the subject, and I resolved to obtain a sight of Professor 
Westwood's insect. That gentleman obligingly lent me 
two males, all that exist in the Hope Museum ; these are 
certainly distinct from Injemalis, and agree well with the 
description of WestwoodU. But when lending me the 
insects, Prof. Westwood stated that both were from 
Germany, and that he never possessed a British male 
example. Under these circumstances, it is yet too soon 
to attribute the two species to Britain. All the native 
specimens I have seen are assuredly hyemalis, at any 
rate, so far as the males are concerned ; and as for the 
females, it would certainly be unsafe to rely upon diflFer- 
ences of colour alone, without having the other sex, 
as the colour varies immensely, according to the 
degree of maturity of the individual, and I may remark 
that I have males of hyemalis both bronzy-brown and 
bronzy-green; the clear yellow of the legs, &c., in 
Weskooodii, is characteristic, and some native female 
examples seem to possess this attribute, yet we must see 
males before deciding upon them. 

I conclude these remarks with some notes upon the 
structural characters of the males of the two species. 

In B. hyemalis, the first visible dorsal abdominal seg- 
ment (I consider this in reality is the second segment) , 
bears near its apical margin (but not on the margin), a 
transversely quadrate, thin, raised lobe, considerably 
longer than broad ; on the succeeding segment is a faint 
indication of a similar lobe, but very indistinct. The 
valve (''lamina," Hagen) proceeding from the ventral 
apex of the abdomen is triangular, the sides slightly 
rounded, the lower surface convex, and the apex some- 
what produced and elliptical. (See fig. 1.) 

In B. WestwoodU, the first visible dorsal abdominal 
segment has the raised lobe as in hyemalis, but that on 
the succeeding segment is much larger than in that 
species, very distinct, and similar in form to the other, 
but less transversely quadrate. The ventral apical valve 
is shorter, the sides not rounded, the apex sharply trun- 
cate, and even slightly incised. (See fig. 2.) 

I have penned these notes with the hope that, by 
calling more attention to the peculiarities of the two 



Boreus hy emails and B. Weshvoodii. 401 

species, we may soon be able to claim both as natives of 
this country. Little can be added to the information as 
to distribution given by Dr. Hagen, save that I have 
received Swedish examples of B. liyemalis from Professor 
Sttil, and it is also recorded as Swedish by Zetterstedt 
and Wallengren (though apparently not known as such 
to Linne when he wrote his " Fauna Suecica^^) . Omitting 
England from the localities for Wtshcoodii, that species 
would appear only to be known from Germany and Fin- 
land. 

The descriptions and figures given by authors (before 
Hagen) all probably pertain to hyemalis ; at any rate, 
none of them are suflBciently explicit to prove they had 
the other species under consideration. 



Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 




i 2 

B. hyemalis. B. Westwoodii. 



4^. 



mL 



^i iOiOt 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 

FOR THE TEAR 

1869. 



Fehruarj 1, 1869. 

H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the chair. 

The President returned thanks for his re-election, and nominated as his Vice- 
Presidents Messrs. Pascoe, Frederick Smith, and A. R. Wallace. 

Donations to the Library. 
The following donations were announced, and thanks voted to the donors : — 
' Catalogue of Scientific Papers (1800—1863) compiled and published by the Royal 
Society of London,' Vol. ii. ; 'Proceedings of the Royal Society,' Nos. 105 and 106; 
presented by the Society. ' Journal of the Linnean Society,' Zoology, No. 45 ; by the 
Society. 'Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club,' Nos. 4 and 5; by the Club. 
'Bulletin de la Societe Tmperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou,' 1868, No. 1 ; by the 
Society. ' Genera des Coleopteres,' Tome viii. ; by the Author, Prof. Lacordaire. 
'Essai Monographique sur les Oxybelus du Bassin du Leman (Insectes Hymen- 
opleres),' par Frederic Chevrier; by the Author. Newman's ' British Moths,' No. 26: 
by the Author. 'The Zoologist,' for February ; by the Editor. ' The Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine,' for February ; by the Editors. 

Exhibitions, ^-c, 

Mr. Edward Saunders exhibited a specimen of Pachetra leucophaea, captured by 
Mr. N. E. Brown, on a gas-lamp at the Redhill Railway Station, on the i4th May, 
1868. 

The Secretary read a letter from Dr. W. Webster Butterfield, of Indianapolis, 
oflFering to exchange Lepidoptera of Indiana, U.S.A., for those of England. 

Mr. Pascoe made some observations on the Coleopterous genera Aprostoma, 
Mecedanum and Gempylodes, with reference to the remark of Prof. Westwood (Proc. 
Ent. Soc. 1868, p. 1.) that these genera would probably have to be united. M. Guerin's 

B 



11 

genus Aprostoma was by Prof. Lacordaire referred to the family Brenthida; ; at all 
events the insect from the Niger exhibited by Prof. Westwood was generically distinct, 
and in Mr. Pascoe's opinion abundantly distinct, from Gempylodes. 

Mr. Pascoe exhibited a curious bug (perhaps an Odontoscelis) from the neitjbbour- 
hood of Toulon; he had been unable to identify it with any species described by 
M. Mulsaiit. 

Prof. Westwood gave an account of ihe new vine-pest, Rhizaphis, to which his 
attention was first called in 1863 : its mode of attacking the vine was two-fold, or at 
all events specimens between which he could not find any difference, and which to all 
appearance belonged to the same species, caused damage to the vines in two very 
different ways. Some of them sucked the upper side of the leaf, and caused the 
appearance on the lower side of a gall, which was unique in its character; the upper 
coat of the leaf split into tooth-like or radiating segments, each with delicate white 
filaments ; beneath this covering the insect sheltered herself, being visible through the 
interstices between the radiations, and was of the size of an ordinary pin's head ; there 
she lay her eggs, which hatched immediately, and the mother and young together filled 
the cavity or cell; the young, however, soon left her, and went to the younger parts of 
the plant, to commence depredations on their own account; a leaf would sometimes 
be covered with them. Prof. Westwood knew no other instance of an insect burying 
itself iu this manner. The other mode of attack was by sucking the roots or rootlets 
underground, thereby causing decay and rottenness, and killing the vine; there was 
not any gall or swelling formed, but he had found the young ones with their parent on 
the roots. In the South of France whole vineyards had been destroyed ; and the pest 
occurred iu England, though whether or not introduced or imported with the vines he 
could not say. The female alone had been detected in this country, but Dr. Signoret 
had obtained the male, and referred it to the genus Phylloxera. Prof. Westwood 
wished to hear if any Member present was aware of any instance of the same insect 
attacking a plant both above and below ground in two such dissimilar ways. 

Mr. Frederick Smith was able to mention an instance. The common Cynips 
aptera was well known to form clusters of galls on the fibrous roots of the oak; on one 
occasion he had found, in Bishop's Wood, Hampstead, on the stem of an oak tree, 
about a foot above the ground, a large lump which he could only compare to a number 
of barnacles fastened to the bole; he cut the lump off, look it home, and to his surprise 
bred therefrom between twenty and thirty specimens of Cynips aptera. 

Mr. Charles Home (who was present as a visitor) exhibited the stings of two 
scorpions which were killed by rats at Benares, on the 19th July, 1865; one of the 
stings shewed a large hole where it had been perforated by the tooth of the rat. The 
scorpion and rat were placed under a glass cover, and for some time the scorpion 
fenced about, tail over head, trying to get hold of the rat, but at a favourable moment 
the rat dodged down and made a rush at the scorpion, bit the sting through the 
middle, then placed its foot upon the scorpion, and began to pull off the legs at leisure. 
In India it was the constant habit of rats to destroy scorpions, and he believed they 
usually ate them ; but in the case above described the scorpion was not eaten by the 
rat. 

Paper read. 

The following paper was read :—" Description of a New Species of Hestina," by 
Mr. A. G. Butler. The species, Hestina Zella, from India (?), was described as 



lU 



being an excellent mimic of Danais Juventa, and most nearly allied to H. Mena of 
Moore. 



February 15, 1869. 
H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Election of Members. 
Arthur Wynne Foot, Esq., M.D., of 21, Lower Pembroke Street, Dublin, was 
elected an Annual Subscriber. 

Exhibitions, ^c. 

Prof. Weslwood exhibited two parasites on bats from Ceylon, both Diptera, a 
Strebla and a Nycteribia, prepared for the microscope in Canada balsam, by 
Mr. Staniforth Green, of Colombo. They were simply pressed between sheets of 
paper, an aperture haviuf? been made for the escape of the fluid matter, and whilst 
still moist were laid on the glass, and the balsam, heated over a spirit lamp and 
poured on hot, filled up the interstices and made the preparation transparent. 

Mr. Butler exhibited a living locust of the genus Conocephalus: it had been 
received by Mr. Swanzy in London on tbe 2nd of February, and arrived on board a 
ship from the West coast of Africa. A swarm of them covered the decks, being at first 
green, but after about three days they became brown, probably from the absence of 
green food : notwithstanding exposure for some days to a very heavy sea, many speci- 
mens clung to the vessel and arrived in the Thames alive. The one exhibited had 
taken nothing since its arrival but a little water, except on one occasion when it was 
compelled to clean its face of some sugar which Mr. Butler placed on it. 

Mr. F. Smith exhibited a collection of honey bees from all parts of the world, and 
solicited the loan of foreign species, the localities of which were known, to extend his 
knowledge of ibeir geographical distribution and assist him in the preparation of a 
memoir on the honey bees supplementary to that published by him some few years ago 
in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' : it was very desii'able to obtain all 
the sexes of all the species, as the workers alone did not offer sufliciently marked 
characters to determine the identity or specific distinctness of many of the forms. 
Among the bees exhibited there were, a queen of Apis mellifica which was with diffi- 
culty to be distinguished from a worker; all the sexes of Apis Ligustica and fasciata 
(the latter, in the opinion of Dr. Gerstacker was only a variety, but Mr. Smith thought 
he could show its distinctness) ; the male and worker of A. Indica, sent by Mr. Atkin- 
son, of Calcutta ; a queen, sent by Mr. Lewis from Japan, very closely resembling the 
common A. mellifica ; specimens of A. nigrocincta (considered by Gerstacker to be a 
variety of A. Indica) ; all the sexes of A. floralis, the smallest known honey bee (the 
worker of which is the A. lobata of Smith) ; A dorsata, the largest and commonest in 
India and the Eastern Archipelago (of which A. testacea was only a variety) ; aud all 
the sexes of a bee horn the Cape of Good Hope which might be only A. Ligustica, but 
was considerably larger. Mr. Smith also exhibited pieces of the comb of various 
species; the worker cells of the above-mentioned bee from the Cape were one-tenth 



smaller than those of A. raellifica, ten of the former Leing equal to nine of the latter; 
the cells of A. Indica were still smaller than those from the Cape ; the combs of A. 
floralis, like those of A. dorsata, were attached to branches of trees; lastly, there were 
some cells of A. dorsata, made of the same material as the rest, but an inch and a half 
in depth, which Mr. Smith supposed to he honey-cells. 

Mr. Druce exhibited a collection of butterflies from Nicaragua, brought to this 
country by Mr. Thomas Belt. Amongst them was a Papilio, near to P. Sesostris; 
and a series of Heiiconiidae representing four genera, but which looked like one species, 
the whole of them being found flying together. Ten or twelve new species had been 
obtained by Mr. Hewitson out of Mr. Belt's collection. 

The President had obtained some handsome new species of (/oleoptera, also from 
Mr. Belt, the scene of whose operations was the neighbourhood of the Chontales 
mines. Nicaragua was divided in the middle, the Atlantic side being forest, the 
Pacific side savannah and open grass-land ; Chontales lay on the edge of the Atlantic 
belt of forest, and in consequence of the development of the mines there had been 
considerable felling of timber, and most of Mr. Belt's Coleoptera were brought to him 
by the wood-cutters : there were some very fine forms of Stenaspis, Colobothea, 
Amphionycha, Oncideres, Anisocerus, &c., &c., and it seemed as if the tropical types 
culminated in size and beauty in Nicaragua. So far as American Coleoptera were 
concerned (though he could not say that he had observed the same thing in other 
Orders), it seemed that at and near the Equator the species were comparatively dull in 
colour, but brighter hues were assumed both in the North and South tropics. 

Mr. A. R. Wallace thought this held good in the East also. The beetles of Borneo 
were generally dull in colour, whilst more brilliant forms were found both in Ceylon 
and China, in Java and Australia. The excessive uniformity in the character of the 
vegetation was perhaps the cause of the prevailing dullness of the beetles found within 
the equatorial belt. 

By an unanimous vote the Secretary was requested to express to the Rev. T. A. 
Marshall, on behalf of the Members of the Society, their sympathy and condolence 
with him on the recent loss, through the foundering of a ship between Milford Haven 
and Barnstaple, of the whole of his library and manuscripts and collection of insects. 
The destruction of his minute British Hymenoptera belonging to groups but little 
studied, and of the types of species characterized by Mr. Marshall, was more than 
a private misfortune, and was an irreparable loss to Science. 

Paper read. 

The following paper was read : — " Description of a new Genus and Species of 
Prionidse," by Mr. Edmund Thomas Higgins. 

The new form was named Ommatomenus sericatus, was allied to Tilhoes and 
Dorycera, and was described as connecting the Acanthophorus group of the Old World 
with the Derobrachus group of the New World. It was found near the mouth of the 
Niger, and the Acanthophorus megalops of Mr. Adam White, from Fernando Po, was 
indicated as belonging to the genus Ommatomenus. 



March 1, 1869. 

H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Donations to the Library. 
The following donations were announced, and thants voted to the donors: — 
' Proceeding's of the Eoyal Society,' No. 108; presented by the Society. ' Biillettino 
della Societa Entomologica Italiaua,' Anno primo, Fascicolo I.; by the Society. 
'Coleopterologische Hefle,' Part iv. ; by the Editor, Baron E. von Harold. ' Bidrag 
til Kundskab om Christianiafjordens Fauna,' af Dr. Michael Sars; by the Author. 
'Tlie Zoologist,' for March; by the Editor. ' The Entomologist's Monthly Maga- 
zine,' for March ; by the Editors. 

Election of Member, 
Charles Home, Esq., of 3, Bernard Villas, Upper Norwood, was ballotted for, and 

elected a Member. 

Exhibitions, S/-c. 

Mr. Bond exhibited specimens of Heliothis armiger from the Isle of Wight, Java 
and Australia. The insect had been taken in Java by Dr. Horsfield; the Australian 
specimens were captured by Dr. Madden. 

Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited dwarfs of Vanessa Urticse, Smerinthus Populi, Saturnia 
Carpini and Pygsera Bucephala, all bred in 1868, by Mr. Davis, of Waltham Cross, 
and scarcely more than half the ordinary size of the species : this was attributed to 
rapidity of development, owing to the heat of ihe summer. 

Dr. Wallace exhibited a number of Bombyx Yamamai and their cocoons: during 
last season he bred about fifty of them at Colchester, and found them to vary con- 
siderably in colour: the moth was in the habit of performing summersaults and 
mancEuvres, like those of Cilix or Limacodes when netted. Also Bombyx Pernyi, 
another oak-feeding species from China, of which he had received through the 
Foreign Office a number of cocoons, from which the moths were hatching, and one 
had laid about 270 eggs: he hoped to make some useful experiments with this 
species, which like Bombyx Cynthia was double-brooded, but would probably be 
found to require a dry climate and warm soil. Also English-bred specimens of the 
American Saturnia Cecropia. Dr. Wallace made some remarks on the progress of 
sericiculture in this country and the colonies: what was principally required was an 
experiment on a large scale to test the commercial value of the product: with this 
view a gentleman in Paris desired to purchase 500 fbs. of cocoons, for which he was 
willing to give 25(1. per tb. 

Dr. Wallace also exhibited a moth which, on the 18th of January, 1869, he 
observed on the window of his room; bul, under the impression that it was a small 
female of the common Emperor moth, left it undisturbed. On the 19th he noticed 
that the antenna were pectinate, and thinking it still to be a female Saturnia Carpini 
with the anlennsB of a male, he killed it and set it out. Closer examination showed 
that it was not an Emperor moth at all, and he at length bethought him of a parcel 
of cocoons, which he had received in 1867 from Dr. Hooker, of a Chinese Bombyx 
which was said to yield the "gut" of fishermen. (See Proc. Ent. Soc. 1867, p. civ.). 
On looking at the cocoons, none of which were productive during 1868, it was found 



VI 

one of them had hatched, and there was unmistakeable evidence of the recent 
emergence of a moth from the pupa: he had no doubt the moth exhibited was the 
produce of that pupa. Mr. F. Moore recognized the species as Saturnia pyretorum 
(Westw. Cab. Orient. Ent. p. 49, pi. 24, fig. 2). 

Dr. Wallace mentioned that he had availed himself of the sample or pattern post 
for the transmission of boxes of silk-worms or their eggs : so long as there was an 
aperture at. each end of the box, which apertures might be covered with perforated 
zinc or other material, but left it ascertainable that there was no letter enclosed, no 
objection was raised by the Post-OflBce authorities; and he had lately sent a box by 
post to Japan for eggs at a cost of 4s., which when it last came thence as a parcel had 
cost 47s. Mr. Home added that bird-skins were now frequently sent from India by 
sample post. 

Mr. M'Lachlan exhibited three male specimens of Dilar Hornei (Ent. Mo. Mag. 
V. 239), a new species from India of a genus remarkable amongst the Neuroptera 
for the possession of pectinate antennae. 

Mr. Home, by whom the species was brought to this country, said the insect was 
not uncommon in Norlh-West India, on the hill sides, amongst grass in damp places, 
but not near water: the female had a long yellow-brown ovipositor shaped like a 
scimitar, which, so far from looking flexible, had the appearance of being very stiff. 

Mr. Home exhibited sheets of the inner portion of the bark of Pinus longifolia, 
which he had found useful in India as a substitute for cork: it was tolerably soft, and 
the resin was not injurious to insects. 

Prof. Weslwood mentioned that in the previous month he had seen exhibited at 
Oxford a full-grown larva of Larapyris noctiluca, which was distinctly luminous. 

Mr. J. J. Weir exhibited a mass of larvae of Tipula from Blackheath, where acres 
of laud were so infested that there seemed to be more larvae than earth. In Greenwich 
Park the grass was, at this early period, almost destroyed by them. Rooks, starlings 
and sparrows appeared to be busy in the neighbourhood, but no diminution in the 
number of the grubs was observable. 

Mr. Bond mentioned that he had once known four hundred of these larvae taken 
out of the crop of a pheasant. 

Papers read. 

Mr. Charles O. Waterhouse read a paper " On a new Genus and some new Species 
of Coleoptera belonging to the Family Lucauidae." 

Mr. J. Jenner Weir read a paper " On Insects and Insectivorous Birds, and 
especially on the Relation between the Colour and the Edibility of Lepidoptera and 
their Larvae." 

Mr. A. G. Butler read a paper " On some Caterpillars, &c., which are unpalatable 
to their Enemies." 

Mr. Weir's experiments were suggested by the remarks of Mr. Alfred R. Wallace, 
reported in Froc. Eut. Soc. 1867, p. Ixxx. : the conclusions at which lie arrived were, 
that, as a rule, hairy and spinous larvce were rejected by birds (unless the cuckoo were 
an exception) ; but he doubted whether the mechanical difScuky of swallowing them 
was the cause of their rejection, and rather thought that the hairs were the con- 
comitant of a disagreeable quality of which they acted as an indicator; that bright 
and gaily-coloured larvae, were, as a rule, refused ; but that smooth larvae of a greenish 
or dull brown colour, such as are for the most part nocturnal in their habits, and those 



which simulate the leaves or twigs of trees upon which ihey live, were eaten with 
avidity. 

Mr. Butler's observaiions were on the consumption or rejection of larvfe by lizards, 
fro,i;s and spiders; both lizards and frogs would eat hairy larvae; and even the stings 
of bees had no deterrent effect upon a lizard. 

These two papers led to a prolonged conversation, in which the President, 
Mr. Home, Mr. A. R. Wallace, Mr. Butler, Mr. M'Lachlan and Dr. Wallace, took 
jnirt. 

Mr. Home said that in India lizards were almost omnivorous, and ale bees with 
avidity; a friend of his. Colonel Ramsay, had hives of Apis dorsata placed near some 
stone walls or terraces, which were a favourite resort of lizards; they would come to 
the mouths of the hives, lie in wait for the bees, and take them, sting and all. Larvae 
of all sorts, smooth or bairy, dull or bright, were eaten by lizards ; but scorpions were 
rejected ; bears, however, would eat scorpions, and he had seen bears turn over stones 
in search of scorpions, and eat them regardless of their stings. He had noticed that 
a common Indian species of Carabus, and all the blister-beetles, seemed to be free 
from attacks of any animal. 

Dr. Wallace said that the larvae of Bombyx Cynthia, which were both gaily 
coloured and covered with tubercles, were eaten by cuckoos, robins and tomtits: the 
two latter made holes in the skin and took out the inside, whilst the cuckoos swallowed 
the larvae whole. 

Mr. Alfred R. Wallace was pleased to find that the observations of Mr. Weir went 
so far to support the theory which, reasoning entirely from the analogy of what had 
been observed in the Heliconiidae, he had ventured to suggest in answer to a question 
of Mr. Darwin's. He thought there was now a solid foundation of fact for the hypo- 
thesis that the bright colour of larvae was protective, and was (as it were) a flag hung 
out to warn ofiF their enemies. Doubtless every detail either of form or colour had its 
object and bearing upon the history of the creature. It was not necessary that the law 
should be absolute or the rule universal ; he did not expect to find, on the contrary he 
should have been surprised if it had been found, that all brightly coloured larvae were 
peculiarly protected, or that the bright colour of any particular larva protected it from 
all enemies ; if it thereby obtained protection from a single enemy, if it was left 
exposed to the attack of but one enemy less than its neighbours, to that extent at 
least the colour gave it an advantage ; the theory of protective warning supplied the 
reason for, and afforded a rational explanation of, the gay colouring, which in the 
case of larvae could not be accounted for by sexual selection. 



March 15, 1869. 
H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Election of Member. 
H. Grose Smith, Esq., of Surbiton, was balloited for, and elected a Member. 

Exhibitions, ^c. 
Mr. Frederick Smith exhibited specimens of Colletes cunicularia, a bee new to this 
country: they had been sent to him by Mr. Nicholas Cooke, by whose son, Mr. Isaac 



VUl 

Cooke, tbey were captured in ihe Isle of Wight, between Ventiior and Niton, in May, 
18(57; four males and five females were taken. It is the largest European species of 
Colletes, and is the C. hirta of Continental authors, which name, however, must give 
place lo cunicularia of Linnaeus, llie type of which is extant in the Linnean collection. 

Mr. M'Lachlan exhibited a gigantic species of Ephemeridse, about three inches in 
expanse of wings. It had been received by Mr. Salvin, from Veragua; and was pro- 
bably the Palingenia Hecuba of Dr. Hagen. 

Mr. Butler exhibited varieties of several butterflies, captured by him in Switzerland, 
chiefly in the neighbourhood of Chamounix, in July and August, 1868. There were — 
(1) Anthocharis Cardamines, with the black spot on the fore-wings very small, the 
black edging confined to the tip of the wing, and the orange colour extending con- 
siderably within the black spot — this seemed to be the normal type of the insect in 
Switzerland ; (2) Colias Edusa, remarkable for its large size ; (3) Epinephele Janira, 
one specimen very dark, another very light in colour — the former was the common 
type in Switzerland ; (4) Argynnis Aglaia, with the hind-wings almost entirely black, 
and the silvery spots on the under side covering the basal and apical parts of the wing ; 
(5) Melitsea Alhalia, four varieties, varying from almost entirely black to almost 
entirely fulvous; and (6) Parnassius Apollo, with small pale ocelli, the ordinary pink 
markings being pale yellow. Mr. Butler added that Leucophasia Sinapis, the " wood 
white" as we term it, was common all over Switzerland, not in woods, but in the 
neighbourhood of water. 

Mr. Stainlon, who had just returned from Italy, made some remarks on the difl"erent 
habits of the same species in difl^erent localities; for instance, at Cannes, Mentone, 
and other places in the South of Europe, Pyrameis Atalanta was the commonest hyber- 
nating butterfly. The species was to be seen everywhere, whilst in this country a 
hybernated specimen was never seeu before April, and rarely before the time when the 
hawthorn is in blossom. 

Mr. Hewitson sent for exhibition a number of butterflies collected in Nicaragua by 
Mr. Belt ; there were twelve species new to Science, and several others which were not 
previously in Mr.Hewitson's cabinet. The Papilio mentioned at the Meeting of 15th 
February {ante, p. iv.) was believed to be the female of P. Childrenae, a species dis- 
tinct from P. Sesostris, 

Mr. Hewitson also sent for exhibition two new species of Papilio, from Ecuador, 
whence they were received by Mr. James Backhouse. As an incident of collecting in 
Ecuador, it might be mentioned that the captor and his mule were thrown over a 
precipice together; the gentleman had his head cut and one of his arms broken, and 
in this plif^ht had to ride for seven days in search of a doctor. 

The President exhibited seven forms of Papilio belonging to the Machaon group. 
Mr. Christopher Ward had purchased the Japanese collection of butterflies from 
the Paris Exhibition : it included Papilio Machaon and Xuthus, and a third 
form, which proved to be the P. Xuihulus of Bremer, who described it as being 
intermediate between the other two; it was first captured in Amoor-land, and 
the captor took it for a hybrid between Machaon and Xuthus, until it was 
noticed that its time of appearance was a month earlier than either of the 
other species. For comparison with these Japanese forms, the President added 
P. Zelicaon and Asterias, and two other American forms : he observed that in 
Europe P. Machaon was very constant, and that the allied forms in America 



m\ iim. 



IX 

exhibited but slig;ht variation from the same type ; but in North-Eastein Asia 
the group appeared to be more unstable, for although the true Machaon was there 
found, it was associated with two other forms exhibiting greater diverjiency from the 
typical form. This was another instance, analogous to what he had before recorded 
respecting the Theonoe group of the genus Leptalis, in which a certain type of form 
was found to be constant at the opposite ends of its area of distribution, but was liable 
to variation in intermediate localities ; thus tending to show that the development or 
manufacture of new species takes place, not necessarily over the whole range of dis- 
tribution of the particular type, but only in limited areas of the total range, where and 
when the particular circumstances are most favourable to variation. 

A letter from Mr. H. L. Schrader was read by the Secretary; the writer described 
some of his observations on species of GRceticus, from which he inferred that those 
species are viviparous. 

Papers read. 

The following papers were read : — " Descriptions of two New Species of Papilio from 
Ecuador,'' and " Descriptions of six New Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera from 
Nicaragua;'' by Mr. Hewilson. 

" Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley (Coleoptera, Prionides)." 
By t!ie President. 

" Synopsis of the Species of Panorpa occurring in Europe and the adjoining 
Couniries ; with a Description of a New Species from Java." By Mr. M'Lachlan. 



April 5, 1869. 
H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Additions to the Library. 

The following donations were announced, and thanks voted to the donors : — 
' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' No. 109 ; presented by the Society. 'Journal of 
the Agricultural Society of England,' 2nd Ser., vol. v.. Part 1 ; by the Society. 
' Miltheiluiigen der Schweizerischen entomologischen Gesellschaft,' vols. 1 and 2 ; 
by the Society. ' Siudien an Acariden,' von Edouard Clapaiede; by Sir John 
Lubbock, Bart. ' Die Oiiorhynchiden s. str. nach den morphologischen Verwandt- 
schaftsverhallnissen ihres Haulscelet's vergleichend dargestellt, von Georg Seidlitz;' 
by the Author. ' Report on the Culture of the Japanese Silkworm, Bombyx Yama- 
mai, in 1867-8, in England,' by Dr. Wallace ; by the Author. 'The Insect Hunter's 
Year-Book for 1868,' and ' The Zoologist' for April ; by the Editor, E. Newman, Esq. 
'The Entomologists' Monthly Magazine' for April; by the Editors. 

The following addition by purchase was also announced: — Gemminger and Von 
Harold, ' Catalogus Coleopterorum hucusque descriptorum,' Tom. iii. 

Exhibitions, SfC. 
Mr. Pascoe exhibited a new genus of Diaperinse from Espiritu Santo, in which the 
horns on the head between or above the eyes, which distinguish many of the males of 
Platydema, Diaperis, Hoplocephala, &c., were transferred to the apex of the prothorax ; 

c 



the female showed a slight approach to the same formation. Also species of the 
European genera Apion, Altelabus, and Elleschus, recently discovered in Australia; 
and several remarkable unpublished forms of Curculionidae, among which were — a new 
genus from Macassar allied to Oxycorynus, having the pronotum distinct from the 
flanks of the protborax, with its edges serrate ; a species from Batcbian, with the base 
of the protborax prolonged into a slender spine extending backwards half the length 
of the elytra ; another from the same island without any claw-joint, its tarsi therefore 
only three-joiuled ; a species allied to Catasarcus, with a single claw; a peculiar 
globose form from Cape York, allied to Tragopus ; a thick-set species from South 
Africa, with the base of its protborax ensconced in the elytra ; a species from Para, 
of doubtful affinity, with a distinct pronotum ; &c. 

Prof Westwood exhibited a male specimen, from the Oxford Museum, of the 
Panorpa from Java, which was described at the previous meeting by Mr. M'Lachlan 
as Panorpa nematogaster. Also specimens of Blatta melanocephala, which was found 
very destructive in Orchid-houses, feeding on the buds or young shoots. 

Mr. Druce exhibited two male specimens of Pa])ilio Zalmoxis, of Hewitson, from 
Old Calabar. 

Mr. Bond exhibited Sciaphila communana, of Herrich-Schajffer, a moth new to 
Britain, captured at Wiclien Fen, Cambridgeshire; also dried larvae of Myelophila 
cribrella, in situ, within the stems of thistles. 

Mr. F. Smith exhibited several species of humble-bees with their respective 
parasites or cuckoo-bees. Bombus subterrnueus varied from yellow to entirely 
black, and the parasite Apathus camprestis showed similar variations in colour; 
the same was true of Bombus muscorum. Bombus terrestris was not liable to 
variation, its parasite Apathus vesialis was also constant; the same was true of 
Bombus lapidarius and Apathus rupestris, though the parasite in this case had dark 
wings. Bombus pratorum was the only moss-building species which was infested by 
a parasite, Apathus barbutellus, and this did not at all resemble the humble-bee. 
The first idea that suggested itself was that the cuckoo-bee bore resemblance to the 
worker of the humble-bee in order to gain access to the nest; but it was only in 
the social species that the parasites resembled the bumble-bees, and the parasite of 
B. pratorum militated against the theory. 

In the course of the conversation which ensued, it was suggested that an entry 
might be effected into the nest of a solitary bee, in the absence of the true owner, 
without disguise ; whilst in the case of a social species,, of which some of the colony 
would always be at home, the entry of an undisguised stranger would be detected. 
And in reply to inquiries, it was elicited from Mr. Smith that the moss-building 
Bombus pratorum was a placid bee, by the side of whose nest a person might sit with 
impunity ; and hence it was to be inferred that this species, by reason of its diflferent 
mental constitution, might more readily admit a stranger into its nest without oppo- 
sition, whilst stratagem or deception was necessary to obtain access to the nests of 
species less peaceably disposed. 

Papers read. 
The following Papers were read : — 

" Descriptions of New Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera." By Mr. W. C. Hewitson. 
" Notes on Eastern Butterflies. By Mr. A. R. Wallace, 



XI 



" Descriptions of New Species of Phytophaga, belonging to the Families Cassididae 
and HispidfE." By Mr. J. S. Baly. 

" A Revision of the British Species of Humalota." By Dr. Sharp. One hundred 
and fifty -seven species were described, of which twenty-nine were new. 



May 3, 1869. 
H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Donations to the Library. 
The following donations were announced, and thants voted to the donors : — 
' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' No. 110; presented by the Society. 'Journal of 
the Quekett Microscopical Club,' No. 6; by the Club. ' Annales de la Societe Lin- 
iieenne de Lyon,' vol. xvi.; by the Society. ' Verhandlungen der k. k. zool-bot. 
Gesellschaft in Wien,' vol. xviii., Paris 1 and 2 ; by the Society. ' Bulletin de la 
Socieie Imp. des Naturalistes de Moscou/ 1868, No. 2 ; by the Society. ' Beilrag 
zur Kenntniss der Coleopteren-Fauna der Balearen,' by Dr. Schaufuss. Hewitson's 
' Exotic Butterflies,' Part 70 ; by W. W. Saunders, Esq. ' The Zoologist' for May ; 
by the Editor. 'The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine' for May ; by the Editors. 

Election oj Member. 
Charles Owen Waterhouse, Esq., of the British Museum, was ballolted for, and 
elected a Member. 

Exhibitions, <J-c. 

Mr. S. Stevens exhibited a large collection of Coleoptera, sent from China by Mr. 
Pullinger; and read an extract from a Report on the Coffee Plantations of India, to 
the effect that the planters had not discovered any remedy for or preventive of the 
ravages of the coffee-borer, Xylotrechus quadripes. 

Mr. Dunning exhibited a specimen of the common Cetonia aurata, found in a 
garden at New Cross on the 11th April; it was partly covered with earth, and appeared 
to have just emerged from its underground hybernaculum, whence it had been pre- 
maturely tempted by the first warmth of spring. 

Mr. Butler mentioned that the Conocephalus from West Africa, which he exhibited 
on the loth February {ante, p. iii.) was still alive ; he had kept it in a box on a mantel- 
shelf at the British Museum, where it remained motionless unless disturbed, and had 
not eaten anything whatever. 

Prof. Westwood exhibited three species of Epyris and some other Hymenoptera 
of doubtful position, having relations with the Proctotrupidse, the Chrysididse, and 
some of the Scoliidse ; and a Calyoza from Port Natal, with pectinate antenn3B having 
thirteen joints in both sexes; this was identical with an insect found in gum anime, 
and described in Trans. Ent. Soc. ii. £)6 (where the male was represented as having 
only twelve joints to the antennae). 

Mr, Frederick Smith exhibited both sexes of Cynips, the male of which had at 
last been detected by Mr. Walsh in America. The oak-apples on the black Oiik 
(Quercus liiictoria) are first observed in May, and reach their full growth in a few 



I 



xu 

weets ; by the middle of June, male and female gall-flies (Cynips quercus-spongifica, 
Oslen-Sacken) emerge from a small proportion of tbem, say one-fourth ; the remaining 
three-foiirtbs do not develop flies until tlie autumn, and then produce gall-flies 
(C. q acicuiala) closely allied to, yet quile distinct from, those produced in June, and 
out of ihousauds of the autumnal flies which were examined not one was a male. 
Mr. Walsh placed some of the autumnal form (C. q. aciculata) on oak-trees, and they 
created galls, Iroiu some of which were obtained the spring form (C. q. spongifica), 
whilst a few produced the autumnal form (C. q. aciculata), and all the latter were 
females. These last ajjain were placed on isolated oaks, galls were formed by their 
puncturing, and froui these the spring form (C. q. sponj^ifica) was again obtained. 
From which observations it was to be inferred that the two forms are not distinct 
species, but dimorphous forms of the same species. From the red oak (Quercus 
inanis) a diflferent gall was obtained, smaller than the former, and the central cell not 
woody : from these galls came male and female gall-flies (Cynips quercus-inanis, 
Oslen-Sacken), which were undistinguishable from the spring form of C. q. spongifica, 
but no autumnal form of this fly had been discovered. Mr. Walsh felt himself com- 
pelled to consider the flies distinct, because the galls were diff'erent and were obtained 
from distinct species of oak; but the gall-flies were exactly alike. An account of 
Mr. Walsh's observations had been given in " The American Entomologist," of which 
Mr. Smith mentioned that, though 6000 copies were struck off, the early numbers 
were alrciidy out of print. 

Mr. Charles Home stated the result of his observations in India on various insects, 
as re;:ar(ls their liability to or freedom from the attacks of animals, birds, lizards, &c. 
In corroboration of his previous statement (ante, p. vii.) he might mention that the 
brown or yellow bear (Ursus isabellinus) was described by Dr. Jerdon as eating scor- 
pions, insects, honey and fruit; the Himalayan black hear (U. Tibetanus) was very 
fond of locusts, but with this exception did not affuct insects; the black bear 
(U. labiatus) was said to "suck the grubs of large Loiigicorns" in the Neilgherries, 
having first dug them out of the soil, but this bear was not found among the hills of 
the Norlh-West Provinces, and Mr. Home was not personally acquainted with its 
habits. Anibia i|uadriniaculata, all the species of Blaps, and all the observed Myla- 
bridse and Geotrupidtp, were refused by everything. A brightly coloured locust was 
refused by birds and lizards; it exuded a yellow acrid juice with a pungent odour. 
The wingless female Lauipyridoe were not eaten, though perhips the males might be. 
Small round hard Coleopiera, and Mantispae, were refused by the Gecko lizards, whith 
were otherwise ou)niv(U-ous. Termites in all their stages, and migratory locusts, were 
generally eaten by birds, frogs and lizards; even the smallest birds would take 
locusts, as would also squirrels and mice. Hemiptera were generally refused. Man- 
tidsB were freely eaten by birds. Merops viridis and other birds eat bees; the honey- 
buzzard tears off" the comb of bees and wasps, and heedless of their slings sits and eats 
the honey, wax, grubs, and all. Crows eat all visible caterpillars, but prefer smooth- 
bodied ones. Kiiig-crows (Dicrurus) eat all insects on the wing; a large fat-bodied 
moth with red under-wings was a great favourite with them. Sparrows delight in the 
Noctuidae ; so do the hunting spiders, and Mr. Home was at a loss to understand why 
the spiders were not carried oS" by the moths. Most of the thrush tribe gobble up 
almost indiscriminately every insect or caterpillar they find. Sparrows had been seen 
to refuse cockroaches, but other birds would eat thrm. Most of the Blatlidas were 



xni 

rejected by birds. The Tchneumonidse appeared to enjoy immunity from the attacks of 
birds, which Mr. Home attributed chiefly to an acrid smell which most of them 
emitted. He had seen Dyliscidae taken by birds, and dropped from inability to eat 
them. lulidas were totally rejected by all animals and birds. 

Mr. Home also mentioned that he had once known a large spider (or rather 
a Galeodes) killed by the siiu^ of a wasp upon which he was feeding; the Galeodes 
finished his meal, but sickened and died shortly after. He inquired whether it was 
from fear, or for the purposeof annoyance, that humble-bees eject fluid when disturbed; 
and mentioned a similar occurrence which he observed in a hornet at Benares : the 
hornet was on a window, and, on being touched with a pencil, ejected a clear fluid 
along the glass, in several lines of from one inch to two inches in length. Mr. Home 
also exhibiied a sketch from nature of a moth and a hunting spider : the moth was at 
rest on a small bamboo in a summer-house, and the spider was quietly feeding upon 
the moth; the question was, how did the spider catch and hold the moth, without 
any disturbance of the latter? The moth must have been alive when the spider 
seized him, for the spider would not have cared to suck a dead body. 

Mr. M'Lachlan had seen a Phalangium which had captured, and held in captivity, 
a Plusia Gamma under similar circumstances. 

Mr. M'Lachlan exhibited a white ant which had been brought in all its stages by 
Mr. Melliss from St. Helena. (See Prou, Ent. Soc. 1863, p. 185 ; 186fi, p. xii.) The 
insect was said to have been introduced into the island from the coast of Africa, but it 
was not referable to any described African species; it had rather the appearance of a 
West Indian or Brazilian species, and resembled the Termes tenuis of Dr. Hagen. 

Mr. M'liachlan also exhibited a number of black Podurse, probably the same 
species as that exhibiied by Mr. G, S. Saunders (Proc. Ent. Soc. 1867, p. Ixxxv), the 
Anura tuberculata of Templeton : the so-called " blight" fell over a duck-pond and 
favm-yard near Hungerford on the 10th April, and Icoked just as if a sack of soot had 
been emptied out; it floated for some time on the pond, but soon disappeared from 
the farm-yard. Mr. M'Lachlan added that he had only that morning found a number 
of small white Podurse in his own house at Lewisham : some flowers were in a room, 
one of the flower-pots had been removed, leaving a saucer containing water, on the 
top of which the spring-tails were floating; but on returning two or three hours later 
they were all drowned. 

Prof Westwood suggested that they must have passed from the flower-pot into the 
water before the removal of the former; and Mr. Jenner Weir said that during the 
present spring he had observed them on several occasions under flower-pots. 

Papers read. 
The following papers were read: — 

" Notes on Eastern Btittei flies," (Continuation, on the genus Diadema) ; by Mr. 
Alfred R. Wallace. 

" Descriptions of new or little-known Forms of Diurnal Lepidoptera;" by Mr. 
A. G. Butler. 

New Purl of ' Transactions.' 

The first part of the "Transactions for 1869" (published in April) was on the 
table. 



XIV 



June 7, 1869. 
H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Additions to the Library. 

The following donations were aiinounceci, and ihanks voted to the donors : — 
' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' No. Ill ; presented by the Society. ' Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society,' 1868, Part 3; by the Society. ' Horae Societatis 
Entomologicae Rossicae,' Vol. vi., No. 2; by the Society. 'Berliner Entomologische 
Zeitschrift, 1868, Parts 3,4,-1869, Parts 1,2; and ' Verzeichniss der Kafer Deutsch- 
lands,' von Dr. Kraatz ; by the Entonaological Society of Berlin. ' Illustrations of 
Diurnal Lepidoptera, Part IV., Lycajnidsc'; by the Author, W. C. Hewitson, Esq. 
H. de Saussure, ' Reise der Oest. Fregatte Novara, Hymenoptera ;' 'Etudes sur 
quelques Orthopteres du Musee de Geneve ; ' 'Etudes sur I'Aile des Orthopteres ; ' 
' Orthoplerum Sjiecies novge aliquot ;' ' Phasmidarum novorum Species nonnullae ;' and 
Prof. Yerbin, 'Note sur la derniere Mue des Orthopteres;' ' Note sur les Mues du 
Grillon charnpetre;' 'Note sur le Xiphidium brunneum;' presented by Sir John 
Lubbock. ' The Zoologist,' for June; by the Editor, ' The Entomologist's Monthly 
Magazine,' for June; by the Editors. 

The following addition by purchase was also announced : — ' Recherches sur la Faune 
de Madagascar : lusectes,' par S. C. Snellen van Vollenhoven et Baron Edm. de Selys 
Longchamps. 

Exhibitions, ^c. 

Mr. Druce exhibited a collection of butterflies from Borneo, containing several 
novelties and rarities; amongst them a new Ornithoptera, a rare Charaxes, &c. 

Mr. Stainton exhibited two specimens of a new species of Tineina, bred from larvae 
sent by M. Milliere, who found them at Cannes on Osiris alba. The bushy tufted 
palpi of the insect resembled those of Anarsia, and its habit was to sit with its head 
depressed as if resting on the palpi; the markings of the wings were like Zelleria or 
Swammerdamia. Mr. Stainton had seen the moth at Vienna and in other Continental 
collections, but the discovery of its habits and transformations was due to M. Milliere, 
who proposed to describe it under the name of Paradoxus (n. g.) Osiridellus. 

Mr. Stainton also exhibited drawings of the larva and pupa-case of Gelechia 
atrella, and was now able to corroborate the observation of Mr. Jeffrey (see Proc. 
Ent. Soc. 1866, p. xxv.) that this species is a Hypericum feeder. At the previous 
meeting of the Society, Mr. De Grey had given Mr. Stainton some Hypericum stems 
containing larvae, which had since produced Gelechia atrella; when full fed, the larva 
cuts off the terminal portion of the stem, which appears to be slit up the side for the 
purpose of flattening it, and by spinning together the edges it forms a flexible case, 
within which it turns to the pupa, 

Mr. F. Smith exhibited a bee which he had found on the previous day at Southend, 
in grass, so completely covered with larvae of Meloe that it was impossible to deter- 
mine the species of the bee until the greater part of the parasites had been removed ; 
he did not remember to have ever found larvae of Meloe so late in the season ; there 
were forty or fifty of them on the bee when exhibited, when captured there must have 
been 300 or 400 ; the bee proved to be Melecta armata, itself a parasite in the nests of 
Anthophora. 



X\' 

Mr. F. Smiih exhibited living specimens of Physonota gigantea, a remarkably 
beautiful species of Cassididas, which however loses all its colour within two or three 
days after death, indeed some of them had faded and become dull during life ; they 
were brought to Liverpool from Central America in a cargo of logwood, and were said 
to have dropped out of the cracks of the wood. 

Mr. F. Smith exhibited a smooth corneous luminous larvae from Uruguay, which > 
he supposed to be a Pyrophorus. When placed in a dark room, the head appeared {^ 
bright red, and each side showed ten bright green spots ; the lateral spots were almost 5j, 
always visible (in the dark), the red only occasionally, and sometimes would remain in- P ^ 
visible for ten minutes together ; the colours were so intense that Mr. Smith compared ^,-' ' 
them to the red and green signal-lamps of a railway train. It was said by the sender ^^ 
to be capable of living for two or three months without food, if placed in earth which 
was kept damp and occasionally changed. 

Mr. Pascoe exhibited a beetle* brought by Mr. Du Boulay from West Australia, 
which possessed a very peculiar formation of the elytra with remarkable elevations on 
the hind pari thereof, and which seemed intermediate between Hister and Claviger. 

Prof. Westwood exhibited drawings of two new species of the Ectrephes of Pascoe 
(Proc. Ent. Soc. 1866, p. xvi. = Anapestus of King, in Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. W. 
for the same year), which genus he now considered to be a strangely modified form of 
Ptinidfe; and of some other forms (Polyplocotes, n. g., &c.) which connected Ectre- 
phes and Plinus. Also, a new Articerus, a new Paussus, &c. 

The Secretary read a letter from the Secretary of the Flax Improvement Associ- 
ation of Belfast, respecting the damage done by a small beetle to the flax crop, 
especially whilst the plant was in the seed-leaf. The species was determined by Mr. 
Janson to be tbe Thyumis parvula of PaykuU. 

Papers read. 

The following papers were read : — 

"Notes on Eastern Butterfles" (continuation, Eurytelidae and LibytheidEe) ; by 
Mr. Alfred R. Wallace. 

" Observations on Lucanoid Coleoptera ; with Remarks on some new Species, and 
on the present Nomenclature ; accompanied by a Revised Catalogue of the Species." 
by Major Parry. (First Part). 

" Remarks on the Genus Ectrephes, and Descriptions of new Exotic Coleoptera," 
by Prof. Westwood. 

" Notes on Chalcididae ; and description of a new Species of Megastigmus," by 
Mr. Francis Walker. 

" Descriptions of new Species of the Genus Pison ; and a Synonymic List of those 
previously described," by Mr. Frederick Smith. 

" Descriptions of new Genera and Species of Exotic Hymenoptera,'' by Mr. 
F. Smith. 

New Part of ' Transactions.' 

The second part of the 'Transactions' for 1869 (published in May) was on the 
table. 

* The Chlamydopsis striatella of Westwood, Tr. Ent. Soc. 1869, p. 318. 



xn 



July 5, 1809. 
Frederick Smith, Esq., Vice-President, in the cbair. 

Addilions to the Library. 

The following donations were announced, and th;inks voted to the donors: — 
'Transactions of the Linnean Society,' Vol. xxvi., Pt. 3 ; presenied by the Society. 
' Stetiiner Eulomologische Zeitunj."-,' 1869, Nos. 1 — 6; by the Eiitom. Soc. of Stettin. 
'Proceedings of the Royal Society,' No. 1 12; by the Society. Butler's 'Lepidoptera 
Exotica,' Pt. 1 ; by E. W. Janson, Esq. ' Descriptions of new Genera and Species of 
Tenebrionidse from Australia and Tasmania,' by F. P. Pascne ; by the Author. ' The 
Zoologist,' for July; by the Editor. 'The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine,' for 
July ; by the Editors. 

The following additions by purchase were also announced : — Thomson, ' Skandi- 
naviensColeoptera,' Vol. is. Gemminger and von Harold, ' Catalogus Coleopterorum,' 
Vol. iv. 

Election of Member. 

Albert Miiller, Esq., of Eton Villa, Sunny Bank Road, South Norwood, was 
ballotted for and elected a Member. 

Exhibitions, ^-c. 

Mr. J. Jenner Weir exhibited a gigantic tick, nearly an inch in length, and half 
an inch in breadth : it was found on a Greek tortoise. 

Mr. Colvile Barclay (who was present as a Visitor) gave an account of the damage 
done to the sugar cane in Mauritius by a species of Coccus, the " pou a poche blanche,'' 
or " pou blanc.'' See Proc. Ent. Soc. 1864, pp. 25, 51. 

Mr. Frederick Smith exhibited drawinu;s of the luminous larva shown at the 

> previous Meeting {ante, p. xv.), and supposed to be a Pyrophorus. Dr. Candeze and 

^£vProf. Scbiodte (who was present as a Visitor) were both of opinion that the larva 

r belonged to the ElateridcE, and were equally of opinion thai Mr. Andrew Murray's 

u Astraptor illuminator (Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool., vol. x., p. 74, pi. i.) was not an Elater. 

Mr. F. Smith exhibited a living male of the field cricket, Acheta campestris, 
found near Farnham ; and remarked that th(iu;;h he required to be placed in the sun 
to make him begin his song, moisture seemed to give him an additional stimulus and 
made him sing the louder. 

Mr. F. Smith also exhibited specimens, some of them alive, of Pissodes notatus, 
from Bournemouth, showing great variation in size. 

Mr. Pryer exhibited a specimen of Eupithecia tofjata, taken in the previous month ; 
the occurrence of the species in this country bad not been recorded for some years. 
The locality was not stated. Mr. Dunning mentioned that he had taken the insect at 
Brandon, Suffolk, in 1849. 

The Hon. T. I)e Grey exhibited three specimens of Cosmopteryx orichalcea, from 
Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire ; and six of what Prof. Zeller held to be a dark variety 
of Carpocapsa Juliana, though they were (part of a larger number) bred from beech 
in April. 

Mr. Wakefield (who was present as a Visitor) stated the result of his entomological 
experience in New Zealand, apologising for the scantiness of his information on the 



XVll 

giountl that the whole of his collections had perisliPfl in ihe burning of the ship 
" Blue Jacket." As in mammals and birds, so in insects, there seemed a paucity both 
of species and specimens, and a poverty of appearance about the few that did occur. 
Mr. Fereday had not been able to get together more than fourteen or fifteen species of 
butterflies, and 250 of moths. Mr. Wakefield himself had obtained perhaps 120 
species of Coleoptera, thirty or forty of Hymenoptera, and about 150 of Diptera. There 
was generally a close similarity to British species, but usually of an impoverished and 
inferior type. He had taken a clear-wing moth which he believed to be absolutely 
identical with Trochilium tipuliforme, but this species had probably been imported 
into New Zealand with currant bushes. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. C. A. Wilson, Corresponding Member, dated 
"Adelaide, 21st April, 1869." The following are extracts : — 

" MvRMFXEONiD^. — We have had for some years past about seven known species 
of Myrmeleon and the same number of Ascalaphus, with few exceptions all found near 
Adelaide, though the greater part in each genus are very rare or scarce in individuals. 
These have long, doubtless, been named in English Museums, but we have not the 
names out here. All these insects are very fond of settling on the wire fences uow 
used with post and rail all over the country for fencing; the size of the wire seeming 
to suit the grasp of their feet as well or better than a twig might do, and where they 
can rest undisturbed either by adjacent twigs or the motion of the object grasped. The 
species of Myrmeleonidae lie with all their limbs flat along the wires, looking at a 
little distance merely like a gradual thickening and then decreasing of the metal, 
acting with their motionless habits and grayish colour quite as a passive means of 
defence by deception, one of the many ways in our insect world out here, in which 
they have " protective resemblances." Our common Ascalaphus while on the wing 
flies like the Myrmeleons, heavily or lazily, and soon settles, but places itself in a 
very different attitude, — it may be also a deceiving one : after the legs are arranged, 
its antennae are stuck out straight before it, the knobs resting on or a little raised from 
the wire, but the abdomen is raised pointing upwards at an angle of 45"^. All that I 
have seen in this position (as many as nine in a day) seem to have been females. The 
morning is the best time to see them, as, if the wires afterwaids become hot in the 
December sun, the Ascalaphi soon disappear; they are also quite motionless in this 
singular position, but apparently on the watch, as they can mostly, though not always 
be taken by a guarded motion of finger and thumb. 

" Mason Wasps. — In the month of December I took my usual annual walk to a 
celebrated insect locality in the Mount Lofty range of hills N.E. of Adelaide, about 

six miles up a gully called Stewart's Gully 'Whiz' came by a wasp with 

purple and yellow body [specimen enclosed ; pronounced by Mr. Frederick Smith to be 
Paragia tricolor]. It hovered over the ground for a few minutes, and then went 
prone to earth and disappeared ; on looking about I found a little chimney made of 
earth, down which the wasp had evidently gone: this structure was about half an inch 
in height and one-third of an inch iu the diameter of its opening at the top, straight 
down the sides, and placed over a hole of the same size. With slight pressure, and 
without breaking it, I removed the chimney ; and then its use became apparent, for, 
moved by the " gully breezes," little stones and bits of leaf came rolling down the 
incline, and several tumbled into the unprotected hole. I watched for a few minutes, 
but the tenant did not come out; and as I turned away, up flew another wasp of the 

D 



XVlll 

same species, and at once went down another chimney but a few feet off, and which, 
from its similarity to the earth and stones around, I only discovered by this means, a 
Presently a louder whizzing noise, and swiftly came two more wasps together: one I 
of these seemed frightened and flew off for a time, but the otlier made great sweeps to 
and fro ; I observed the object aimed at, and quickly removed the little structure 
before the builder in one of its curves came round again, — then, without hesitation, 
pausing, or being puzzled, it went directly down the uncovered hole, I must say much 
to my surprise. I likewise took the chimney of a fifth wasp (which came soon after- 
wards), after it had gone below. These little buildings were all removed entire, but 
easily broke afterwards, having no hold on anything and the sides being very thin ; 
meantime the first seen wasp had emerged from its cell, as it now returned and went 
below a second time. I did not observe that any of these (I concluded all to be 
females) carried any caterpillars or other food to their young (if any) in these subter- 
ranean dwellings, — perhaps the eggs were not laid or the young yet emerged : all 
these five domiciles were within a few feet of each other, and full six feet from the last 
was a sixth chimney, but the owner was not visible. These insects can, therefore, 
hardly be called gregarious, but had (as in the case of the holes made by the females 
of several of our MulillidaB) merely placed their dwellings thus contiguous, the situ- 
ation being most suitable, and perhaps from a little desire for companionship: these 
holes might also serve in future seasons for the young broods, and increase in 
numbers." 

Papers read. 

The following papers were read : — 

" Notes on Eastern Butterflies" (continuation); by Mr, Alfred R. Wallace. 

" On the Australian Species of Tetracba;" by Mr. Edwin Brown. 

New Part of Transactions.' 

Part 3 of the " Transactions for 1869," containing the conclusion of Dr. Sharp's 
Revision of the British Species of Homalota, published in June, was on the table. 



; (*■■•- 



XIX 



November 1, 1869. 
H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Additions to the Library. 

The following donations were announced, and thanks voted to the donors : — 
' Proceedings of the Koyal Society,' Nos. 113, 1 14 ; ' Journal of the Linnean Society,' 
Zoology, No. 46, and ' Proceedings,' 1868-69 ; ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' 
1869, pt. 1 ; ■ Journal of the Agricultural Society,' ser. 2, vol. v. pt. 2; ' Anuales de la 
Societe Entomologique de France,' 1869, pt. I ; ' Annales de la Societe Enlonaologique 
de Belgique,' vols. i. — xii. ; ' Memoires de la Societe de Physique, &c., de Geneve,' 
vol. XX. pt. 1 ; ' Mittheilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft,' 
vol. iii. Nos. 1, 2; ' Bullelino della Societa Entomologica Italiana,' vol. i. pt. 3; 
' Bulletin de la Socieie des Naturalistes de Moscou,' 1868, No. 3; 'Transactions of 
the American. Entomological Society,' vol. ii. Nos. 1, 2; 'Memoirs read before the 
Boston Society of Natural History,' vol. 1, pt. 4, and ' Proceedings,' vol. xii. Nos. 1 — 
17 ; ' Memoirs of the Peabody Academy of Sciences,' vol. i. No. 1 ; presented by the 
several Societies. 'Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for 186/;' by the 
United States Government. 'Record of American Entomology for 1868;' by the 
Editor, Dr. Packard. 'List of ihe Lepidoptera of North America,' pt. 1, by A. R. 
Grote and C. T. Robinson; by the Authors. ' Entomological Notes,' Nos. 1, 2; 
' Supplement to a List of the Butterflies of New England ; ' ' Check List of the 
Butterflies of New England;' 'Notes on the Stridulation of some New England 
Orthoptera;' and 'Catalogue of the Orlhoptera of North America described 
previous to 1867,' by Samuel H. Scudder; by the Author. 'Entomological 
Correspondence of T. W. Harris,' edited by S. H. Scudder; by the Editor. 'The 
Canadian Entomologist, vol. i.; ' Betrachtungen iiber die Verwandlung der Insekten 
ira Sinne der Desceudenz-Tbeorie,' von F. Brauer; 'Notes sur les Neuropteres de 
Mingrelie,' par le Baron de Selys Longchamps, et par R. M'Lachlan; by R. 
M'Lachlan, Esq. ' Coleopterologische Helte,' No. 5; by the Editor. ' Sepp, Neder- 
landsche Inscten,' vol. ii. Nos. 17 — 38; by M. Snellen van Vollenhoven. ' Synopsis 
des Scolytides,' by ihe Author, Dr. Chapuis. 'Exotic Butterflies,' Parts 71, 72 ; by 
\V. W. Saunders, Esq. 'Lepidoptera Exotica,' pt. 2 ; and ' Cistula Entomologica,' 
pt. 1 ; by E. W. Janson, Esq. ' Descriptions of some New Species of Lamiidas,' by 
the Author, F. P. Pascoe, Esq. 'Considerations on the Neuropterous genus Chau- 
liodes and its allies;' by the Author, R. M'Lachlan, Esq. ' On the Ailautlius-feeding 
Silkworm;' by the Author, W. F. Kirby, Esq. Three Tracts by ihe Baron de Chau- 
doir; seven by Prof. Ballion ; and twenty-two Tracts by M. H. Lucas; presented by 
the Authors respectively. 'The Zoologist,' August to November; by the Editor. 
' The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine,' August to November; by the Editors. 

The following additions by purchase were announced: — ' Beschreibung euro- 
paischen Diplercn,' von Hermann Loew; ersler Band. ' Bericht der Entomologie 
wahrend der Jahre 1865 und 1866,' von Dr. A. Gerstaecker ; zweite Halfte. 

Exhibitions, ^-c. 
Mr. Janson, on behalf of Dr. Power, exhibited the following seven species of 
Coleoptera, all new to the British list: — (1) Triarthron Maerkelii, Schmidt, taken 

E 



XX 

near Esher, 23rd July, 1869 (also taken by Mr. Oliver Jaiison, at Shirley, on the 
7lh August); (2) Silvanus similis, Erichson, at Esher, 4th August, by sweepin;^; 
(3) Niptus gonospernii, Duval, twelve or fourteen specimens taken by Mr. J. B. Syme 
on an old wall in the Orkneys ; (4) Bruchus lentis, Boheman, at Birch Wood in May, 
and Gravesend in June : (5) B. nigripes, Gyllenhal (wliich in Kraalz's new Catalogue 
is said to be B. vicise, Oliv.), at Devil's Dyke, Brighton, in May; (6) B. nubilus, 
Bvheman, near Surbiton and at Gravesend, in June (this in the Stettin Ci;taIogue is 
said to be B. luteicoinis, but in Kvanlz's new Catalogue it is made a distinct species; 
it differs much in tlie form of the thorax, markings, size, &c., and is more like B. semi- 
narius); (7) B. canus, Germar, at Gravesend, in June (this in the Stettin Catalogue 
is made identical with B. cisti, Fabr., but it differs from ordinary specimens of that 
species in the shape of the thorax, length of antennae, more elongate form, and peculiar 
gray colour; it is more like B. loti : a specimen in tbe European colleciion of the 
British Museum, named by Germar and deposited by Walton, agrees exactly with the 
Gravesend specimens). All these four species of Bruchus were found in essentially 
wild place?, far removed from granaries or depositories of leguminous seeds, and were 
all taken fortuitously by sweeping. And lastly, Phratora cavifrons, Thomson, taken at 
Esher in June, also at Cowley and Darentb, on poplars: introduced into the British 
list by Dr. Sharp, in Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 100. 

Mr. F. Smith exhibited Meloe rugosus of Marsham (z=: autumnalis of Leach, 
punctatus of Stephens), a species not captured for the last thirty years, but formerly 
taken, according to Stephens, near Margate. About three weeks previously Mr. Smith, 
being near Prittlewell, Essex, went to the nest of a species of Anthophora, in which 
M. proscaraba:us and other species are usually found, and by accident came ujion a 
couple of dozen specimens of M. rugosus among grass in the neighbourhood of the 
nest, crawling about at the roots: he hoped to have kept them alive, but on the 
second day of their captivity an indiscriminate fight was commenced, in which both 
sexes joined; only four escaped mutilation, all the rest losing legs and antennae and 
being reduced to fragments : the ai)domen of each of the females was afterwards 
opened, and it appeared that with one exception all had deposited their eggs, which 
rendered their pugnacity still more remarkable. A subsequent visit to the same 
locality yielded five more specimens of the beetle. It was observable that this made 
the fourth species of Meloe found in the nest of the same kind of bee. 

Mr. Grut exhibited some Coleoptera captured by M.Theophile Deyrolle nearTrebi- 
zonde, including four new species of Carabus, C. robustus, C. ponticus, C. Theophili, 
and C. Gilnickii. 

Mr. JI'Lachlan exhibited the transformations of Mantispa pagana, which had 
been discovered by Dr. Brauer, of Vienna. The species was parasitic in the nest of a 
spider (Lycosa) : the young larvae were of the ordinary Neiiropterous type, but when 
nearly full grown their legs almost disappeared, and the larvae were reduced to almost 
footless maggots: the pupa was enclosed in a cocoon, and was of the ordinary 
Neuropterous form, like the Hemerobiids, to which doubtless the Maniispidae were 
closely allied. Now that the habit of one species had been delected, it might be 
anticipated that the whole genus Mantispa would prove to be parasitic on spiders ; 
the eggs were probably laid in the egg-bag of the spider, and the larvaj would feed on 
the young spiders, or perhaps in their early stage on the eggs. 

Mr. Albert MtiUer exhibited a large number of galls on various plants, and called 



XXI 

particular attention to two kinds of excrescence on the leaf-stalk of the maple {Acer 
campesire), described in the following note : — 

" Firstly. A Dipterous gall formed by a slender, club-like, reddish swelling of the 
petiole, soinelinies in its middle, sometimes at its junction with the leaf; cell one, 
occupying the whole length of the gall, and tenanted by the white larva of a Dipleron 
as yet unknown to me, but which I am certain is not a Cecidomyia. In September, 
1868, and again in the same month this year, I met with this gall on the identical 
maple-bush in a hedge-row near Shirley, but until now all my attempts at rearing the 
fly have utterly failed. 

" Secondly. Also on the petiole of the maple-leaf, a series of spur-like, solid red 
excrescences, standing in a row, e.ich about half a line high. These 1 am inclined 
to attribute to the same Acarus aceris of Kaltenbach which causes the well-known 
pear-shaped red galls on the leaves of this tree. But whether this be so or not, it is at 
any rate worth while to point out, that iusect agency can produce, on thornless plants, 
excrescences closely resembling, or perhaps identical with, the natural thorns so 
commonly met with in other groups of the vegetable kingdom." 

Mr. Miiller mentioned that the collection of galls formed by the late Mr. Wilson 
Armistead had been placed in the Museum of the Leeds Philosophical Society. 

Mr. Cutter (who was present as a Visitor) exhibited, on behalf of Mr. Christopher 
Ward, several Diurnal Lepidoptera, including the female of Ornithoptera Brookeana, 
various species of Charaxes, Papilio Zalmoxis, and a specimen of Papilio Antimachus, 
caj)tured one hundred and tifty or two hundred miles inland from Old Calabar. Of 
this gigantic and remarkable butterfly the only example hitherto known was collected 
by Smeathman lor Dniry a century ago, was figured by Drury and by Donovan, and 
was finally taken with Drury's collection to Australia by William Sharp Macleay. 

Mr. Butler corrected an error in his paper (Tr. Ent. Soc. 1869, p. 273), where it is 
stated that Ar;iynnis Aglaia and Niobe show every sign of being one and the same 
species; for Aglaia read Adippe. And as to the occurrence of the form Niobe in 
Britain, see Newman's ' Entomologist,' iv. 351. 

Mr. Wormald exhibited a small box of butterflies sent from Shanghai by 
Mr. W. B. Pryer. Amongst them were Argynnis Midas, and a beautiful species of 
Anthocharis with falcate wings, apparently identical with the Japanese A. Scolymus. 

Mr. Dunning exhibited half a dozen moihs bred and sent by Mr. E. Holdsworth, 
of Shanghai. One was Heterusia remota (Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. B. M. p. 431), the 
larvge of which were found by Mr. Holdsworth in great numbers at Van Vun, about 
six miles west of Soochow : the cocoon was described as " of very white colour, and of 
a very paper-like nature." The other specimens were the subject of the following 
extract : — 

" The specimens of a Bombyx have been reared by myself, from larvae found 
feeding upon pine and dwarf oak at the hills near Van Vun. The larvae when found 
were full grown, and hundreds of them had already spun their cocoons amongst the 
needles of the pine trees, and so plentiful were they that every tree had three or four 
cocoons on it. The following is a description of the larva as it appeared shortly before 
spinning its cocoon. Body. — Ground colour black or dark brown, covered with very 
short lightish brown hairs, having a lighter shade towards the sides ; down the back 
two lines of small tufts of hair, half black and half white, placed on each segment ; along 



XXll 

the sides, tufts of fine hair, busLy at the base and of a lighter shade there, almost 
white, the hair getting gradually longer towards the bead, where it is fully one-fouilh 
of an inch long; round the head a fringe of short light brownish hair; on the second 
and ihird segments are two tufts of hair, reaching across tbe back from side to side, 
the front half of a deep velvetly red-brown colour, tbe rear half wbite ; on the sides of 
tbe first, second and third segments are small brown tubercles. Head. — Large, round, 
with flat front. Leg'i. — Red-brown, the pro-legs reddish brown of velvetly appearance, 
the two last legs (anal segment) formed like a hippet. The larvse were found in the 
first week in May, and spun up immediately after ; the moths came out in the last 
week in May." 

The fire specimens had been examined by Mr. F. Moore, and after comparison 
with the British Museum collection were returned to Mr. Dunning witb the following 
names: — (1) a female specimen, Oeona punctata (Walker, Cat. &c., p. 1418), and two 
males, probably of tbe same; ("2) a female, Lasiocampa remota (Walker, Cat. &c., 
p. 1439) ; and (.'3) a male, Lebeda hebes? (Walker, Cat. &c., p. 1462). It remains to 
be ascertained whether Mr. Holdsworth confounded distinct kinds of larvae, or whether 
Mr. Walker in the same volume described one species under three different names 
and as belonging to three dififerent genera. 

Tbe President exhibited a coloured drawing of a large larva, found by Mr. Henry 
Birchall on tbe trunk of an Avocado pear tree in the province of Mariquita, New 
Granada, the whole appearance of which closely simulated that of one of the most 
poisonous snakes of the counlrv, the anteiior segments being dilated and having 
a large pupillate spot on either side representing the eye of the snake. Tbe moth was 
not reared, but it was doubtless a Cboerocampa. The President had already recorded 
the occurrence of a similar snake-like larva in Trans. Linn, Soc. xxiii. 509. 

Mr. Fry mentioned that be too had seen in Brazil larvae resembling snakes of the 
country. 

Prof. Westwood read the following note by Prof. Sial, of Stockholm, on tbe 
entomological collections existing in Sweden, which contain the type specimens of 
Swedish authors : — 

"At the Museum of Stockholm we have the following type collections of 
insects — 

(1) The collection of De Geer (types to his ' Memoires'). 

(2) The types to PaykuU's Mouogr. Hislcridum. 

(3) „ PaykuU's Fauna Suecica. 

(4) „ PaykuU's Monogr. Staphylinorum. 

(5) „ Fallen's Diptera Sueciae. 

(6) „ Schonberr's Gen. et Spec. Curculionidnm. 

(7) „ Schonberr's Synonymia lusectorum (the species described from 
Schdnhevr's collection). 

(8) The types of the species which Gyllenhal described in Insecta Suecica from 

Schonberr's collection. 

(9) Types of Dalman. 

(10) „ Fries. 

(11) „ the species which Billberg described in Nov. Act. Reg. Soc. Sci. 
Upsal. vii. 272. 



XXlll 

(12) Types of Billbevg to the species described in Monogr. Mylabridiim from 

Schonherr's collection, 

(13) Types of a Dumber of species described in Sahlberg's Nov. Ins. Species from 

Schonherr's collection. 

(14) Types of Boheman. 

(15) „ Slal. 

(16) „ Holmgren's IclmeiimonidoB. 

(17) „ Thomson's Proctotrupidaj. 

(18) „ Wallengreu's Lepidoptera. 

" Of these the types of De Geer, Paykull, Fallen, Schonherr, Billherg, and 
Sahlberg, and the types of Dalinan which were described from Schonherr's collection, 
are separated from the chief collections of the Museum. 

" In Stoclchohn are also the types of the species described in the 'Voyage of the 
Eugenie,' and in the various papers on South African insects collected by Wahlbero-. 

" In Upsala are the following collections — 

(1) The types to Linne's Museum Ludovicse Ulriciae. 

(2) The collection of Thunberg. 

(3) The collections of Gyllenhal (containing the types to his Insecta Suecica, and 

various types to Schonherr's Synonymia Inseclorum). 

" In Lund there are 

(1) The collections of Zetterstedl. 

(2) „ of Dahlbom. 

(3) „ of Thomson. 

(4) „ ofLjuugh. 

" Thomson's collection is private : the others belong to the University. 
"These are, I think, all the collections in Sweden containing types of Swedish 
authors." 

Prof. Westwood added that at Copenhagen the collections of Westermann are 
preserved intact in a special room of the Museum. 

Paper read. 

Mr. W. F. Kirby communicated a paper " On the Diurnal Lepidoptera described 

in Gmelin's edition of the Syslema Naturee." 

New Parts of ' Transactions .' 

Part 4 of the 'Transactions for 1869' (published in July), and Trans. Ent. Soc. 
3rd ser. vol. 3, part 7 (the conclusion of the volume on Malayan Longicorns, published 
in October), were on the table. 



XXIV 



November 15, 1869. 
H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the cbair. 

Additions to the Library. 

The following donations were announced, and thanks voted to the douors : — 
"Catalogue of Scientific Papers," Vol. iii. ; presented by the Royal Society. Nine 
Tracts, by Dr. Leconte; presented by the Author. 

By purchase : — Genimiuger and Harold, ' Catalogus Coleopterorum,' Vol. 5. 

Election of Members, 
The following gentlemen were severally ballotted for, and elected : — As Members, 
Messrs. D. J. French, of Chatham ; and C. G. Websdale, of Barnstaple : as Annual 
Subscribers, Messrs. S. J. Barnes, of Birmingham; N. E. Brown, of Reigate; 
E. M. Janson, of Chonlales, Nicaragua ; O. E. Janson, of Highgale ; W. H. Pearson, 
of Birmingham ; and W. Douglas Robinson, of Dalbeattie. 

Exhibitions, ^-c. 
Mr. F. Smith, on behalf of Mr. Edwin Brown, exhibited a locust, several specimens 
of which had been quite recently captured at Burton-on-Trent : it appeared to be 
identical wilh a species of which the British Museum possesses five examples from 
North Bengal. The specimen exhibited was found in the yard of a brewery; and 
Mr. M'Lachlan suggested that il had probably been introduced in an empty returned 
ale-cask. 

With reference to a recent article in the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' 
in which Mr. Andrew Murray contends that Rhipiphorus is not a parasite, but only an 
inquiliue in the nests of wasps, Mr. F. Smith desired to recall attention to the observa- 
tions of the late Mr. S. Stone, recorded in Proc. Ent. Soc. 1864, pp. 62 — 6Q. On 
p. 64, Mr. Stone stated that on opening the closed cells of a nest of the common wasp, 
he had found a larva of Rhipiphorus firmly attached to the full-grown larva of the 
wasp, the mouth of the former buried in the body of the latter just below the bead ; 
and that in forty. eight hours it consumed every particle of the wasp-larva with the 
exception of the skin and mandibles. In another nest, which was destroyed by means 
of gas-tar, Mr. Stone also discovered a small larva of Rhipiphorus firmly attached to its 
victim, so firmly that when immersed in spirits they remained attached just as they 
were before death. This identical pair, preserved in spirits, and still in situ, was 
exhibited by Mr. F. Smith, together with numerous other larvae and pupae of Rhipi- 
phorus which were placed in his hands by Mr. Stone. One of Mr. Murray's objections 
to the carnivorous projiensity of Rhipiphorus was the fact that he had found the pupa 
of Rhipiphorus and the pupa of the wasp in the same cell : it appeared, however, that 
both were of stunted growth, and it was a matter of common experience that larvae occa- 
sionally spin up before they are full fed, even when food is obtainable, which might 
have been the case with this Rhipiphorus larva: the attacks of parasites are not 
always fatal, but many Hymenoptera appear as well as their parasites, e.g. Slylops 
and the bee. Having regard to the known carefulness and accuracy of observation of 
Mr. Stone, Mr. F. Smith, notwithstanding certain difficulties raised by Mr. Murray 
which he was not at present prepared to explain, did not hesitate to re-affirm his belief 



XXV 

tbiil Rhipiphonis is a larvivorovis parasite, and not a mere guest wliicli enteis ibe nest 
of the wasp ami shaves (he fomi of the le^'itimate occupants. 

Mr. Piiscoe exhibited some Australian Hctemmera, including new species of 
Helaeus, Byrsax, Seirotrana, &c., and two new genera. One species of Saragus 
(nndescribed, and for which the n;iine S. floccosus was proposed), was remarlsable from 
being covered with a peculiar fungoid growth, which was said by the captor to occur 
on the living insect, and also (or a similar growth) ou the trees which the beetle 
frequented. This growth had been examined by Mr. Carrey, and was pronounced to 
be truly fungous, in fact an Tsaria, the early stage of a Sphaeria. Several speci- 
mens of the Saragus had been seen, all with the Isaria in the same stage of 
development. 

Mr. Wallace enquired whether the supposed fungus had been microscopically 
examined, as it seemed highly improbable that a living animal should habitually have a 
living vegetable growing on it. More probably, if it really existed during the life of the 
beetle, it was a natural animal growth: an allied species has a hairy covering, and it 
was but one step further for a hairy covering to assume a fungoid appearance, a 
protective resemblance to the fungi or lichens growing ou the trees upon which the 
beetle was found, 

Mr. Albert Miiller made some observations on the scent, when handled, of Cynips 
lignicola and another species which forms a gall on the under-side of oak-leaves : this 
scent was probably protective, ami gave the insect an immunity from the attacks of 
birds, &c., and the rapid Sjiread of Cynips lignicola over the country might be due to 
its rejection on acctaiut of its peculiar odi)ur. 

Mr. J. Jenner Weir added that the musk beetle was free from attack by birds, and 
this was doubtless due to its scent.. 

Mr. Salvin exhibited six species of Clothilda, in illustration of the paper mentioned 
below. 

Mr. Briggs (who was present as a Visitor) exhibited a specimen of Deiopeia 
pulchella, captured near Folkestone en the 1st of October: its habit was to fly only a 
few yards at a time, and its appearance on the wing was described as resembling one 
of ihe Geometrae. 

Mr. Davis (who was present as a Visitor) exhibited a large number of preserved 
larvae of Lepidoptera; amongst them a series of Cossus lignipenla, of all ages, in 
willow-stems, preserved in situ ; and a larva of Sphinx populi to which were 
attached a number of pupae of some parasite. There were also a few dried larvae of 
saw-flies. 

Mr. Dunning referred to the swarms of insects of various kinds which had been 
reported during the autumn : he had himself encountered hosts of Coccinellae 
(piiucipally C. 7-punctata, but intermixed with a considerable number of C. bipunctata) 
both in Essex and in Yorkshire; and at Walt(m-on-the-Naze, on the 24ih of August, 
he fell in with a countless swarm of Syrphi, which appeared to have all hatched 
simultaneously and to have at once commenced buzzing about in the hot sunshine in 
a foolish kind of way, without caring to take food, for most of ihem seemed to be mere 
shells without any substance inside. Noticing that Mr. Home had recorded (New- 
man's Entomologist, iv. 356) the occurrence of a swarm at Margate on the same day, 
which was said to have included specimens of Syrphus balteatus, S. decorus, 
S. taenialus, S. lopiarius and Erislalis tenax?, Mr. Dunning placed in the hands of 



XXVI 

Mr. Venall, for examination, a few remnanls of the Walton swarm, and had been 
favoured with the following note: — 

" Having looked closely through the Diptera you sent me, I find that out of fifty- 
six or fifty-seven specimens which I can recognize from the fragments, there are 
twenty-seven Syrphus ribesii, sixteen S. coroUae, eiglit S. pyrastri, two S. luniger, 
one S. balteatus, one or two S. vitripennis ?, and one S. pyrastri, var. unicolor. This 
last variety is generally rare, but has this year appeared in tolerable abundance. The 
specimens of S. vitripennis are in such condition that I cannot speak for certain about 
them : they may be small examples of S. ribesii." 

Mr. Dunning remarked that only one name, S. balteatus, was common to the lists 
of Mr. Home and Mr. Verrall, so that, if all were correctly named, no less than ten or 
twelve species of Syrphus occurred in the swarm on the S.E. coast on the 24lh of 
August. 

]\Ir. Verrall added that S. balteatus was rare in swarms; S. decorus be believed to 
be a discoloured variety of S. auricollis; S. topiarius, if British, was extremely rare, and 
did not occur in the Collections of the British Museum or the Entomological Club ; 
and if Eristalis tenax occurred in a swarm of Syrphidse, it could only have got there 
accidentally, as it might appear anywhere else from its universal distribution. He had 
once come upon the tail end of a swarm of Syrphidae, and the stragglers seemed to be 
nearly all S. auricollis and its var. macnlicornis. 

With reference to the swarms of Coccinellte, the President and Mr. M'Lachlau 
remarked that in this case there was no necessity to have recourse to the hypothesis of 
immigration, as they had both noticed, previously to the appearance of the beetles, an 
unusual quantity of the larvae of Coccinellse in the southern counties of England : the 
simultaneous hatching of a large number in one locality caused a scarcity of food 
there, and compelled many of them to move elsewhere; arriving at the sea-coast the 
majority were stopped, whilst some, attempting to go further, fell into the sea and were 
washed back with the tide. The littoral phaenomena of the swarms were thus 
sufScienlly accounted for. Mr. M'Lachlan added that the larvce of Coccinella would 
eat the pupee of their own species (see Ent. Mo. Mag. iii. 97); and Mr. Janson 
mentioned that, during the present season, he had had an apple-tree completely 
covered with black Aphides (commonly called American blight), the whole of which 
were cleared ofi" in three or four days by Coccinella 7-punctata. 

With reference to various letters which apjjcared during the autumn in the daily 
papers, Mr. J. Jenner Weir said that the "fireflies" reported at Caterham were the 
males of the common glow-worm ; and Mr. F. Smith mentioned that he had a 
number of so-called " glow-worms '' sent to him from Margate, which proved to be 
larvae of Telephorus. 

Mr. Pascoe remarked that, though insect-swarms were not common on or very near 
to the surface of the earth, there must be a great abundance of insect-life in the upper 
atmosphere; the destruction of insects at a considerable elevation by swifts must of 
itself be enormous. 

With reference to the height to which insects may attain, Mr. Albert Muller 
recalled the fact, recorded by Mr. F. Walker (Entom. Weekly Intell. vii. 76), of the 
discovery of a Chlorops liueata enclosed in a hailstone which fell during a storm on 
the 18th of July, 1859. 



Papers read. 

The following papers were read: — 

" New Genera and Species of Coleoplera from Chontales, Nicaragua," by ibe 
President. 

" Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Hispidce ; with Notes ou some 
previously described Species," by Mr. J. S. Baly. 

"A Synopsis of the Genus Clothilda," by Mr. Osbert Salvin. 



December 1, 1869. 
H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Donations to the Library. 
The following donations were announced, and thanks voted to the donors: — 
'Eugenie's Resa ' (Hymenoptera by A. E. Holmgren, Diplera by C. G. Thomson); 
and ' Hemiptera Africana,' by C. Stal, vols, i, — iv.; presented by the Royal Swedish 
Academy of Sciences. ' Entomologische Zeitung,' 1869, Parts 7—12, and 1870, 
Parts 1—3; by the Entomological Society of Stettin, 'The Zoologist' for December; 
by the Editor, 'The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine' for December; by the 
Editors. 

Election of Members. 

The following gentlemen were severally ballotted for, and elected Members:— 
M.M. Gustave d'Emerich, of Pesth ; I'Abbe de Marseul, of Paris; Charles Oberthur, 
fils, of Rennes (Foreign Members) ; and Captain Lang, R.E., of Reigale ; and Messrs. 
W. Arnold Lewis, of The Temple; J, Cosmo Melvill, of Manchester; and Howard 
Vaughan, of Kentish Town. 

Exhibitions, ^c. 

Prof. Westwood exhibited drawings and dissections of some Hymenoptera pos- 
sessing extraordinary structural peculiarities: they were principally Chalcididas, of the 
genera Prionopelma and Metapelma (see Proc. Zool. Soc, 1835). 

Mr. F, Smith exhibited a mass of earth-cells formed by a species of Halictus, 
found by Mr. J, K. Lord near Cairo. The bee burrowed into the ground to a depth 
of about twelve inches, and the cells were then formed, close together, and all round 
the shaft or tunnel, the entrance to each cell being from the central shaft. Mr, Lord 
described the bee as making a tubular entrance to the nest, probably of the material 
which was thrown out in the excavation of the vertical shaft, but the construction was 
too brittle or fragile for transport. Mr. Smith remarked that this tubular entrance was 
after ihe manner of Odynerus spinipes, but it was the first time he had heard of any 
species of bee forming such a construction. 

The President said that some species of Melipona, which form their nests in the 
hollows of trees, construct a trumpet-shaped entrance of waxy material, or of some 
substance held together by a waxy cement. 



XXVlll 

Mr. F. Smith exhibited a larva-case, which he supposed to belong to a species of 
CEceticus, found by Mr. J. K. Lord in the plains near Mount Sinai : numbers of the 
larvae were seen crawling on the sand, no tree or bush being near, and the only 
plant growing in the neighbourhood being a species of wild sage. The larva-case ] 
appeared to be formed principally of pieces of grass, arranged longitudinally. i 

Mr. J. Jenner Weir exhibited two specimens of Ileliothis armiger, bred from l 
larvae which fed in tomatoes. An importation of tomatoes from Spain or Portugal 
had been greatly damaged by a number of green larvaB, with black lines and spots, 
which fed in the fruit, where there was apparently juice enough to drown them, and 
which ultimately produced the moths exhibited. 

Prof Weslwood exhibited drawings and dissections of several remarkable new 
forms of PselaphidtE. 

Mr. Albert Miiller exhibited a photograph of a Coleopterous monstrosity, a speci- j 
men of Pleroslichus Prevostii with eight legs : on either side of the left hind leg ' 
(i. e. before and behind the normal hind leg) was a supernumerary limb of somewhat , 
stunted growth, but structurally perfect : there were apparently three distinct coxae 
fitting into three separate sockets iu a single expanded trochanter. The beetle was 
found in Switzerland, and Mr. Miiller had seen it alive: the extra legs were simply 
carried, and not used to assist in locomotion. 

With reference to the locust exhibited at the previous Meeting (an/e, p. xxiv.), the 
President had received the following from Mr. Edwin Brown: — 

"I am informed that when my specimen of a new locust was exhibited at the last 
Meeting of the Society, it was suggested that the occurrence might have been 
brought about by the introduction of the insect into the brewery in an empty returned 
cask. I think such a suggestion is untenable, inasmuch as two specimens of the same 
species were captured iu diiferent parts of the town of Burton-on-Trent, and one 
caught in Birmingham certainly belongs to the same species. There were several 
other instances recorded in the papers about the same time of locusts having been 
captured in Worcestershire, in Nottinghamshire, and at Waterford. It has not yet 
been proved that these examples were all of the new species, but it is highly probable 
that this was so, as the peculiar positions in which the locusts have been captured this 
year all indicate, if I may so term it, an unsophisticated disposition of the animal, 
widely different from that of Locusta migratoria, which has nearly always been found 
in fields or gardens, whilst the species of this year has been captured in two brewery 
yards, iu the room of a house, upon a man's coat, and (it is said) upon a lady's bonnet, 
but looking at the difficulty an animal so large would find in getting standing room 
upon a modern bonnet, there may possibly be some mistake as to the last-mentioned 
locality. Mr. F. Walker has identified the species as Acridium peregiinum of 
Olivier, which is dispersed over a large part of Asia and Northern Africa, but has not 
hitherto been found in Europe." 

(See also, on the recent occurrence of locusts in this country, Newman's Entom. , 
iv. 367.) I 

Paper read. I 

The following paper was read :— " Note on Boreus hyemalis and B. Westwoodii," 
by Mr. M'Lachlan. 



XXIX 



January 3, 1870. 
H. W. Bates, Esq., President, in the cbair. 

Additions to the Library. 

Tlie following donations were announced, and thanlis voted to the donors : — 
' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' No. 1 15 ; presented by the Society. ' Proceedings 
of the Liunean Society,' 1869; by the Society. ' Bulletin de la Soc. Imp. des Natu- 
ralistesdeMoscou,' 1868,No.4; by the Society. ' Millheilungen der Schweizerischen 
Entomologischen Gesellschaft,' vol. iii. No. 3; by the Society. 'The Tineina of 
Southern Europe,' and 'The Entomologist's Annual for 1870;' by H. T. Staiuton, Esq. 
' Equatorial Lepidoptera collected by Mr. Buckley,' Parts 1—3; by W. C. Hewitson, 
Esq. ' Lepidoptera Exotica,' Part 3; by E. W. Janson, Esq. 'Observations on the 
Parasitism of Rhipiphorus paradoxus;' by Frederick Smith, Esq. 'Reflexions et 
Experiences sur le vol des Coleopteres;' by M. Felix Plateau. ' Petites Nouvelles 
Entomologiques,' Nos. 1 — 12; by the Editor. 'The Zoologist,' for January ; by the 
Editor. ' The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine,' for January; by the Editors. 

The following additions by purchase were also announced: — Palisot de Beauvois, 
' Insecles recueillis en Afrique et en Amerique;' Ehrenberg & Klug, ' Symbolae 
Physica?;' Brulle et Blanchard, 'Voyage de d'Orbiguy;' Motschulsky, 'Etudes 
Entomologiques;' and Lowne, 'The Anatomy and Physiology of the Blow-fly.' 

Exhibitions, S)-c. 

Mr. Hewitson sent for exhibition a collection of butterflies, including 135 new 
and many rare species, all iu beautiful condition, collected by Mr. Buckley in Equa- 
torial America. With two exceptions, Heliconia Cythera and Terias Ecuadora, 
which were taken on the west side of the Andes, the new species were all captured 
between St. Ines and St. Rosa on the River Napo, within two degrees of longitude, 
and descriptions thereof were in course of publication under the title of ' Equatorial 
Lepidoptera collected by Mr. Buckley.' 

Mr. Buckley (who was present as a Visitor) gave some interesting details of his 
stay in Ecuador. In reply to enquiries, he stated that the localities for each species 
were carefully noted at the end of each day's collecting ; that generally speaking there 
seemed to be a species of Heliconia peculiar to each valley ; that a few species occurred 
on both sides of the Andes, and in particular a Heliconia and a Morpho were men- 
tioned ; and that there was great difi'erence in the altitudes at which the exhibited 
insects were collected, some of them, and in particular a Pronophila, having been 
taken above the snow-level. 

Prof. VVestwood, as an instance of partial gynandromovphism, in which the union 
of the opposite sexual characters was confined to a single limb, exhibited drawings of 
a specimen of Anlhocharis Cardamines, the wings of which, for the most part male, 
partook to some extent of the colour and character of the female, as if pieces of the 
wing of the male had been cut out and replaced by pieces of the wing of the 
female. 

Mr. Bond mentioned that a considerable number of the locust, Acridium perc- 
grinura, had been taken in Cornwall in October: some were captured at Falmouth, 



XXX 

and about thirty in or near Plymouth, of which two were exhibited: most of them 
were found iu the streets and yards of the town. 

Prof. Westwood, on behalf of the Rev. Leonard Jeuyns, exhibited a species of 
Apbodius (probably A. lividus), which was said to be frequently vomited by South- 
African Hottentots, who are notorious as unclean feeders; and a species of Elateridae 
which was found in April, 1869, floating in a cup of lea at Bath, and was recognized 
by Mr. Janson as an eastern species of the genus Heteroderes. 

Prof. Westwood also exhibited drawings of some new Australian Lucanidae, of the 
genus Lissotes. 

Mr. Pascoe exhibited a number of Curculionidae, of the genus Catasarcus, in 
illustration of the paper mentioned below. 

Mr. Albert Miiller exhibited photographs of aberrations of Abax parallelus and 
Clerus formicarius ; the former remarkable for its zigzag striatiou, the latter for the 
union of the two white bands of the elytra. 

Mr. Quaritch (who was present as a Visitor) made a communication respecting the 
book-worm. 

Papers read. 

The following papers were read: — 

" On some new British Species of Ephemeriduj ;" by the Rev. A. E. Eaton. 
" Descriptions of six new species of Callidryas;" by Mr. A. G. Butler. 
" A Revision of the Genus Catasarcus ;" by Mr. F. P. Pascoe. 
" The Genera of Coleoptera studied chronologically (1735 — 1801) ;" by Mr. G. R. 
Crotch. 

New Part of ' Transactions.^ 
Part 5 of the ' Transactions for 1869,' published in December, was on the table. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

January 24, 1870. 

Frederick Smith, Esq., Vice-President, in the chair. 

An Abstract of the Treasurer's Accounts for 1869 was read by Mr. J. Jenuer Weir, 
one of the Auditors, and showed a balance in favour of the Society of £ 125 Qs. 3d. 

The Secretary read the following : — 

Report of the Council for 1869. 

In accordance with the Bye-Laws, the Council presents to the Society the following 
Report. 



XXXI 

Dming tbe year tweuty-one Members or Subscribers have been elected, but 
seventeen names have been removed from the list ; the numerical gain is therefore 
reduced to four. 

The volume of 'Transactions for 18G9' includes twenty-seven memoirs by seven- 
teen authors, extends to four hundred pages exclusive of the ' Proceedings,' and is 
illustrated by six plates, of which two are coloured. To Messrs. E. Saunders, 
Higgins, Butler, F. Smith and M'Lachlan, the Society is indebted for the drawings 
in illustration of their respective memoirs. Every paper read, down to and inclusive 
of the December Meeting, was actually published before the end of the year. 
Especial attention is called to Dr. Sharp's Revision of the British Homalots, as 
affording tangible proof of the desire of the Council that native Entomology shall 
receive its due share of attention. There is yet a dearth in the ' Transactions' of 
papers relating to British or European insects. Many of the most active students of 
the productions of our own islands do not favour the Society with the results of their 
labours, and thus Exotic Entomology obtains the lion's share of our pages ; and this 
leads to a supposition that our entomologists do not sufficiently identify themselves 
wilh their continental brethren. We are either exclusively British, or our range 
includes the whole world ; and thus, between the insularity of some and the 
universality of others, European insects (in the broad sense) occupy but an insig- 
nificant portion of our publications. From this cause, perhaps, results the small 
number of our Foreign Members; and, as a consequence of that smallness, some 
who do give European insects a prominent place in their studies prefer to publish 
through the medium of Continental Societies, believing that they thereby obtain 
a wider circle of appreciative readers than if their lucubrations appeared in our 
' Transactions.' 

In addition to the 'Transactions for 1869,' the volume of the 'Third Series' 
which was exclusively devoted to the Malayan Longicorns has at length been 
finished. It was only by spreading the cost over a series of years that a Society with 
our limited resources could undertake a work of such magnitude, with its two dozen 
coloured plates ; the choice lay between a separate volume issued by instalments, and 
the dispersion of the descriptions over three, if not four, of our ordinary tomes. To 
those who wish to study the group and utilize the work, it is hoped that the 
permanent advantage of having the whole subject complete in one volume and in 
unbroken sequence will more than compensate for tbe temporary inconvenience of 
unbound fragments. The Lamiidse were commenced in 1864 and finished in 1868; 
the two Parts issued in 1869 include the whole of the Cerambycidae and Prionidge, 
216 pages and five coloured Plates. Down to the present time the cost to the Society 
of this volume has been, in round figures, £350, and a further sum of £75 will be 
required for the colouring of the stock of plates — thus making a total of £425. Even 
this does not represent the whole cost of the work; for the entire expense of the 
drawing and engraving of the twenty-four Plates by Mr. Robinson has been defrayed 
by Mr. W. Wilson Saunders. The Society has on many occasions had to acknowledge 
the liberality of Mr. Saunders, whose interest in our welfare knows no diminution ; 
and the Council feels confident that, in suggesting a special vole of thanks for this act 
of munificence, unique alike in its nature and extent, the Executive is only anticipating 
the unanimous wish of the Society. 



XXXll 



The usual tabular slatemcut of receipts and payments sliows the fullowiug 
result : — 



Receipts. 






£ 


Contributions of Members , 


. 237 


Sale of Publications 


. 76 


Interest on Consols 


4 


Donations .... 


. 64 



£381 



Payments. 

Invested in Consols 

Library 

Publications 

Rent and Office Expenses 

Tea at Meetings . 



£ 

. 35 

. 28 

, 239 

61 

14 

£377 



During the year four gentlemen have quali6ed as Life Members by paying the 
composition in lieu of annual contributions. Hitherto compositions have been 
regarded as wiudfolls, and spent as soon as received. The four received in 1869 have 
been expended, partly in the purchase of books, which is equivalent to capitalization, 
and partly in the purchase of Consols. This is a small beginning; but the smallest 
beginnings are the most difficult to make: after thirty-five years existence the 
Society has for the first lime laid by just as many pounds out of its ordinary receipts ; 
and the Council regards this microscopic investment as the nucleus of a fund which 
some day will yield an income sufficient to keep the Library regularly supplied with 
the current periodical literature of Entomology of this and other countries, which has 
now become one of our principal deficiencies. 

The year 1869 was begun with a cash balance of £5 \2s. Od. and £109 14s. 9d. 
Consols. The year 1870 is begun with a cash balance of £9 8s. 3d. and £148 Os, 5d. 
Consols. The Council cannot, however, disguise the fact that, of the sum of £64 
entered for donations, £50 is due to the renewed liberality of Mr. Dunning, but for 
which there would have been a deficit of nearly £40. 

Now that the Third Series of Transactions has been completed, it becomes 
necessary to make ready for sale the stock of the five volumes which compose the 
Series ; and, in fact, a considerable portion of the work has been already done, and 
large outlay made, principally for colouring plates. But, as the undertaking remains 
unfinished, no part of the expense incurred on this head has been brought into the 
accounts for 1869. It is left as a problem for the next Council to devise a scheme, 
by which, without interfering with the ordinary action of the Society, to raise a sum of 
£170 or thereabouts. 

It has been decided to renew the offer, suspended for the last two years, of 
Prizes for Essays on Economical or Structural Entomology. Further particulars will 
be announced, probably at the next Meeting. 

In spite, then, of the comparative depression which has generally prevailed 
throughout the year 1869, the prosperity of the Society has been maintained. Our 
numbers have increased, we have added largely to our Library, the interest of our 
Meetings has been well sustained, our publications have been issued with regularity 
and dispatch, and our balance is larger than at the last Anniversary. Each of these 
is a fair criterion of success; the combination of them all warrants the Council in 
believing that for the future the future will provide. 

January 24, 1870. 



XXXlll 

Mr. Pascoe proposed, and Mr. Wallace seconded, a special vote of thanks to 
Mr. W. Wilson Saunders for the munificent gift mentioned in the Report; and this 
was carried by acclamalion. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Council for 1870: — 
Messrs. H. W. Bates, Dallas, Dunning, Fry, Grut, M'Lacblan, Parry, Pascoe, 
Salvin, Edward Saunders, S. Stevens, A. R. Wallace and Wormald. 

The following ofiiters for 1870 were afterwards elected: — President, Mr. Alfred 
R. Wallace ; Treasurer, Mr. S, Stevens ; Secretaries, Messrs. Dunning and M'Lachlan ; 
Librarian, Mr. E. W. Janson. 

The following Address (in the unavoidable absence of Mr. Bates) was read by 
the Secretary: — 



THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

Gentlemen, 

The termination of another year of existence of our Society 
brings with it the recurrence of the annual duty Avhich devolves on 
your President, of laying before you a summary of the Society's 
labours, and of the general progress of Entomology, during the past 
twelve months. 

As far as we have at present learnt, the Society has lost only 
two Members by death during the year. These are M. le Chevalier 
Francfort, who had only recently been elected, and Mr. J. H. Hart- 
wright, who had belonged to us since 1865. Neither of these 
gentlemen, I believe, had published anything on the subject of our 
favourite Science, and they were known as Entomologists only to a 
few friends occupied in collecting and studying the same groups. 

The Report of the Council has afforded you full information 
regarding our numbers, income, expenditure, and so forth ; and 
I think we have reason to be gratified at the evidence these neces- 
sary statistics afford of the stead}"- progress and stability of the 
Society. It is obvious, however, when we glance at the names of 
contributors to popular Entomological magazines, or learn the 
number of their subscribers, that the majority of British Ento- 
mologists still remain out of our ranks. We have enrolled a 
considerable number of them during the past year, and I think 
many more would be induced to join us were they fully aware of 
the advantages which Membership offers, amongst which may be 



XXXIV 



reckoned, to country members at least, the receipt of a copy of our 
publications in return for their subscriptions. 

The alteration in the mode of publication of our Transactions, 
which I announced last year, seems to give general satisfaction. 
The volume for 1868 was completed and ready for binding in the 
month of February last. Already five parts of the volume for 1869 
have been issued, and the completion of the volume only awaits the 
printing of the Report of this evening's Proceedings. Now that the 
last outstanding volume of the Third Series, under the old system, 
has been completed, we have a clear course before us, and may look 
forward to the issue of yearly volumes in four or more parts, unless 
unforeseen delays occur, with great regularity. So far, indeed, our 
Society has a decided pre-eminence, in point of punctuality in the 
appearance of the annual volume, over all similar Societies at home 
and abroad. 

Our publications, as in most other scientific Societies, constitute 
that branch of our activity by which almost alone our usefulness is 
judged by the outside world of naturalists ; and the long array of 
volumes of our Transactions on the shelves of great libraries, sought 
after, studied and quoted, will remain the onl}'^ witnesses of our 
labours to future generations. These considerations justify the 
pride we may feel in our published work from year to year. I am 
inclined to estimate highly the later volumes of our Transactions, as 
compared with other serials of the same class, and I sincerely trust 
that we may long continue to number among us so many writers able 
and willing to contribute valuable papers, as well as artists to 
illustrate them, and a Secretary of so much industry and good 
judgment as Mr. Dunning to edit them. 

The volume for the past year comprises twenty-seven memoirs, 
of which twenty-five belong to the department of systematic or 
descriptive Entomology, and two only — ^telcome contributions from 
Mr. Jenner Weir and Mr. Butler, on the selection of insects as food 
by insectivorous animals — to other branches of the Science. To 
those who might object that too large a share of our work is 
occupied by mere descriptions, I would remark that many original 
and valuable observations on relationships, geographical distribution, 
and other deeply interesting philosophical questions, are contained in 
some of our descriptive papers. In fact, it is not at all a necessary 
consequence that a descriptive treatise should be nothing more than 
a string of dry definitions. It will become, I hope, more and more 



the practice of Entomologists to give, together with their descrip- 
tions, the new data on relationships, distribution, comparison of 
faunas, &:c., which the handling of such subjects most usually brings 
forth. 

The third volume of the Third Series of our Transactions, which 
I have already remarked has been completed during the year by the 
publication of two parts, now forms a handsome faunistic work, 
devoted entirely, as 5'ou are aware, to the description, by Mr. Pascoe, 
of the Longicorn Coleoptera of the Malay Archipelago collected 
by Mr. Wallace. We may congratulate ourselves on the termi- 
nation of this volume, published out of the usual order of our 
series, and on the addition that a work of so much scientific 
value and careful execution in every wa}'^ makes to our Trans- 
actions. It consists of 712 pages, illustrated by twenty-four plates, 
executed with his usual ability by Mr. Robinson, and the volume 
is rendered further more complete by remarks on the localities 
by Mr. Wallace himself, and a summary of the subfamilies, genera 
and species, tables of distribution, and an excellent index by 
Mr. Dunning. 

Several contributions of considerable importance have been made 
to the Science in this country outside our own body. Important 
papers have appeared, as usual, in the pages of the ' Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History,' chiefly from the pens of Messrs. 
Butler, SaMn, Andrew Murray and WoUaston. A memoir by the 
last-named gentleman on the Coleoptera of St. Helena, founded on a 
collection made by Mr. Melliss, who has been long resident in the 
island, is interesting as a further addition to our knowledge of the 
productions of oceanic islands in the Atlantic, so much of which 
we owe to this learned Entomologist. The Madeiran, Canaries and 
Cape Verde groups had already been almost exhaustively investi- 
gated by Mr. WoUaston himself, Mr. Crotch had worked out the 
entomological results of the exploration of the Azores by Mr. God- 
man, and to Mr. WoUaston has appropriately been confided the 
examination of by far the largest collection of insects which has yet 
been made in the solitary island of St. Helena. As you are aware, 
the great interest which attaches to the fauna and flora of oceanic 
islands arises from the problems involved in the modes in which 
they obtained their species of animals and plants, and which are 
rendered more complicated by the existence on some of them of 

G 



XXXYl 

anomalous forms, representative, it is considered, of types ages ago 
extinct on continents. Such islands, however, differ greatly from 
each other as to degree of peculiarity in their productions, and it 
often happens that species identical, or nearly so, with those found 
in the nearest continent, form nearly the whole of their present 
inhabitants. Thus the investigation of the origin of their faunas 
and floras is necessarily exceedingly complex. Geology has to be 
invoked to ascertain whether the islands are of recent or ancient 
elevation above the sea-surface, and whether the supposition is ad- 
missible of a recent connection with the nearest continental land. 
Oceanic hydrography and deep-sea soundings have to be studied 
in reference to the depth of the surrounding seas, the force and 
direction of currents and winds ; for these must all be taken into 
consideration in discussions on the probable derivation of the 
curious mixture of forms which is often found on these isolated 
spots. On the other hand, it must be noted that the fauna and 
flora themselves throw light on the geographical and geological 
relations of the islands to the nearest land. In fact, the classifi- 
cation of islands into oceanic and continental is founded quite as 
much on resemblance or difference in organic productions, between 
islands and the mainland, as on relative proximity. Thus Great 
Britain is classed as a continental island, quite as much because its 
fauna and flora are nearly identical with those of continental Europe 
as because it is separated only by a shallow sea, and is now known 
to have been actually connected in recent geological times. In 
these investigations Entomology is now generally admitted to have 
great importance, owing to the large number and variety of species 
which it offers, as elements in the elaborate comparisons which have 
to be instituted. At present authors hold the widest differences of 
opinion regarding the subject of oceanic islands; whilst Mr. Wol- 
laston and Mr. Andrew Murray, following the example of Edward 
Forbes, maintain that the islands must, at a period geologically 
recent, have been connected b}^ land with the continents from 
which they appear to have derived the greater portion of their 
species. Sir Charles Lyell maintains that geological facts and 
considerations quite forbid this conclusion. It is probable that 
the learned Entomologists just named much underrate the amount 
of migration and dissemination, by winds and currents and other 
means, which is slowly going on, and which is sufficient, in the 
course of the countless centuries during which the geogi'aphical 



XXXVll 



configuration of lands lias remained pretty nearly the same, to 
have stocked distant islands with their existing species. In 
these discussions it is essential to bear in mind an important 
generalization of Mr. Darwin, namely, that the chance of the 
permanent establishment of immigrants as species in a locality is 
in inverse proportion to the degree in which the locality is already 
well-peopled with similar forms. On this view, a land newly emerged 
from the sea, or with a stock of species diminished by extinction, 
would in course of time be appropriated by the waifs and straj^s 
which are brought to its shores. These considerations have been 
well kept in view by Mr. Godman in an admirable paper on the 
birds collected by him in the Azores, where the fauna, to a much 
larger extent than in the other Atlantic islands, is made up of 
species identical with those of other lands, chiefly Western Europe, 
from which direction blow the prevailing winds. In islands like the 
Madeiran and Canaries groups, where there is a large proportion of 
endemic and peculiar forms, a great geological antiquity of the land 
must be inferred. There may have been, it is true, a former con- 
nection of the islands with a larger tract of land, when these 
peculiar forms spread over the area now consisting of islands ; but 
this must have been at a comparatively remote period in geological 
time, and not at that recent date when the fabulous continent of 
Atlantis included them all in its expanse, as believed by Forbes and 
Wollaston. It is difficult to judge whether the insect fauna of 
St. Helena will offer such reliable data for discussions of this 
character as those of the more northerly Atlantic islands. As far 
as it is at present known, it comprises many forms not found else- 
where, amongst which is the large and remarkable Carabideous 
beetle Haplothorax Burchellii, and several genera of small Cur- 
culionidffi. It is not impossible that some of the smaller species 
may yet be found in the more arid parts of South- Western Africa, 
where the minute Coleoptera have not yet been well collected, but 
so conspicuous a creature as the Haplothorax cannot be assumed to 
have been overlooked, and this genus alone would be almost suffi- 
cient to warrant the conclusion that St. Helena has an endemic 
fauna, as peculiar as the flora it possessed before its native vegeta- 
tion was destroyed. Mr. Melliss, I am glad to say, intends to 
continue his entomological investigation of the island, as yet barely 
commenced by him, and we may hope to hear yet of many curious 
discoveries. 



xxxvm 

The ' Entomologist's Monthly Magazme,' as usual, contains 
numerous short jjapers and notices of permanent scientific interest. 
The Bev. Mr. Hellins, Mr. Buckler, and Mr. Barrett continue their 
most accurate observations of the early stages of our native 
Lepidoptera, and Dr. T. Algernon Chapman has supplied further 
notes of the economy of various species of Coleoptera, particularly 
the Scolyti and other wood-borers, and of Diptera. Bemarkably 
curious is the discovery which this original observer records of the 
parasitic habits of a species of Aphodius (A. porcus), which feeds on 
the dung-balls made by Geotrupes stercorarius, in its burrows. We 
are all glad to notice in a recent number of the Magazine that the 
Bev. Mr. Marshall has re-commenced his papers on the British 
Cynipidise, undiscouraged by the crushing misfortune of the loss of 
liis collections and library by shipwreck. Mr. Albert Miiller, too, 
has chosen the same periodical as the vehicle of communicating 
some of his notes on gall-insects, a stud}' to which he is devoting 
himself with much energy and intelligence. Our friends Messrs. 
Bye and Sharp continue their elucidations of minute points in the 
discrimination and synonymy of our inexhaustible native Coleoptera, 
and Mr. M'Lachlan publishes his valuable j^apers on the Heme- 
robiidfe and other Neuroptera. But it is especially gratifying to 
notice, in a recent number of the periodical, what appears to be the 
commencement of a set of papers on the much-neglected Diptera 
of our island, by Mr. Verrall. He has begun with a list of the 
Syrphidse, giving the correct nomenclature according to the best 
continental authorities and his own researches. There is now no 
Order of British insects that is not studied b}' Entomologists of 
abilit}', and some, such as the Hemij)tera, which were formerly the 
most despised, number many votaries. The time is probably not 
far distant when, by the co-operation of several of our best 
authorities, we may hope to see that great desideratum, a complete 
Catalogue of British Insects, accurately determined and in harmony 
with continental nomenclature. It may be perhaps necessary to 
remind you, for so little has been latel}^ said about it that it is 
perhaps forgotten, that your Council long ago arranged for the 
compilation and publication of such a Catalogue. The Avork goes 
on slowly but surelv, and the first Part, the Neuroj^tera, compiled 
b}^ our best authority on the Order, Mr. M'Lachlan, the Ephemeridre 
by the Bev. Mr. Eaton, is now ready for the press. 



XXXIX 

Numerous Entomological works are published in England inde- 
pendently of Societies and Natural-History periodicals. Some of 
these are serials, like Hewitson's 'Exotic Butterflies' and Stainton's 
magnificent ' Natural History of the Tineina,' of long standing and 
acknowledged merit, the number of which has been increased during 
the year by the ' Lepidoptera Exotica,' a quarterly work, published 
by Mr. Janson, on a plan similar to Mr. Hewitson's well-known 
publication, the plates and descriptions furnished by Mr. Butler. It 
is seldom that an independent work appears containing the fruits of 
original research in the more neglected departments of Entomology, 
such as are frequent^ published on the Continent, and especially in 
German}^ ; we have, however, to record the appearance, wdtlim the 
last few weeks, of a book of this class, which I think will do credit 
to Biitish Science. It is the ' Anatomy and Physiology of the 
Blow-fly,' by Mr. B. T. Lowne, an octavo volume illustrated with 
ten plates and published by Mr. Van Voorst. The work contains 
the fruit of several years' close study of the minute anatomy and 
morphology of this familiar insect, and as the attention of the 
author has been kept alive to the morj^hology of the parts, and to 
disputed points of fmiction of important organs, his observations 
have a general bearing on insects, and will be found most suggestive 
to students of all the Orders. There is much originality both in the 
facts and deductions recorded m the book, and the arrangement and 
style are so clear that with the aid of the figures, drawn by the 
author himself from his own preparations, there is little difiiculty in 
comprehending even the most obscure details. Among the new 
points, the credit of which may be fairly claimed by him, is, first, 
the exposition of tlie structure and development of the integument, 
in which, admitting the conclusion that the derm consists of three 
layers, he applies to them the names protoderm, mesoderm and 
endoderm, rejecting the term cuticle for the outer layer or proto- 
derm, which invests the whole surface of the insect, including even 
the hairs and the eyes, and forming the lining-membrane of the 
tracheal svstem, because it is quite unlike the cuticle in vertebrates, 
being persistent and not deciduous : the different modes in which 
these derms are evolved in the metamorphosis of the insect form 
part of the originalit}' of his views upon them. Next may be 
mentioned his observations on the foot-pads, and explanation of the 
process by which flies can walk in an inverted position or on a 



xl 

smooth surface. He here differs from recent writers on the same 
subject; rejecting the view that the adhesion of the foot of the fly 
is caused by sucker-action of the pads, or by mechanical grasp of 
minute inequalities of ground b}'^ the hairs with which they are 
furnished. His observations have led him to revert to the old 
oi)inion that adhesion is caused by a viscous secretion, an opinion 
which he has established as a scientific fact by working out the 
subject most thoroughly. The viscous secretion, he sa3"S, is forced 
by pressure, from a long sac contained within the four precedmg 
tarsal joints, through each hair, and is visible by a moderately high 
power in the microscope, on vertical pressure of the tarsus of the 
fl}', as a globule at the tips of the hairs. The mechanical principle 
on which the foot is raised again, in walking, is most ingeniously 
explained ; and he makes the suggestion that the climbing powers of 
arboreal Coleoptera are due to a similar structure, which must also 
be that which enables the males of the Geodephaga and other tribes 
to grasp the smooth bodies of the females before coition ; in most 
of these cases the soles of the tarsi being furnished with brush-like 
pads. Another new point is the description of the wing-muscles of 
the thorax and the mode of flight ; the muscular action brought 
into play in fl^dng being explained as similar to that in crawling, 
only, of course, infinitely more energetic and rapid. The longitudinal 
muscles of the thorax, which are of great strength, cause b}^ their 
action a minute and excessively rapid rising and falling of the 
thoracic parietes, which act on the wings ; and he was able to pro- 
duce the action in dead individuals by working with a forceps in 
imitation of the muscles. He differs in ojiinion from some 
authorities regarding the homologies of the segments, especially of 
the head, Avhich have been so greatly modified in the Insect class. 
The detection of a sympathetic or organic nerve -system, the 
structure and nature of the halteres, the nature and use of the 
olfactory organs, the tegumentary nature of the eyes and ocelli, and 
the tracheal arrangement in the eyes, ma}^ be all cited as new facts 
and explanations contained in the work. As general conclusions, 
the great relative concentration of the nervous system in Diptera, 
well brought out by the author, and adduced as a proof that they 
are amongst the most highly-organized in the Insect class, is 
interesting ; but m this portion of the investigation he is treading 
more or less in the steps of continental naturalists. 



xli 

I cannot quit the subject of Entomology in our own country 
without some notice of the hibours of one of our practical Ento- 
mologists, who has much distinguished himself during the 
year as a collector in distant countries ; for it is to the class of 
Entomological travellers that we are chief!}' indebted for the rapid 
growth of our knowledge of insect forms throughout the world. 
Mr. Buckley, who appeared before us at oui* last Meeting to exliibit 
a portion of his collection, was about a year and a half ago com- 
missioned by Mr. Hewitson to "sisit the eastern slopes of the Andes 
of Ecuador, chiefly to collect Diui'nal Lepidoptera, and returned, 
after an absence of only foui'teen months, with a collection of 5000 
specimens in an excellent state of preservation, and including 135, or 
according to a freer estimation 150, new species. The discovery of 
so much novelty, and many of the species are ver}^ strildngly 
different from anything we had before seen, in a limited district, 
is of scientific interest, inasmuch as it shows how cautious we ought 
to be in our estimate of the number of species actually existing in 
nature, and in our comparisons of the faunas of different regions. 
The time, moreover, in which the collection was made is stated by 
Mr. Buckley to be only about two and a half months, so many 
weeks being lost by constant rains, and of course several months 
occupied by the journey there and back. The route which he 
followed was, after landing at Guayaquil, across the Western 
Cordillera by the foot of Chimborazo, to the city of Biobamba, 
thence by the lofty Andean road to Bancs on the Upper Pastaza, 
and down the slopes of the Eastern Cordillera, following the valley 
of the river and the path which leads off to Canelos on the Bobo- 
naza, which river he explored to Sarayacu, and then worked 
through the difficult forest-paths to the banks of the Napo and 
back. The Andes here do not sink abruptly into the great plain of 
the Amazons as they do in Middle Peru, further south, but form 
a succession of mountain-ridges, each of several thousand feet of 
elevation, lying more or less parallel to the main Cordillera. 
Through each of the deep valleys thus formed between the ranges 
flows a river, and it would appear that each valle}^ contains a great 
amount of species peculiar to itself, for many of the most striking 
species in the collection are described by Mr. Buckley as being seen 
in one valley only. The difficult forest track in descending from 
. Banos in an easterly direction crosses the valleys and intervening 
ranges successivelv, and the ascent of some of the latter is described 



xlii 

as of great steepness. The distance marched from the crest of the 
Andes to the Napo was ahout 150 miles. The whole region, hill and 
valley alike, is clothed with dense and luxuriant forest, and lying 
under the equator, with constant drenching rains caused by the 
condensation, on the cold edge of the Ancl^ean plateau, of the 
vapour-laden winds from the warm plains to the eastward, the 
country is a j^erfect hot -house, reekmg with moisture, and offering 
the most favourable conditions to the abundance of insect life. The 
population is scanty, composed chiefly of semi-civilized Indians, 
living in small scattered villages. Food is scarce, and hunger adds 
greatly to the difficulties of the traveller, worn and exhausted b}^ 
hard work in such an atmosphere. The remoter parts are still 
occupied by wild Indians hostile to the whites, and Mr. Buckley was 
obliged to leave many promising valleys unvisited on this account, 
his Indian guides refusing to encounter the risk of accompanying 
him. He remained as long as health and strength were able to 
withstand the strain to which hunger and the sweltering climate 
subjected them, and then returned across the Andes with his 
precious cargo to England. 

As Mr. Buckley carefully recorded the precise locality of ever}^ 
specimen he took, we might expect to obtain from his journey those 
much-needed facts regarding the geographical relations of closely- 
allied species in Andean valleys, which, notwithstanding that so 
many collectors have worked for years past in New Granada, 
Ecuador and Peru, have never yet been afforded. A complete 
list, with localities, would be of the greatest interest, and it is to 
be hoped that Mr. Hewitson, who alone has had the opportunity 
of studying the entire collection, will accede to the general wish 
expressed at our last Meeting, by giving this information. 

The mention of this subject leads me to make a few remarks on 
geographical distribution, by way of illustrating what is meant when 
we say that questions of high scientific importance depend upon it. 
The idea of the value of localities in connexion with specimens or 
species, with some Entomologists, I am afraid does not reach very 
far. They like to know in what countries the different forms are 
found, and perhaps, as in French collections, show the distribution 
by writing the specific names in their cabinets on kibels coloured 
according to the part of the world the species inhabit ; the primary 
divisions of the world, as Europe, N. and S. America, Africa, 



xliii 

Australia, perhaps West Indies, and so forth, being considered 
sufficient. This brings out the leading facts of distribution very 
well, such as the restriction of many genera and groups of genera to 
each of the great divisions, and the distinctive facies which all the 
products from one region possess ; but we seldom see it carried 
further, and it remains a pretty association of Geography with 
Natural History, and no more. Eesults infinitely more suggestive 
are brought about if the student labels each specimen with its 
locality, instead of recording it on the ticket which bears the 
specific name placed below all the specimens, and if he is fortunate 
enough to be able to amass a large suite of specimens, accurately so 
ticketed, of genera abounding in local varieties and closel^^-allied 
species. Indications of the conditions under Avhich varieties, local 
races, and x^erhaps species, are formed in Nature, are revealed by 
this method, and a field of investigation is opened which connects 
the study of a few insect species with some of the most difiicult 
problems that are now engaging the attention of philosophers. The 
most common event that happens, when a student works at a series 
of species in this way, is the discovery that even the most constant 
species vary in some parts of their area of distribution ; the next, 
that a small well-marked difference in a species is generally a local 
difl:erence, and embraces all the individuals of the district in which 
it occurs. As the collection increases, further curious facts come 
out. It is found, for instance, that some highly -variable species 
give rise to one set of varieties in one area, another distinctly 
different set in another area, and so on ; and further, that in some 
areas one, or perhaps more, of these variations will be better marked 
than, and preponderate in number over, the other varieties of the 
same species. Still further, it is found that in some districts one 
such variety alone occurs, having apparently prevailed over all the 
others. To be properly impressed, however, with the great truth 
and reality of these facts, the student should himself have travelled 
as an Entomological collector over an extent of country embraced 
by many local varieties of variable species ; otherwise his attention 
will not be suiSciently excited to the curious facts Nature presents 
to him, and he will not take the trouble to amass and obtain the- 
exact localities of numerous specimens of common variable species. 
Perhaps the most important result of this attention to distribution 
of varieties is that a fine gradation of forms or degrees of variation 
will be found, from the "sport" or variety, such as is liable to be 

» H 



xliv 

produced in the same brood, to the well-segregated race living in 
company with another race referable to the same stock. As such 
most authors, perhaps rightly, consider these latter as good and true 
species ; and thus the formation of species out of mere variations is 
illustrated by the facts of geographical distribution. 

But it is not this branch of the subject with which we are so 
much concerned, when we wisli to compare the productions of the 
different Andean valleys and their vertical ranges, as that relating to 
the nature of barriers to distribution. It has been received as a 
principle in Zoological and Botanical Geography, that grand physical 
barriers, such as mountain ranges, form an impassable limit to the 
faunas and floras of the plains on each side of them. It is repeated, 
in almost every Manual of Physical Geography, after Humboldt, 
who I believe was the originator of the statement, that the species 
are all different on the two sides of the Andes of South America. 
Such a fact, if well established, would be interesting in many ways. 
First, it would throw light on the Geology of the country, as proving 
that the Andes must have existed as a ridge, sufficiently lofty to 
prevent the creatures of the plains crossing it, before the origin of 
the species which now people the plains on each side. Now, it is 
possible that this broad and important generalization may have been 
made on a too slender foundation of facts. Of course, in those parts 
of the Pacific coast-region (two-thirds of the whole line within the 
tropics), where the conditions of soil, climate and vegetation are 
totally different on the two sides of the Andes, no community of 
species is possible. A lofty mountain barrier would be here un- 
necessary, for a